155,248 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,864 images, 60,041 bibliographic items, 435,057 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Bacillariophyceae

Bacillariophyceae Haeckel, 1878: 95.

Source: Medlin, L.K. (2016). Evolution of the diatoms: major steps in their evolution and a review of the supporting molecular and morphological evidence. Phycologia 55(1): 79-103.

Original publication: Haeckel, E. (1878). Das Protistenreich. Eine populäre uebersicht über das Formengebiet der niedersten Lebewesen. Mit einem wissenschaftlichen Anhange: System der Protisten. pp. 1-104, 58 figs. Leipzig: Ernst Günther's Verlag.

Extant and fossil cells with central sternum, with or without a raphe. RapheJess species usually have tube processes (i.e. labiate processes) most commonly located at the cell apices. Others carry a central or marginal raphe system. Cells are bipolar, usually with bilateral symmetry around an axial rib or raphe system. Extant cells usually have the Goigi bodies arranged perinuclearly; cells usually have a single membrane-bound cmbedded or rarely protruding pyrenoid transversed by membranes that are usually continuous with thy lakoids. Pyrenoid structure is highly varied. Sexual reproduction is anisogamous or isogamous. Auxospores are perizonial (nonisometric) and have a perizonium that forces the auxospore to expand only in polar regions; early stages of the auxospore primary wall may contain scales. Spermatia retain chloroplasts.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Tuji, A. & Williams, D. M. (2006). The identity of Cyclotella glomerata Bachmann and Discostella nipponica (Skvortzov) Tuji et Williams comb. et stat. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) from Lake Kizaki, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum Series B (Botany) 32(1): 9-14.

Tuji, A. & Williams, D. M. (2006). Typification of Conferva pectinalis O. F. Müll. (Bacillariophyceae) and the identity of the type of an alleged synonym, Fragilaria capucina Desm.. Taxon 55(1): 193-199.

Abdullahi, A.S., Underwood, G.J.C. & Gretz, M.R. (2006). Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) versus environmental effects on polysaccharide synthesis in the model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Journal of Phycology 42: 363-378.

Aboal, M. (1989). Aportaciones al conocimiento de las algas del SE de España. IV. Las Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae). Acta Botanica Malacitana 14: 13-40.

Aboal, M., Álvarez Cobelas, M., Cambra, J. & Ector, L. (2003). Floristic list of non-marine diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) of Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands. Updated taxonomy and bibliography. Diatom Monographs 4: 1-639.

Ács, E., Morales, E.A., Kiss, K.T., Bolla, B., Plenkovi?-Moraj, A., Reskóné, M.N. & Ector, L. (2009). Staurosira grigorszkyi nom. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) an araphid diatom from Lake Balaton, Hungary, with notes on Fragilaria hungarica Pantocsek. Nova Hedwigia 89: 469-483.

Ács, E., Wetzel, C.E., Hlúbiková, D., Grigorszky, I., Trábert, Z. & L. Ector (2016). Morphology and distribution of Brevilinea kevei sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), a new diatom from Europe. Phytotaxa 284(1): 24-30, 46 fig.

Adair, O.V. & Miller, M.W. (1982). Growth responses of the diatom, Cyclotella cryptica (Bacillariophyceae), to gibberellic acid. Journal of Phycology 18: 587-589, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Adams, N.G., Trainer, V.L., Rocap, G., Herwig, R.P. & Hauser, L. (2009). Genetic population structure of Pseudo-nitzchia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) from the Pacific Northwest and the North Sea. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1037-1045.

Affan, A., Heo, S.-J., Jeon, Y.-J. & Lee, J.-B. (2009). Optimal growth conditions and antioxidative activities of Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 45(6): 1405-1415.

Affan, A., Karawita, R., Jeon, Y.-J. & Lee, J.-B. (2007). Growth characteristics and antioxidant properties of the benthic diatom Navicula incerta (Bacillariophyceae) from Jeju Island, Korea. Journal of Phycology 43: 823-832.

Ajani, P., Murray, S., Hallegraeff, G., Lundholm, N., Gillings, M., Brett, S. & Armand, L. (2013). The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New South Wales, Australia: morphotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny, toxicity, and distribution. Journal of Phycology 49(4): 765-785.

Ajani, P.A., Verma, A., Lassudrie, M., Doblin, M.A. & Murray, S.A. (2018). A new diatom species P. hallegraeffii sp. nov. belonging to the toxic genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) from the East Australian Current. PLoS One 13{4}: e0195622, 1-20, 4 fig., 6 tables.

Aké-Castillo, J.A., Hernández-Becerril, D.U. & Meave del Castillo, M.E. (1999). Species of the genus Thalassiosira (Bacillariophyceae) from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Botanica Marina 42: 487-503, 56 figs, 5 tables.

Al-Handal, A. & Pennesi, C. (2018). Mastogloia wulffii, a new diatom (Bacillariophyceae) from the west coast of Sweden. Fottea 18(2): 164-169, 31 fig.

Al-Handal, A.Y., Pennesi, C. & Abdullah, D.S. (2016). Mastogloia abnormis sp. nov. and Mastogloia descrepata sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae, Mastogloia section Sulcatae) from Sawa Lake, Southern Iraq. Diatom Research 31(2): 113-121.

Al-Handal, A.Y., Pennesi, Ch. & D.S. Abdullah (2015). Two new species of Mastogloia Thwaites ex W. Smith (Bacillariophyceae) from Sawa Lake, southern Iraq. Fottea 15(2): 155-164, 6 fig.

Al-Handal, A.Y., Riaux-Gobin, C., Abdulla D.S. & Ali, M.H. (2014). Cocconeis sawensis sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) from a saline lake (Sawa Lake), South Iraq: comparison with allied taxa. Phytotaxa 181(4): 216-228, 41 fig., 1 table.

Alcoverro, T., Conte, E. & Mazzella, L. (2000). Production of mucilage by the Adriatic epipelic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) under nutrient limitation. Journal of Phycology 36: 1087-1095.

Alderkamp, A.-C., Kulk, G., Buma, A.G.J., Visser, R.J.W., Van Dijken, G.L., Mills M.M. & Arrigo, K.R. (2012). The effect of iron limitation on the photophysiology of Phaeocystis antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) and Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Bacillariophyceae) under dynamic irradiance. Journal of Phycology 48(1): 45-59.

Alfinito, S. (2011). A check list of the freshwater algal flora of Sierra Leone, Tropical West Africa. I. Cyanophyceae to Conjugatophyceae (exclusive of Bacillariophyceae). Biodiversity Journal 2(3): 121-144.

Allen, A.E., Ward, B.B. & Song, B. (2005). Characterization of diatom (Bacillariophyceae) nitrate reductase genes and their detection in marine phytoplankton communities. Journal of Phycology 41: 95-104.

Almandoz, G.O., Ferrario, M.E., Sullivan, M.J. Ector, L. & Schloss, I.R. (2014). A new Pteroncola species (Bacillariophyceae) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Phycologia 53(2): 188-194.

Amato, A. & Montresor, M. (2008). Morphology, phylogeny, and sexual cycle of Pseudo-nitzschia mannii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae): a pseudo-cryptic species within th P. pseudodelicatissima complex. Phycologia 47(5): 487-497, 14 figs, 3 tables.

Amato, A., Orsini, L., D'Alelio, D. & Montresor, M. (2005). Life cycle, size reduction patterns, and ultrastructure of the pennate planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) . Journal of Phycology 41: 542-556.

Andersen, R.A., Medlin, L.K. & Crawford, R.M. (1986). An investigation of the cell wall components of Actinocyclus subtilis (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 466-479.

Anderson, D.S., Davis, R.B. & Ford, M.S.(J.). (1993). Relationships of sedimented diatom species (Bacillariophyceae) to environmental gradients in dilute northern New England lakes. Journal of Phycology 29: 264 -277, 6 figs, 4 tables.

Anderson, N.J. (1990). The biostratigraphy and taxonomy of small Stephanodiscus and Cyclostephanos species (Bacillariophyceae) in a eutrophic lake, and their ecological implications. British Phycological Journal 25: 217-235, 38 figs, 2 tables.

Anderson, O.R. (1975). The ultrastructure and cytochemistry of resting spore formation in Amphora coffaeformis (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 11: 272-281.

Anning, T., Harris, G. & Geider, R.J. (2001). Thermal acclimation in the marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans (Bacillariophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 36: 233-242.

Antoniades, D., Hamilton, P.B., Hinz, F., Douglas, M.S.V. & Smol, J.P. (2009). Seven new species of freshwater diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Nova Hedwigia 88(1/2): 57-80, 90 fig., map.

Aponte, G.A., Maidana, N.I. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2005). On the taxonomic identity of Diadesmis confervaceoides Lange-Bert. et U. Rumrich (Bacillariophyceae). Cryptogamie 26: 337-342.

Apoya-Horton, M.D., Yin, L., Underwood, G.J.C. & Gretz, M.R. (2006). Movement modalities and responses to environmental changes of the mudflat diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 379-390.

Archibald, R.E.M. & Schoeman, F.R. (1985). Amphora hybrida Grunow (Bacillariophyceae) its identity and taxonomy. Nova Hedwigia 41: 159-166.

Arini, A., Durant, F., Coste, M., Delmas, F., & Feurtet-Mazel, A. (2013). Cadmium decontamination and reversal potential of teratological forms of the diatom Planothidium frequentissimum (Bacillariophyceae) after experimental contamination. Journal of Phycology 49(2): 361-370.

Armbrust, E.V. (2000). Structural features of nuclear genes in the centric diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae) (Note). Journal of Phycology 36: 942-946.

Ashworth, M.P., Lobban, C.S., Witkowski, A., Theriot, E.C., Sabir, M.J., Baeshen, M.N., Hajarah, N.H., Baeshen, N.A., Sabir, J.S. & Jansen, R.K. (2016). Molecular and morphological investigations of the stauros-bearing, raphid pennate diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): Craspedostauros E.J. Cox, and Staurotropis T.B.B. Paddock, and their relationship to the rest of the Mastogloiales. Protist 168(1): 48-70, 14 figs, 4 tables.

Ashworth, M.P., Nakov, T. & Theriot, E.C. (2013). Revisiting Ross and Sims (1971); toward a molecular phylogeny of the Biddulphiaceae and Eupodiscaceae (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 49(6): 1207-1222.

Assmy, P., Henjes, J., Smetacek, V. & Montresor, M. (2006). Auxospore formation by the silica-sinking, oceanic diatom Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (Bacillariophyceae) (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1002-1006.

Bąk, M, H. Lange-Bertalot, J. Nosek, Z. Jakubowska & M. Kielbasa (2014). Diatoma polonica sp. nov. - a new diatom (Bacillariophyceae) species from rivers and streams of southern Poland. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 43(2): 114-122, 5 fig., 2 tables.

Bahls, L. & Luna, T. (2018). Cymbopleura laszlorum spec. nov. (Cymbellaceae, Bacillariophyceae), a glacial relic from a calcium-rich floodplain fen in southwestern Montana, USA. Phytotaxa 349(1): 47-53, 29 figs,, 2 tables.

Beamud, S.G., Baffico, G., Reid, B., Torres, R., Gonzalez-Polo, M., Pedrozo, F. & Diaz, M. (2016). Photosynthetic performance associated with phosphorus availability in mats of Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) from Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). Phycologia 55(2): 118-125.

Beardall, J. & Morris, I. (1975). Effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis patterns in Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae). II. Effect of oxygen. Journal of Phycology 11: 430-434, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Beauger, A., Voldoire, O., Mertens, A., Le Cohu, R. & Van de Vijver, B. (2015). Two new Navicula species (Bacillariophyceae) from Western Europe. Phytotaxa 230(2): 172-182, 67 fig., 1 table.

Beauger, A., Wetzel, C.E., Voldoire, O., Garreau, A. & Ector, L. (2017). Morphology and ecology of Craticula lecohui sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) from hydrothermal springs (Puy-de-Dôme, Massif Central, France and comparison with similar Craticula species. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 146: 7-22, 30 figs.

Beer, A., Juhas, M. & Büchel, C. (2011). Influence of different light intensities and different iron nutrition on the photosynthetic apparatus in the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1266-1273.

Behnke, A., Friedl, T., Chepurnov, V.A. & Mann, D.G. (2004). Reproductive compatibility and rDNA sequence analyses in the Sellaphora pupula species complex (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 193-208.

Behrenfeld, M.J., Hardy, J.T. & Lee, H., II (1992). Note: Chronic effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth and cell volume of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 28: 757-760, 4 figs, 1 table.

Belay, A. & Fogg, G.E. (1978). Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Asterionella formosa (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 14: 341-347, 9 figs, 1 table.

Belcher, J.H. & Swale, E.M. (1978). Skeletonmea potamos (Weber) Hasle and Cyclotella atomus Hustedt (Bacillariophyceae) in the plankton of rivers in England and France. British Phycological Journal 13: 177-182.

Belcher, J.H. & Swale, E.M.F. (1977). Species of Thalassiosira (diatoms, Bacillariophyceae) in the plankton of English rivers. British Phycological Journal 12: 291-297.

Belcher, J.H. & Swale, E.M.F. (1979). English freshwater records of Actinocyclus normanii (Greg.) Hustedt (Bacillariophyceae). British Phycological Journal 14: 225-229, 5 figs, 1 table.

Belcher, J.H. & Swale, E.M.F. (1986). Notes on some small Thalassiosira species (Bacillariophyceae) from the plankton of the lower Thames and other British estuaries (identified by transmission electron microscopy). British Phycological Journal 21: 139-145.

Berard-Therriault, L. & Cardinal, A. (1986). Les Diatomées (Bacillariophyceae) benthiques de sustrats durs des eaux marines et saumâtres du Quebec. 6. Naviculales:Cymbellaceae et Gomphonemataceae. Naturaliste Can. 113: 405-429.

Berges, J.A. & Harrison, P.J. (1993). Relationship between nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity and light-limited growth rate in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 45 -53, 7 figs.

Berges, J.A. & Harrison, P.J. (1995). Relationships between nitrate reductase activity and rates of growth and nitrate incorporation under steady-state light or nitrate limitation in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 85-95, 7 figs, 3 tables.

Bicudo, C.E.M., Côrte-Real, M. & Martau, L. (1973). Catálogo das algas de águas continentais do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: I - Bacillariophyceae. Iheringia Serie Botanica 17: 56-68, 1 fig.

Bicudo, D.C., Bicudo, C.E.M., de Castro, A.A.J. & Picelli-Vicentim, M.M. (1993). Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae) do trecho a represar do rio Paranapanema (usina hidrelétrica de Rosana), Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 20(2): 47-68, 72 fig.

Bicudo, D.C., Morandi, L.L. & Ludwig, T.A.V. (1999). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 13: Bacillariophyceae (Eunotiales). Hoehnea 26(2): 173-184, 21 fig.

Bieir, T. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2007). A synopsis of cosmopolitan, rare and new Frustulia species (Bacillariophyceae) from ombrotrophic peat bogs and minerotrophic swamps in New zealand. Nova Hedwigia 85(1/2): 73-91, 66 figs, 1 table.

Bishop, I. & S.A.Spaulding (2015). Tetracyclus hinziae (Bacillariophyceae), a new species from the central Cascade Mountains (WA, USA). Phytotaxa 205(3): 197-204, 40 fig., 1 table.

Bishop, I.W. & Spaulding, S.A. (2017). Life cycle size dynamics in Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) . Journal of Phycology 53(3): 652-663.

Bishop, I.W., Minerovic, A.D. & Kociolek, J.P. (2017). Validation of Prestauroneis protracta (Grunow) I.W.Bishop, Minerovic, Q.Liu & Kociolek comb. nov. et stat. nov. (Bacillariophyceae). Notulae Algarum 27: 1-2, no figs.

Blanco, S. (2011). Neodetonia nom. nov., a replacement name for Detonia Frenguelli (Bacillariophyceae). Phycologia 50(3): 327.

Blinn, D.W. (1984). Growth responses to variations in temperature and specific conductance by Chaetoceros muelleri (Bacillariophyceae). British Phycological Journal 19: 31-35, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Booth, B. & Harrison, P.J. (1979). Effect of silicate limitation on valve morphology in Thalassiosira and Coscinodiscus (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 15: 326-329.

Bornet, B., Antoine, E., Françoise, S. & Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. (2005). Development of sequence characterized amplified region markers from intersimple sequence repeat fingerprints for the molecular detection of toxic phytoplankton Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) and Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) from French coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 41: 704-711.

Bowers, H.A., Marin, R., III, Birch, J.M., Scholin C.A. & Doucette, G.J. (2016). Recovery and identification of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) frustules from natural samples acquired using the environmental sample pocessor (Note). 52(1): 135-140.

Bradshaw, E.G. & Anderson, N.J. (2003). Environmental factors that control the abundance of Cyclostephanos dubius (Bacillariophyceae) in Danish lakes, from seasonal to century scale. European Journal of Phycology 38: 265-276.

Brant, L.A. (2003). A new species of Meridion (Bacillariophyceae) from western North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 2(3): 409-418.

Brogan, M.W. & Rosowski, J.R. (1988). Frustular morphology and taxonomic affinities of Navicula complanatoides (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 262-273, 28 figs.

Brown, J.S. (1988). Photosynthetic pigment organization in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 96-102.

Brown, K.L., Twing, K.I. & Robertson, D.L. (2009). Unraveling the regulation of nitrogen assimilation in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae): diurnal variations in transcript levels for five genes involved in nitrogen assimilation. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 413-426, 6 figs, 3 tables.

Brussard, C.P.D., Noordeloos, A.A.M. & Riegman, R. (1997). Autolysis kinetics of the marine diatom Ditylum brightwellii (Bacillariophyceae) under nitrogen and phophorus limitation and starvation. Journal of Phycology 33: 980-987, 8 figs.

Brzezinski, M.A. & Conley, D.J. (1994). Silicon deposition during the cell cycle of Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae) determined using dual rhodamine 123 and propidium iodide staining. Journal of Phycology 30: 45-55, 7 figs.

Buczko, K. & Wojtal, A. (2007). A new Kobayasiella species (Bacillariophyceae) from Lake Saint Anna's sub-recent deposits in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Europe. Nova Hedwegia 84: 155-66.

Buczkó, K., Wojtal, A.Z. & E.K.Magyari (2013). Late Quaternary Nupela taxa of Retezat Mts (S. Carpathians), with description of Nupela pocsii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae). 58(2) 427-436, 38 fig., 1 table: .

Burliga, A.L. & Kociolek, J.P. (2012). Four new Eunotia Ehrenberg species (Bacillariophyceae) from pristine regions of Carajás National Forest, Amazonia, Brazil. Nova Hedwigia 141: 53-70, 41 fig., 3 tables.

Burliga, A.L., Kociolek, J.P., Salomoni, S.E. & D.Figueiredo (2013). A new genus and species in the Diatom Family Eunotiaceae Kützing (Bacillariophyceae) from the Amazonian hydrographic region, Brazil. Phytotaxa 79(2): 47-57, 5 fig., 1 table.

Bustos, S., Morales, M.R. & Maidana, N.I. (2017). Diversidad del género Luticola (Bacillariophyceae) en sedimentos holocénicos de la Puna Jujeña, Argentina. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 52(1): 13-26, 6 fig., 1 table.

Button, K.S. & Hostetter, H.P. (1977). Copper sorption and release by Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 13: 198-202, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Cantoral-Uriza, E.A. & Aboal, M. (2008). Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae) del marjal Oliva-Pego, (Comunidad Valenciana, España). Anales Jardín Botánico de Madrid 65(1): 111-128.

Car, A., Witkowski, A., Dobosz, S., Burfeind, D.D., Meinesz, A., Jasprica, N., Ruppel, M., Kurzydlowski, K.J. & Plocinski, T. (2012). Description of a new marine diatom, Cocconeis caulerpacola sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), epiphytic on invasive Caulerpa species. European Journal of Phycology 47(4): 433-448.

Cardinal, A., Poulin, M. & Bérard-Therriault, L. (1989). New criteria for species characterization in the genera Donkinia, Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma (Naviculaceae, Bacillariophyceae). Phycologia 28: 15-27.

Carpenter, E.J. & Janson, S. (2000). Intracellular cyanobacterial symbionts in the marine diatom Climacodium frauenfeldianum (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 36: 540-544.

Carr, J.M. & Hergenrader, G.L. (1987). Occurrence of three Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) taxa within colonies of tube-forming diatoms. Journal of Phycology 23: 62-70.

Carter, J.R. & Denny, P. (1982). Freshwater algae of Sierra Leone III. Bacillariophyceae: Part (i) Diatoms from the River Jong (Taia) at Njala. In: Diatomaceae III, Fetschrift Niels Foged; H. Håkansson & J. Gerloff . ( Eds) Vol. 73, pp. 281-331.

Carter, J.R. & Denny, P. (1987). Freshwater algae of Sierra Leone. IV. Bacillariophyceae: Part (ii) diatoms from the coastal region of the southern province. Nova Hedwigia 44(1-2): 229-275.

Carter, J.R. & Denny, P. (1992). Freshwater algae of Sierra Leone, IV. Bacillariophyceae. Part (iii). Diatoms from the Lake Sonfon región and from Lake Popei. Nova Hedwigia 54(1/2): 159-211, 11 pl., 1 table.

Casotti, R., Mazza, S., Brunet, C., Vantrepotte, V., Ianora, A. & Miralto, A. 2005 (2005). Growth inhibition and toxicity of the diatom aldehyde 2-trans-4-trans decadienal on Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 41: 7-20.

Casper, S.J. & Scheffler, W. (1986). Pleurocyclos [sic] nov. gen. - a new genus within the Sceletonemaceae [sic] (Bacillariophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 132: 287-298.

Casteleyn G., Chepurnov V.A., Leliaert F., Mann D.G., Bates S.S., Lundholm N., Rhodes L., Sabbe K. & Vyverman W. (2008). Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae): a cosmopolitan diatom species?. Harmful Algae 7: 241-257.

Casteleyn, G., Evans, K.M., Backeljau, T., D'Hondt, S., Chepurnov, V., Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. (2009). Lack of population genetic structuring in the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in a heterogeneous area in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. Marine Biology 156: 1149-1158.

Cavalcante, K.P., Tremarin, P.I., de Castro, E.C., Junqueira de Azevedo Tibiriá, C.E., Wojciechowski, J. & Veiga Ludwig, Th.A. (2014). Epiphytic Eunotia (Bacillariophyceae) on Podostemum from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, including new observations on morphology and taxonomy of some rare recorded species. Biota Neotropica 14(3): 1-12, 79 fig., 2 tables.

Cejudo-Figueiras, C., Morales, E.A., Wetzel, C.E., Blanco, S., Hoffmann, L. & Ector, L. (2011). Analysis of the type of Fragilaria construens var. subsalina (Bacillariophyceae) and description of two morphologically related taxa from Europe and the United States. Phycologia 50(1): 67-77.

Chamnansinp, A., Moestrup, O. & Lundholm, N. (2015). Diversity of the marine diatom Chaetoceros (Bacillariophyceae) in Thai waters - revisiting Chaetoceros compresses and Chaetoceros contorta. Phycologia 54(2): 161-175.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 May 2019.

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