156,052 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,990 images, 60,315 bibliographic items, 443,172 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Euglenophyceae

Euglenophyceae Schoenichen in Eyferth & Schoenichen, 1925: 115, 198.

Type of name: Euglena Ehrenberg 1830

Source: Cavalier-Smith, T. (2016). Higher classification and phylogeny of Euglenozoa. European Journal of Protistology 56: 250–276, 2 figs.

Original publication: Eyferth, B. & Schoenichen, W. (1925). Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches. 5. Aufl. Band I. Spaltpflanzen, Geissellinge, Algen, Pilze. pp. [i]-vii, 1-519. Berlin: Lichterfelde.

Nomenclatural notes:

"orth. em. Smith, 1933" (Cavalier 2016: 264). Cavalier-Smith (2016: 255) also notes "If botanists wish for historical reasons to treat photosynthetic euglenoids under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, that is not unreasonable provided that this policy is strictly limited to Euglenophyceae as circumscribed here (as it includes Rapazida, broader than Euglenophycidae of Busse and Preisfeld (2003) and compositionally equivalent Euglenophyceae sensu Marin et al. 2003). The botanical division/phylum name Euglenophyta Pascher, 1931 should not be applied to Euglenozoa or Euglenoida as a whole as it is profoundly misleading for either of these ancestrally phagotrophic, non-photosynthetic, non-algal protozoan taxa. I considered using Euglenidea, already in use decades ago (e.g. Fernández-Galiano 1990), as a %u2018zoological%u2019 tradition class name instead of Euglenophyceae, but settled on the latter as it should be more acceptable to both phycologists and protozoologists and thus promote future stability."

Key References
Nudelman, M.A., Rossi, M.S., Conforti, V. & Triemer, R.E. (2003). Phylogeny of Euglenophyceae based on small subunit rDNA sequences: taxonomic implications. Journal of Phycology 39: 226-235.

Silva, P.C. (1980). Names of classes and families of living algae: with special reference to their use in the Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Regnum Vegetabile 103: 1-156.

Smith, G.M. (1933). The fresh-water algae of the United States. pp. [i]-xi, 1-716, 449 figs, 2 tables. New York & London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc..

Eyferth, B. & Schoenichen, W. (1925). Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches. 5. Aufl. Band I. Spaltpflanzen, Geissellinge, Algen, Pilze. pp. [i]-vii, 1-519. Berlin: Lichterfelde.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aboal, M. (1990). Aportación al conocimiento de las algas epicontinentales del S.E. de España. VI. Dinofíceas (DINOPHYCEAE Fritsch, 1927) y Euglenofíceas (EUGLENOPHYCEAE Schoenichem 1925). Acta Botanica Malacitana 15: 11-18, 17 fig..

Al-Dhaheri, R.S. & Willey, R.L. (1996). Colonization and reproduction of the epibiotic flagellate Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae) on Daphnia pulex. Journal of Phycology 32: 770-774, 7 figs, 1 table.

Alvárez Cobelas, M. (1984). Catálogo de las algas continentales españolas. II. Craspedophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Haptophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Xanthophyceae. Acta Bot. Malacitana 9: 27-40.

Alves-da-Silva, A.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2002). Contribution to the knowledge of genus Lepocinclis (Euglenophyceae) of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Algological Studies 106: 77-97, 36 fig., 6 tables.

Alves-da-Silva, S.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2002). Contribution to the knowledge of genus Euglena (Euglenophyceae) of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Hoehnea 29(2): 79-91, 2 tab., 29 fig.

Alves-da-Silva, S.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2003). Strombomonas carinata sp. nov. and Strombomonas ferrazi sp. nov., two new Euglenophyceae from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, souther Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 17(1): 147-154.

Alves-da-Silva, S.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2006). Contribution of the knowledge of genus Strombomonas (Euglenophyceae) of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Algological Studies 119: 29-58, 73 fig., 6 tables.

Alves-da-Silva, S.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2009). Cryptoglena, Monomorphina and Phacus (Euglenophyceae) of a reservoir in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 32(2): 253-270, fig. 1-78, tab. 1-2.

Alves-da-Silva, S.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2018). Phacus multifacies sp. nov., a new Euglenophyceae from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 45(1): 143-148, 29 fig.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & De-Lamorica-Freire, E.M. (1993). Trachelomonas armata (Euglenophyceae): An evaluation of the diagnostic features in the species. Algological Studies 69: 57-66, 14 fig.

Bicudo, C.E.M. (2010). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas 27: Euglenophyceae (famílias Petalomonadaceae e Scytomonadaceae). Hoehnea 37(2): 149-154, fig. 1-3.

Bicudo, C.E.M. (2010). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 30: Euglenophyceae (Euglenaceae não pigmentadas). Hoehnea 37: .

Bicudo, C.E.M. (2010). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 28: Euglenophyceae (familia Eutreptiaceae). Hoehnea 37(2): 377-381, fig. 1-4.

Bicudo, C.E.M. (2010). Criptógamos do parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 29: Euglenophyceae (familia Peranemaceae). Hoehnea 37(2): 383-402, fig. 1-37.

Briand, J. & Calvayrac, R. (1980). Paramylon synthesis in heterotrophic and photoheterotrophic Euglena (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 234-239, 10 figs, 1 table.

Brown, P.J.P., Leander, B.S. & Farmer, M.A. (2002). Redescription of Euglena rustica (Euglenophyceae), a rare euglenophyte from the intertidal zone. Phycologia 41: 445-452.

Brown, P.J.P., Zakrys, B. & Farmer, M.A. (2003). Plastid morphology, ultrastructure, and development in Colacium and the loricate euglenophytes (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 115-121.

Butcher, R.W. (1961). An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. Part VIII: Euglenophyceae = Euglenineae. Fisheries Investigations Series IV. pp. [i]-v, 1-17, pl. I-III. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Bäumer, D., Preisfeld, A. & Georg Ruppel, H. (2001). Isolation and characterization of paramylon snythase from Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 38-46.

Chan, Y.-F. Ø. Moestrup & J. Chang (2013). On Keelungia pulex nov. gen. et nov. sp., a heterotrophic euglenoid flagellate that lacks pellicular plates (Euglenophyceae, Euglenida). Europ. J. Protistol. 49(1): 15-31, 36 fig., 1 table.

Chisholm, S.W. & Stross, R.G. (1976). Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) grown in light/dark cycles. II. Phased PO4- limited cultures. Journal of Phycology 12: 217-222, 5 figs.

Chisholm, S.W. & Stross, R.G. (1976). Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) grown on light/dark cycles. I. Synchronized batch cultures. Journal of Phycology 12: 210-217, 8 figs, 1 table.

Chisholm, S.W., Stross, R.G. & Nobbs, P.A. (1975). Light/dark-phased cell division in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) in PO4- limited continuous culture. Journal of Phycology 11: 367-373, 7 figs.

Cogburn, J.N. & Schiff, J.A. (1984). Purification and properties of the mucus of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 20: 533-544, 8 figs, 2 tables.

Compère, P. (1975). De duabus novis Trachelomonadibus (Euglenophyceae) e vicinitate lacus Tchad (Africa centralis). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 45: 229-230.

Conforti, V. & Pérez, M. del C. (2000). Euglenophyceae of Negro River, Uruguay, South America. Algological Studies/Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement Volumes 97: 59-78, 77 figs.

Dawson, N.S., Dunlap, J.R. & Walne, P.J. (1988). Structure and elemental composition of pellicular warts of Euglena spirogyra (Euglenophyceae). British Phycological Journal 23: 61-70, 13 figs.

Dillard, G.E. (2000). Freshwater algae of the southeastern United States, Part 7. Pigmented Euglenophyceae. Vol. 106 pp. 1-135, 20 pls..

Dodge, J.D. (1975). The fine structure of Trachelomonas (Euglenophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 117: 65-77.

Dunlap, J.R. & Walne, P.L. (1987). Variations in envelope morphology and mineralization in Trachelomonas lefevrei (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 23: 556-564, 20 figs.

Dunlap, J.R., Walne, P.L. & Bentley, J. (1983). Microarchitecture and elemental spatial segretation of envelopes of Trachelomonas lefevrei (Euglenophyceae). Protoplasma 117: 97-106.

Dynesius, R.A. & Walne, P.L. (1975). Ultrastructure of the reservoir and flagella in Phacus pleuronectes (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 11: 125-130, 13 figs.

Farmer, M.A. & Triemer, R.E. (1988). A redescription of the genus Ploeotia Duj. (Euglenophyceae). Taxon 37(2): 319-325, 9 figs.

Fiol, D.F. & Salerno, G.L. (2005). Trehalose synthesis in Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae) occurs though and enzyme complex. Journal of Phycology 41: 812-818.

Fott, B. (1971). Taxonomische Übertragungen und Namensänderung enunter den Algen IV. Chlorophyceae und Euglenophyceae. Preslia 43: 289-303.

Gupta, R.K. (2012). Algae of India Volume 2. A checklist of Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae. Chrysophyceae and Euglenophyceae. pp. [i]-iii, [1]-428, 8 pls. Salt Lake, Kolkata: Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests.

Hager, A. & Stransky, H. (1970). The carotenoid pattern and the occurrence of the light induced xanthophyll cycle in various classes of algae V. A few members of Cryptophyceae, Euglenophyceae/Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Phaeophyceae. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 73: 77-89.

Hilenski, L.L. & Walne, P.L. (1985). Ultrastructure of the flagella of the colorless phagotroph Peranema trichophorum (Euglenophyceae). I. Flagellar mastigonemes. Journal of Phycology 21: 114-125, 23 figs.

Hilenski, L.L. & Walne, P.L. (1985). Ultrastructure of the flagella of the colorless phagotroph Peranema trichophorum (Euglenophyceae). II. Flagellar roots. Journal of Phycology 21: 125-134, 21 figs.

In-Sun, W. & Kim, B.-H. (1987). The flora of the fresh-water algae in Chol-la Nam-do, Korea (I) Euglenophyceae. The Korean Journal of Phycology 2(1): 119-127, 2 plates.

Islam, A.K.M.N. & Alfasane, M.A. (2002). Euglenophyceae from Barisal district, Bangladesh. I. Genus Phacus. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 9(2): 3-18.

Islam, A.K.M.N. & Alfasane, M.A. (2003). Euglenophyceae from Barisal district, Bangladesh. II: Lepocinclis, Strombomonas and Trachelomonas. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 10(1): 15-26.

Islam, A.K.M.N. & Alfasane, M.A. (2004). Euglenophyceae from Barisal district, Bangladesh. III. Genus Trachelomonas. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 11(2): 33-37.

Islam, A.K.M.N. & Almujaddade Alfasane, M. (2003). Euglenophyceae from Barisal district, Bangladesh. II: Lepocinclis, Strombomonas and Trachelomonas. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 10(1): 15-26.

Jurán, J., Hauer, T., Johansen, J.R. & Krienitz, L. (2015). (2365) Proposal to conserve the name Cyanospira G. Florenz. & al.(Cyanophyceae) against Cyanospira Chodat (Euglenophyceae). Taxon 64(4): 845-846, no figs.

Kamat, N.D. (1962). The Euglenophyceae of Ahmedabad, India. Journal of the University of Bombay 30: 15-21.

Kamat, N.D. (1964). The Euglenophyceae of Bombay. Journal of Biological Sciences (Bombay) 7: 8-14.

Kapustin, D. & Kapustina, N.V. (2018). A checklist of Euglenoids (Euglenophyceae) of Indonesia. International Journal on Algae 20(2): 135–152, no figs.

Kapustin, D.A. & Davydov, D.A. (2917). Replacement names for two Heteronema species (Euglenophyceae). In: Sokolova, I.V., Kapustin, D.A., Davydov, D.A., Borovichev, E.A. & Potemkin, A.D. Cryptogamic nomenclatural notes. 1. Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii 51: 282-283, no fig.

Kasiborski, B.A., Bennett, M.S. & Linton, E.W. (2016). The chloroplast genome of Phacus orbicularis (Euglenophyceae): an initial datum point for the Phacaceae. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 404-411.

Kato, S. (2008). A taxonomic study of Euglena (Euglenophyceae) from brackish-water regions in Japan. J. Jap. Bot. 83(4): 213-217.

Kim, J.I., Linton, E.W. & Shin, W. (2016). Morphological and genetic diversity of Euglena deses group (Euglenophyceae) with emphasis on cryptic species. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(3): 219-230.

Kim, J.I., Shin, W. & Triemer, R.E. (2013). Phylogenetic reappraisal of the genus Monomorphina (Euglenophyceae) based on molecular and morphological data. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 82-91.

Kim, J.T. & Boo, S.M. (1998). Floristic and taxonomic accounts of the genus Strombomonas (Euglenophyceae) frtom Korean fresh waters. Algae 13(3): 275-282, 14 figs.

Kim, J.T., Boo, S.M. & Zakrys, B. (1998). Floristic and taxonomic accounts of the genus Euglena (Euglenophyceae) from Korean fresh waters. Algae 13(2): 173-197, 22 figs, 4 plates.

Kim, J.T., Shin, W. & Boo, S.M. (1999). A taxonomic reappraisal of Trachelomonas hispida (Euglenophyceae) from Korean inland waters. Algae 14(1): 1-7, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Kim, J.T., Shin, W. & Boo, S.M. (2000). Morphology and habitat conditions of Phacus trypanon (Euglenophyceae) from Korea. Algae 15(1): 17-22, 3 figs, 2 tables.

Kiss, J.Z., Vasconcelos, A.C. & Triemer, R.E. (1986). Paramylon synthesis and chloroplast structure associated with nutrient levels in Euglena (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 327-333.

Kiss, J.Z., Vasconcelos, A.C. & Triemer, R.E. (1988). The intramembrane particle profile of the paramylon membrane during paramylon synthesis in Euglena (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 152-157.

Kusber, W.-H. (1998). A study on Phacus smulkowkianus (Euglenophyceae) - a rarely reported taxon found in waters of the Botanic Garden Berlin-Dahlem. Willdenowia 28: 239-247.

Lackey, J.B. (1962). Three new colorless Euglenophyceae from marine situations. Arch. Microbiol. 42: 190-195.

Laza-Martínez, A., Fernández- Marín, B. & García-Plazaola, J.I. (2019). Rapid colour changes in Euglena sanguinea (Euglenophyceae) caused by internal lipid globule migration. European Journal of Phycology 54(1): 91-101.

Leander, B.S. & Farmer, M.A. (2001). Evolution of Phacus (Euglenophyceae) as inferred from pellicle morphology and SSU rDNA. Journal of Phycology 37: 143-159.

Lida, K. & Kajiwara, M. (2008). Carbon source dependence of the ratio of -aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis via the C5 and shemin pathways in Euglena Gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 292-298.

Lida, K. & Kajiwara, M. (2008). Carbon source dependence of the ratio of delta-aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis via the C5 and shemin pathways in Euglena Gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 292-298.

McLachlan, J.L., Seguel, M.R. & Fritz, L. (1994). Tetreutreptia pomquetensis gen. et sp. nov. (Euglenophyceae): a quadriflagellate, phototrophic marine euglenoid. Journal of Phycology 30: 538-544, 9 figs.

Moestrup, Ø. (1982). Flagellar structure in algae: a review, with new observations particularly on the Chrysophyceae, Phaeophyceae (Fucophyceae), Euglenophyceae, and Reckertia. Phycologia 21: 427-528.

Noble, A., Kisiala, A., Galer, A., Clysdale, D. & Emery, R.J.N. (2014). Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae) produces abscisic acid and cytokinins and responds to their exogenous application singly and in combination with other growth regulators. European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 244-254.

Olaveson, M.M. & Stokes, P.M. (1989). Responses of the acidophilic alga Euglena mutabilis (Euglenophyceae) to carbon enrichment at pH 3. Journal of Phycology 25: 529-239, 5 figs, 4 tables.

Olli, K. (1996). Resting cyst formation of Eutreptiella gymnastica (Euglenophyceae) in the northern coastal Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology 32: 535-542, 10 figs.

Osborne, B.A. & Raven, J.A. (1986). Growth light level and photon absorption by cells of Chlamydomonas rheinhardii, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales), Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales) and Euglena viridis (Euglenophyceae, Euglenales). British Phycological Journal 21: 303-313.

Owens, K.J., Farmer, M.A. & Triemer, R.E. (1988). The flagellar apparatus and resevoir/canal cytoskeleton of Cryptoglena pigra (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 520-528.

Rosowski, J.R. & Langenberg, W.G. (1994). The near-spineless Trachelomonas grandis (Euglenophyceae) superficially appears spiny by attracting bacteria to its surface. Journal of Phycology 30: 1012-1022, 17 figs.

Rosowski, J.R. (1975). Colacium libellae sp. nov. (Euglenophyceae), a photosynthetic inhabitant of the larval damselfly rectum. Journal of Phycology 11: 310-315.

Shin, W. & Triemer, R.E. (2004). Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Euglena (Euglenophyceae) with particular reference to the type species Euglena viridis. Journal of Phycology 40: 759-771.

Shin, W., Boo, S.M. & Fritz, L. (2003). Endonuclear bacteria in Euglena hemichromata (Euglenophyceae): a proposed pathway to endonucleobiosis . Pycologia 42(2): 198-203, 10 figs.

Shin, W., Boo, S.M. & Inouye, I. (2000). Ultrastructure of Euglena anabaena var. minor (Euglenophyceae). Phycological Research 48: 19-26.

Shin, W., Boo, S.M. & Triemer (2001). Ultrastructure of the basal body complex and putative vestigial feeding apparatus in Phacus pleuronectes (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 913-921.

Skvortzov, B.V. & Noda, M. (1983). On new colourless flagellates like organisms of Protoastasiaceae fam. nov. (Euglenophyceae) recorded from Japan and Brasil. Niigata Pharmaceutical University Research Report 3: 45-52.

Skvortzov, B.V. (1969). New and little known genera of colourless flagellates of Fam. Astasiaceae, Euglenophyceae recorded in 1954-1968 from N.E. China and Brasil. Quaterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum 22: 223-239.

Solomon, J.A., Walne, P.L. & Kivic, P.A. (1987). Entosiphon sulcatum (Euglenophyceae): flagellar roots of the basal body complex and rersevoir region. Journal of Phycology 23: 85-98.

Surek, B., Melkonian, M. & Vesk, M. (1982). Tubular hairs in the Euglenophyceae, their occurrence, structure, development and possible function. British Phycological Journal 17: 240.

Tell, G. & Couté, A. (2008). Trachelomonas armata (Ehr.) Stein (Euglenophyceae) and related morphotypes from Argentina. Algological Studies/Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement Volumes 128: 21-35, 18 figs.

Triemer, R.E. (1980). Role of golgi apparatus in mucilage production and cyst formation in Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 46-52, 14 figs.

Täuscher, L. (2013). Checklisten und Gefährdungsgrade der Algen des Landes Brandenburg III. Checklisten und Gefährdungsgrade der Raphidophyceae/ Chloromonadophyceae, Haptophyta (Haptophyceae/ Prymnesiophyceae), Cryptophyta (Cryptophyceae),Dinophyta (Dinophyceae) und Euglenophyta (Euglenophyceae). Verh. Bot. Ver. Berlin Brandenburg 146: 109-128.

Vogel, S.L., Frisch, H.L. & Gotham, I.J. (1978). Qualitative assay of dissolved amino acids and sugars excreted by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 14: 403-406, 2 tables.

Walne, P.L., Moestrup, Ø., Norris, R.E. & Ettl, H. (1986). Light and electron microscopical studies of Eutreptiella eupharyngea sp. nov. (Euglenophyceae) from Danish and American waters. Phycologia 25: 109-126.

West, L.K. & Walne, P.L. (1980). Trachelomonas hispida var. coronata (Euglenophyceae). II. Envelope substructure. Journal of Phycology 16: 498-506.

West, L.K., Walne, P.L. & Bentley, J. (1980). Trachelomonas hispida var. coronata (Euglenophyceae). III. Envelope elemental composition and mineralization. Journal of Phycology 16: 582-591.

West, L.K., Walne, P.L. & Rosowski, J.R. (1980). Trachelomonas hispida var. coronata (Euglenophyceae). I. Ultrastructure of cytoskeletal and flagellar systems. Journal of Phycology 16: 489-497.

Willey, R.L. & Wibel, R.G. (1985). The reservoir cytoskeleton and a possible cytosomal homologue in Colacium (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 21: 570-577, 21 figs.

Willey, R.L. & Wibel, R.G. (1987). Flagellar roots and the reservoir cytoskeleton of Colacium libellae (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 23: 283-288.

Willey, R.L. (1980). Note: Proposed new identification character for the genus Colacium (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 143-146, 5 figs.

Willey, R.L. (1982). The synonymy of Colacium calvum Stein and Colacium physeter Fott (Euglenophyceae). Phycologia 21: 173-177, 10 figs, 1 table.

Willey, R.L. (1984). Fine structure of the mucocysts of Colacium calvum (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 20: 426-430.

Willey, R.L., Ward, K., Russin, W. & Wibel, R. (1977). Histochemical studies of the extracellular carbohydrate of Colacium mucronatum (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 13: 349-353.

Wołowski, K. (1992). Euglena sieminskiana Wołowski n.sp. (Euglenophyceae). Algological Studies/Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement Volumes 65: 29-34, figs 1-10.

Wołowski, K. (1993). Euglena ettlii Wołowski sp. nova (Euglenophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 143(1/3): 173-176, figs 1-10.

Xavier, M.B. (1994). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 5: Euglenophyceae (Euglenophyceae pigmentadas). Hoehnea 21(1/2): 47-73, 107 fig.

Zakrys, B., Milanowski, R., Empel, J., Borsuk, P., Gromadka, R. & Kwiatowski, J. (2002). Two different species of Euglena, E. geniculata and E. myxocylindracea (Euglenophyceae) are virtually genetically and morphologically identical. Journal of Phycology 38: 1190-1199.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 August 2019.

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