152,938 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,947 images, 59,153 bibliographic items, 408,271 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Charophyceae

Charophyceae Rabenhorst, 1863: xiv, 282.

Source: Silva, P.C. (1980). Names of classes and families of living algae: with special reference to their use in the Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Regnum Vegetabile 103: 1-156.

Original publication: Rabenhorst, L. (1863). Kryptogamen-Flora von Sachsen, Ober-Lausitz, Thüringen und Nord-Böhmen, mit Berücksichtigung der benachbarten Länder: erste Abtheilung: Algen im weitesten Sinne, Leber und Laubmoose. pp. i-xx, 1-653, Un-numbered figs. Leipzig: Verlag von Eduard Kummer.

Key References
Denboh, T., Hendrayanti, D. & Ichimura, T. (2001). Monophyly of the genus Closterium and the order Desmidiales (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) inferred from nuclear small subunit rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 37: 1063-1072.

Mattox, K.R. & Stewart, K.D. (1984). Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. In: Systematics of the Green Algae Special Volume No. 27. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at The Polytechnic of North London 29-31 March 1983. (Irvine, D.E.G. & John, D.M. Eds), pp. 29-72. London: Published for the Systematics Association by Academic Press.

Rabenhorst, L. (1863). Kryptogamen-Flora von Sachsen, Ober-Lausitz, Thüringen und Nord-Böhmen, mit Berücksichtigung der benachbarten Länder: erste Abtheilung: Algen im weitesten Sinne, Leber und Laubmoose. pp. i-xx, 1-653, Un-numbered figs. Leipzig: Verlag von Eduard Kummer.

Silva, P.C. (1980). Names of classes and families of living algae: with special reference to their use in the Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Regnum Vegetabile 103: 1-156.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Al Khazaaly, S. & Beilby, M.J. (2007). Modelling ion transporters at the time of hypertonic regulation in Lamprothamnium succinctum (Characeae, Charophyceae). Charophytes 1(1): 28-47.

Araújo, A. de, Bueno, N.C., Meurer, T. & Bicudo, C.E. de M. (2010). Charophyceae. In: Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. (Forzza, R.C. Eds), pp. 310-334. Rio de Janeiro: Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio; Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Azzella M. M., & Abdelahad N. (2011). Une station actuelle de Lychnothamnus barbatus (Charophyceae) en Italie Centrale: le Lac de Martignano (Latium) . Cryptogamie Algologie 32(3): 301-307.

Barinova, S., Romanov, R. & Solak, C.N. (2014). New record of Chara Hispida (L.) Hartm. (Streptophyta: Charophyceae, Charales) from the Isikli Lake (Turkey) and critical checklist of Turkish Charophytes. Natural Resources and Conservation 2(3): 33-42, 4 figs.

Besendahl, A. & Bhattacharya, D. (1999). Evolutionary analyses of small-subunit rDNA coding regions and the 1506 group 1 introns of the Zygnematales (Charophyceae, Streptophyta). Journal of Phycology 35: 560-569, 5 figs, 1 table.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & Martau, L. (1974). Catálogo das algas de águas continentais do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: II - Charophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Rhodophyceae e Xanthophyceae. Iheringia Serie Botanica 19: 31-40.

Bicudo, R.M.T. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (1968). Index to the Brazilian Cryptogamic Literature. 1.- A Bibliography of the Brazilian Charophyceae. 2.- A Bibliography of Brazilian fresh-water algae, except for the Charophyceae. Rickia 3: 239-263, 1 fig.

Bicudo, R.M.T. (1974). O genero Chara (Charophyceae) no Brazil, 1. Subseccao Willdenowia R.D. Wood. Rickia 6: 127-189, pl. 1-9, mapa 1-6. [in Portugese]

Bicudo, R.M.T. (1979). O genero Chara (Charophyceae) no Brazil, 3: seccao Charopsis (Kütz. emend. Rupr., Leonh.) R.D. Wood. Rickia 8: 17-26.

Borchardt, M.A. (1994). Effects of flowing water on nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited photosynthesis and optimum N:P ratios by Spirogyra fluviatilis (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 30: 418-430, 7 figs, 3 tables.

Borchardt, M.A., Hoffmann, J.P. & Cook, P.W. (1994). Phosphorus uptake kinetics of Spirogyra fluviatilis (Charophyceae) in flowing water. Journal of Phycology 30: 403-417, 9 figs, 5 tables.

Borges, F.R. & Necchi, O., Jr (2017). Taxonomy and phylogeny of Chara (Charophyceae, Characeae) from Brazil with emphasis on the midwest and southeast regions. Phytotaxa 302(2): 101-121.

Brook, A.J. (1996). Temnogametum sinensis Jao & Hu (Charophyceae: Zygnematales), a genus and species of filamentous alga previously unrecorded from the British Isles or Europe. The Quekett Journal of Microscopy 37: 653-659.

Bueno, N.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (1997). Characeae (Charophyceae) do Pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: Nitella. Hoehnea 24(2): 29-55, 177 fig.

Bueno, N.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2006). Temporal variation of Nitella furcata subsp. mucronata var. mucronata f. oligospira (Charophyceae) in the Ninféias pond, São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 20(1): 1-11.

Bueno, N.C., Bicudo, C.E.M., Picelli-Vicentim, M.M. & Ishii, I.H. (1996). Characeae (Charophyceae) do Pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: Chara. Hoehnea 23(1/2): 21-31, 64 fig.

Casanova, M.T. & Karol, K.T. (2014). A revision of Chara sect. Protochara, comb. et stat. nov. (Characeae: Charophyceae). Australian Systematic Botany 27: 23-37.

Casanova, M.T. & Nicol, J.M. (2009). Chara canescens (Characeae, Charophyceae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Charophytes 1(2): 55-60.

Casanova, M.T. & Porter, J.L. (2013). Two new species of Nitella (Characeae, Charophyceae) from arid-zone claypan wetlands in Australia. Muelleria 31: 53.

Casanova, M.T. (2013). Lamprothamnium in Australia (Characeae, Charophyceae). Australian Systematic Botany 26: 268-290, 13 fig.

Casanova, M.T. (2013). Review of the species concept Chara fibrosa and C. flaccida (Characeae, Charophyceae). Austral. Syst. Botany 26: 291-297, 2 fig., 1 table.

Casanova, M.T. (2015). A revision of Chara sect. Charopsis (Characeae: Charophyceae) in Australia, including specimens collected for Bush Blitz. Australian Systematic Botany 27(6): 403-414, 6 fig.

Casanova, M.T. (2015). Chromosome numbers in Australian charophytes (Characeae, Charophyceae). Phycologia 54(2): 149-160.

Casanova, M.T., Bradbury, S. & Ough, K. (2011). Morphological variation in an Australian species of Lamprothamnium (Characeae, Charophyceae) in response to different salinities. Charophytes 2(2): 87-92.

Casanova, M.T., Winton, M.D. de, Karol, K.G. & Clayton, J.S. (2007). Nitella hookeri A.Braun (Characeae, Charophyceae) in New Zealand and Australia: implications for endemism, speciation and biogeography. Charophytes 1(1): 2-18, 7 figs.

Chen, K., Qing, R., Fu, H., Ren, L., Liu, K., Cao, S. & Lan, L. (2017). Identification of a new characteristic species of Nitella (Charophyceae) from southwestern China based on morphology and molecular phylogeny . Plant Systematics and Evolution 304(1): 123-132, 4 fig., 1 table.

Cimino, M.T., Karol, K.G. & Delwiche, C.F. (2000). An artifact in the small subunit rDNA sequence of Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Charophyceae, Streptophyta) (Comment). Journal of Phycology 36: 440-442.

Cirujano Bracamonte, S. & Medina Domingo, L. (2000). Chara brauni (Charophyceae, Algae) en la Península Ibérica. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 57: 398-400.

Clabaux, B.L. & Bisson, M.A. (2009). Developmental patterns in Chara australis (Characeae, Charophyceae): apical dominance, pH, and auxin. Charophytes 1(2): 68-72.

Comelles, M. (1984). El gènere Nitella (Charophyceae) a Espanya. Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. 51 (Sec. Bot., 5): 41-49.

Cook, M.E. (2004). Structure and asexual reproduction of the enigmatic charophycean green alga Entransia fimbriata (Klebsormidiales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 424-431.

Denboh, T., Ichimura, T., Hendrayanti, D. & Coleman, A.W. (2003). Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) species complex viewed from the 1506 group I intron and ITS2 of nuclear rDNA. Journal of Phycology 39: 960-977.

Donohue, C.M. & Fawley, M.W. (1995). Note: Distribution of the xanthophyll loroxanthin in desmids (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 31: 294-296, 1 table.

Geis, J.W., Schumacher, G.J., Raynal, D.J. & Hyduke, N.P. (1981). Distribution of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Characeae) in the St. Laurence River: a new record for North America. Phycologia 20: 211-214, 1 fig, 1 table.

Geis,J.W. (1980). Distribution of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Characeae) in the St Lawrence River: a new record for North America. Phycologia 20(2): 211-214.

Graham, J.M., Lembi, C.A., Adrian, H.L. & Spencer, D.F. (1995). Physiological responses to temperature and irradiance in Spirogyra (Zygnematales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 531-540, 5 figs, 6 tables.

Graham, L.E. & Taylor, C., III (1986). The ultrastructure of meiospores of Coleochaete pulvinata (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 299-307.

Graham, L.E. & Wedemayer, G.J. (1984). Spermatogenesis in Coleochaete pulvinata (Charophyceae): sperm maturation. Journal of Phycology 20: 302-309, 22 figs.

Graham, L.E., Graham, J.M. & Kranzfelder, J.A. (1986). Iradiance, daylength and temperature effects on zoosporogenesis in Coleochaete scutata (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 35-39.

Hendrayanti, D., Denboh, T., Ichimura, T. & Motomura, T. (2004). Molecular evidence of parallel origins of two different parthenosporic lineages directly from heterothallic lineages in the Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) species complex. Phycologia 43: 727-736.

Hotchkiss, A.T., Gretz, M.R., Hicks, K.B. & Brown, R.M. (1989). The composition and phylogenetic significance of the Mougeotia (Charophyceae) cell wall. Journal of Phycology 25: 646-654, 6 figs, 3 tables.

Hotchkiss, A.T., Jr & Brown, R.M., Jr (1987). The association of rosette and globule terminal complexes with celulose microfibril assembly in Nitella translucens var. axillaris (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 23: 229-237.

Jacobshagen, S. & Schnarrenberger, C. (1990). Two class I aldolases in Klebsormidium flaccidum (Charophyceae): an evolutionary link from chlorophytes to higher plants. Journal of Phycology 26: 312-317, 3 figs, 1 table.

Karol, K.G. & Sleith, R.S. (). Discovery of the oldest record of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Charophyta) in North America (Note). : .

Karol, K.G. & Sleith, R.S. (2017). Discovery of the oldest record of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Charophyta) in North America (Note). Journal of Phycology 53(5): 1106-1108.

Karsten, U., Lütz, C. & Holzinger, A. (2010). Ecophysiological performance of the aeroterrestrial geen alga Klebsormidium crenulatum (Charophyceae, Streptophyta) isolated from an alpine soil crust with an emphasis on desiccation stress. Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1187-1197.

Kato, S., Sakayama, H., Sano, S., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M.W., Tanaka, J. & Nozaki, H. (2008). Morphological variation and intraspecific phylogeny of the ubiquitous species Chara braunii (Charales, Charophyceae) in Japan. Phycologia 47: 191-202.

Kim, Y.H. & Mun, H.-T. (1997). pH effects on distribution and oospore germination of Chara braunii Gmelin (Charophyceae). Algae 12(4): 277-282, 3 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]

Krause, W. (1997). Charales (Charophyceae). Vol. 18 pp. 202. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Kunachowicz, A., Luchniak, P., Olszewska, M.J. & Sakowicz, T. (2001). Comparitave karyology, DNA methylation and restriction pattern analysis of male and female plants of the dioecious alga Chara tomentosa (Charophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 36: 29-34.

Langangen,A. (2000). On the morphology and ecology of Chara strigosa A.Braun (Charophyceae) in Scandinavia, with notes on its total distribution. Aquilo Ser. Bot. 38: 1-12.

Langangen,A., I. Blindow & M. Koistinen (1997). Tolypella canadensis Sawa (Charophyceae), a charophyte new to the flora of Finland . Memoranda Societatis poro Fauna et Flora Fennica 73: 53-56. [in English]

Lee, J. & Manhart, J.R. (2002). The chloroplast rpl23 gene cluster of Spirogyra maxima (Charophyceae) shares many similarities with the angiosperm rpl23 operon. Algae 17(1): 59-68, 4 figs, 2 tables.

Lokhorst, G.M. (1996). Comparative taxonomic studies on the genus Klebsormidium (Charophyceae) in Europe. Cryptogamic Studies Volume 5. pp. 1-132. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Lokhorst, G.M., Sluiman, H.J. & Star, W. (1988). The ultrastructure of mitosis and cytokinesis in the sarcinoid Chlorokybus atmophyticus (Chlorophyta) Charophyceae) revealed by rapid freeze fixation and freeze substitution. Journal of Phycology 24: 237-248.

McCourt, R.M., Karol, K.G., Kaplan, S. & Hoshaw, R.W. (1995). Using rbcL sequences to test hypotheses of chloroplast and thallus evolution in conjugating green algae (Zygnematales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 989-995, 5 figs, 1 table.

Minchin, D., Boelens, R. & Roden, C. (2017). The first record of Nitellopsis obtusa (N. A. Desvaux) J. Groves (Charophyceae, Characeae) in Ireland (H9, H10). Irish Naturalists’ Journal 35: 105-109.

Moriyasu, Y. & Malek, L. (2004). Purification and characterization of the 20S proteasome from the alga Chara corallina (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 333-340.

Naito, K., Suzuki, M., Katsui, M. & Imai, I. (2004). Secretion of iron-complexing ligands from Closterium aciculare (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) under iron-deficient conditions (Research note). Phycologia 43: 632-634, 1 fig.

Neustupa, J. (2015). Organisation type "Green Algae" (Introduction); Clhorophyta, Steptophyta p.p. (except Ulvophyceae, Charophyceae, incl. Trentepohliales. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. [190]-247. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Novis, P.M. (1984). New records of Spirogyra and Zygnema (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 139-152.

Novis, P.M. (2006). Taxonomy of Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Charophyceae) in New Zealand streams and the significance of low-PH habitats. Phycologia 45: 293-301.

O'Neal, S.W. & Lembi, C.A. (1995). Temperature and irradiance effects on growth of Pithophora oedogonia (Chlorophyceae) and Spirogyra sp. (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 720-726, 3 figs.

Oliveira, R. de C., Boas, L.K.V. & Branco, C.C.Z. (2016). Assessment of the potential toxicity of glyphosphate-based herbicides on the photosynthesis of Nitella microcarpa var. wrightii (Charophyceae) . Phycologia 55(5): 577-584.

Olszewska, M.J., Gernand, D., Godlewski, M. & Kunachowicz, A. (1997). DNA methylation during antheridial filament development and spermiogenesis in Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae) analysed by in situ nick-translation driven by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. European Journal of Phycology 32: 287-291, 4 figs.

Pérez, W., Casanova, M.T., Hall, J.D., McCourt, R.M. & Karol, K.G. (2017). Phylogenetic congruence of ribosomal operon and plastid gene sequences for the Characeae with emphasis on Tolypella (Characeae, Charophyceae). Phycologia 56(2): 230-237.

Pérez, W., Hall, J.D., McCourt, R.M. & Karol, K.G. (2014). Phylogeny of North American Tolypella (Charophyceae, Charophyta) based on plastid DNA sequences with a description of Tolypella ramosissima sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 50(5): 776-789.

Pérez, W., Hall, J.D., McCourt, R.M.& Karol, K.G. (2015). Oospore dimensions and morphology in North American Tolypella (Charophyceae, Charophyta). Journal of Phycology 51(2): 310-320.

Picelli-Vicentim, M.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (1990). Nitella lhotzkyi (Charophyceae). First discovery of the species outside Australia. Cryptogamic Botany 2: 30-32.

Picelli-Vicentim, M.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (1993). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 4: Charophyceae. Hoehnea 20(1/2): 9-22, 21 fig.

Picelli-Vicentim, M.M., Bicudo, C.E. de. M., & Bueno, N.C. (2004). Flora Ficologica do estado de Sao Paulo. Volume 5. Charophyceae. . pp. 1-124, 457 figs.. Sao Paulo.

Poplonska, K., Kwiatkowska, M., Stepinski, D., Gosek, A. & Wojtczak, A. (2004). Immunocytochemical localisation of ubiquitin and proteasomes in spermatids during spermiogenesis of Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 39: 309-316.

Porter, J.L. (2007). Contrasting emergence patterns of Lamprothamnium macropogon (Characeae, Charophyceae) and Ruppia tuberosa (Potamogetonaceae) from arid-zone saline wetlands in Australia. Charophytes 1(1): 19-27.

R.M.Bicudo (1968). An annotated list of Charophyceae already cited for Brazil. Rickia 3: 221-238.

Ragan, M.A., Parsons, T.J., Sawa, T. & Straus, N.A. (1994). 18S ribosomal DNA sequences indicate a monophyletic origin of Charophyceae. Journal of Phycology 30: 490-500, 3 figs, 1 table.

Ray, S. (1998). Study of chromosome morphology from vegetative shoot apices of Nitella hyalina var. hyalina f. hyalina (Charophyceae). Phycologia 37: 64-66, 2 figs.

Rindi, F., Guiry, M.D. & López-Bautista, J.M. (2008). Distribution, morphology and phylogeny of Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Charophyceae) in urban environments in Europe. Journal of Phycology 44: 1529-1540.

Sakayama, H. (2008). Taxonomy of Nitella (Charales, Charophyceae) based on comparative morphology of oospores and multiple DNA marker phylogeny using cultured material (Review). Phycological Research 56(3): 202-215.

Sakayama, H., Hara, Y. & Nozaki, H. (2004). Taxonomic re-examination of six species of Nitella (Charales, Charophyceae) from Asia, and phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on rbcL and atpB gene sequences. Phycologia 43: 91-104.

Sakayama, H., Hara, Y., Arai, S., Sato, H. & Nozaki, H. (2004). Phylogenetic analyses of Nitella subgenus Tieffallenia (Charales, Charophyceae) using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Phycologia 43: 672-681.

Sakayama, H., Kasai, F., Nozaki, H., Watanabe, M.M., Kawachi, M. Shigyo, M., Nishihiro, J., Washitani, I., Krienitz, I. & Ito, M. (2009). Taxonomic reexamination of Chara globularis (Charales, Charophyceae) from Japan based on oospore morphology and rbcL gene sequences, and the description of C. leptospora sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 45(4): 917-927.

Sakayama, H., Miyaji, K., Nagumo, T., Kato, M., Hara, Y. & Nozaki, H. (2005). Taxonomic reexamination of 17 species of Nitella subgenus Tieffallenia (Charales, Charophyceae) based on internal morphology of the oospore wall and multiple DNA marker sequences. Journal of Phycology 41: 195-211.

Sanjuan, J., Vicente, A., Flor-Arnau, N., Monleón, T., Cambra, J. & Martín-Closas, C. (2017). Effects of light and temperature on Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae) gyrogonite productivity and polymorphism - palaeoenvironmenta implications. Phycologia 56(2): 204-212.

Schaible, R. & Schubert, H. (2008). The occurrence of sexual Chara canescens populations (Charophyceae) is not related to ecophysiological potentials with respect to salinity and irradiance. European Journal of Phycology 43(3): 309-316.

Schaible, R., Bergmann, I., Bögle, M., Schoor, A. & Schubert, H. (2009). Genetic characterisation of sexually and parthenogenetically reproductive populations of Chara canescens (Charophyceae) using AFLP, rbcL, and SNP markers. Phycologia 48(2): 105-117, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Schröder, J. & Grolig, F. (1998). Isolation of a nucleus associated microtubule scaffold from Spirogyra (Zygnematales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34: 257-263, 6 figs.

Sluiman, H.J. & Guihal, C. (1999). Phylogenetic position of Chaetosphaeridium (Chlorophyta), a basal lineage in the Charophyceae inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 35: 395-402, 4 figs, 2 tables.

Sokol, R.C. & Stross, R.G. (1986). Annual germination window on oospores of Nitella furcata (Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 403-406.

Szymańska, H. (2003). Coleochaete spalikii Szymańska sp. nov. (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) - a new member of the Coleochaete sieminskiana group. Nova Hedwigia 76(1/2): 129-135, 17 fig.

Szymanska, H. & Spalik, K. (1993). Typification of names enumerated in Pringsheim monograph of Coleochaete (Charophyceae). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Suppl. 98 (Algological Studies) 70: 29-37.

Tsuchikane, Y., Ito, M. & Sekimoto, H. (2008). Reproductive isolation by sex pheromones in the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex (Zygnematales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 1197-1203.

Tsuchikane, Y., Sato, M., Ootaki, T., Kokubun, Y., Nozaki, H., Ito, M. & Sekimotoa, H. (2010). Sexual processes and phylogenetic relationships of a homothallic strain in the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex (Zygnematales, Charophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46(2): 278-284.

Urbaniak, J., Langangen, A. & van Raam, J. (2012). Oospore wall ornamentation in the genus Tolypella (Charales, Charophyceae) (Note). Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1538-1545.

Vouilloud, A.A., Leonardi, P.I. & Caceres, E.J. (2012). Ultrastructure of male gametogenesis in Chara contraria var. nitelloides (Charales, Charophyceae) revisited: a model for a better characterization of the process in Charales. Phycologia 51(3): 239-246.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 September 2018.

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