152,938 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,947 images, 59,153 bibliographic items, 408,271 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Xanthophyceae

Xanthophyceae Allorge ex Fritsch, 1935: 470.

Source: Yang, E.C., Boo, G.H., Kim, H.J., Cho, S.M., Boo, S.M., Andersen, R.A. & Yoon, H.S. (2012). Supermatrix data highlight the phylogenetic relationships of photosynthetic stramenopiles. Protist 163(2): 217-231.

Original publication: Fritsch, F.E. (1935). The structure and reproduction of the algae. Volume I. Introduction, Chlorophyceae. Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Dinophyceae, Chloromonineae, Euglenineae, Colourless Flagellata. pp. i-xvii, 1-791. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Authority notes: Nom. descript. As circumscribed in the ING, Xanthophyceae is equivalent to class Heterokontae A. Luther (1899: 17, nom. descript.; Heterocontae Oltmanns, 1904; 18).

Description:
Predominately coccoid or filamentous, rarely amoeboid, flagellate or capsoid; cell walls (probably cellulose) typical, either entire or H-shaped bisectional walls; chloroplast with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to the outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1, 2, violaxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucherioxanthin; swimming cells with two flagella, one anteriorly directed and bearing tripartite tubular hairs, one posteriorly directed and lacking tripartite hairs; four microtubular kinetosome roots and one large striated kinetosome root (rhizoplast); flagellar transitional helix with six apparently double gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraflagellar rod.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aberg, H. & Fries, L. (1976). On cultivation of the alga Vaucheria dichotoma (Xanthophyceae) in axenic culture. Phycologia 15: 133-141.

Aberg, H. (1978). Light and branch formation in the alga Vaucheria dichotoma (Xanthophyceae). Physiologia Plantarum 44: 224-230.

Aboal, M. (1989). Aportación al conocimiento de las algas epicontinentales del SE de España. V. Xantofíceas (Xanthophyceae P. Allorge & Fritsch, 1935). Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, II série 62 (2): 239-248.

Aboal, M. (2003). Vaucheria undulata Jao 1936 (Vaucheriaceae, Xanthophyceae) nueva cita para la flora algal epicontinental española. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 60: 215-216.

Alvárez Cobelas, M. (1984). Catálogo de las algas continentales españolas. II. Craspedophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Haptophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Xanthophyceae. Acta Bot. Malacitana 9: 27-40.

Andersen, R.A. & Bailey, J.C. (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) using the rbcL gene and its two flanking spacer regions. Journal of Phycology 38(3): 583-592.

Ariztia, E.V., Andersen, R.A. & Sogin, M.L. (1991). A new phylogeny for chromophyte algae using 16S-like rRNA sequences from Mallomonas papillosa (Synurophyceae) and Tribonema aequale (Xanthophyceae). Journal of Phycology 27: 428-436.

Bailey, J.C. & Andersen, R.A. (1999 '1998'). Phylogenetic relationships among nine species of the Xanthophyceae inferred from rbcL and 18S rRNA gene sequences. Phycologia 37: 458-466, 8 figs, 1 table.

Begum, A. & Broady, P. A. (2002). Chlorellidium pyrenoidosum spec. nova (Mischococcales, Xanthophyceae) from New Zealand soils. Algological Studies 107: 163-172.

Belcher, J.H. & Fogg, G.E. (1958). Studies on the growth of Xanthophyceae in pure culture III. Tribonema auquale Pascher. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 30: 17-22.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & Martau, L. (1974). Catálogo das algas de águas continentais do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: II - Charophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Rhodophyceae e Xanthophyceae. Iheringia Serie Botanica 19: 31-40.

Bicudo, D.C., Bicudo, C.E.M., Olivera, A.M. de, Ferragut, C. Fonesca, B.M., Marues Lopez, M.R & Nascimento de Lima, I.R. do (2006). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 21: Xanthophyceae. Hoehnea 33: 291-316, 66 figs.

Bonilla-Rodriguez, M., Garduno-Solorzano, G., Martinez-Garcia, M., Campos, J.E., Monsalvo-Reyes, A.C. & Quintanar-Zuniga, R.E. (2013). Vaucheria zapotecana (Xanthophyceae) a new species from Oaxaca, Mexico. Phycologia 52(6): 550-556.

Broady, P.A., Ohtani, S. & Ingerfeld, M. (1997). A comparison of strains of Xanthonema (=Heterothrix, Tribonematales, Xanthophyceae) from Antarctica, Europe, and New Zealand. Phycologia 36: 164-171, 38 figs, 2 tables.

Calvo, S. & I. Bárbara (2001). Botrydium granulatum Greville (Xanthophyceae, Botrydiales) en Galicia. Anales Jardín Botánico de Madrid 58(2): 351-352, 1 fig.. [in Spanish]

Cambra-Sánchez, J. (2010). Asterosiphon dichotomus (Kützing) Rieth (Vaucheriales, Ochrophyta, Xanthophyceae) in sub-arid agricultural soils of Catalonia (Spain). Gayana Botánica 67(1): 140-144.

Casselton, P.J. & Whittle, S.J. (1972). A comment on the pigments of the algal groups Xanthophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae. British Phycological Journal 7: 280.

Casselton, P.J. (1963). Bumilleriopsis as a genus of the Xanthophyceae. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 261-263.

Christensen, T. (1987). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 4. Tribophyceae (Xanthophyceae). pp. [i]-viii, 1-36, 8 figs. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Clokie, J.J.P. & Boney, A.D. (1980). Green algae of the Firth of Clyde. Key to attached Chlorophyceae and some Xanthophyceae. Scottish Field Studies 2: 13-33.

Couté, A. (1984). Premières observations au M.E.T. et au M.E.B. sur la cytologie de Ducellieria chodatii (Ducel.) Teil. (Xanthophyceae, Mischococcales, Chlorobotrydaceae). Nova Hedwigia 39: 651-669.

Darling, R.B., Friedmann, E.I. & Broady, P.A. (1987). Heterococcus endolithicus sp. nov. (Xanthophyceae) and other terrestrial Heterococcus species from Antarctica: Morphological changes during life history and response to temperature. Journal of Phycology 23: 598-607, 5 figs, 4 tables.

Dillard, G.E. (1978). An infrequently reported alga: Chadefaudiothrix gallica Bourrelly (Xanthophyceae: Heterotrichales). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 39: 76-77.

Dillard, G.E. (2007). Freshwater algae of the southeastern United States Part 8. Chrysophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Dinophyceae. Bibliotheca Phycologica 112: [i-vi], 1-127, 22 pls.

Ettl, H. (1978). Xanthophyceae. In: Süsswasserflora von Mitteleurope. Begründer von A. Pascher. Band 3, Teil 1. (Ettl, H., Gerloff, J & Heynig, H. Eds), pp. [i]-xiv, [1]-530. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Fott, B. (1967). Taxonomische übertragungen und Namensänderungen unter den Algen II. Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae und Xanthophyceae. Preslia 39: 352-364.

Fritsch, F.E. (1935). The structure and reproduction of the algae. Volume I. Introduction, Chlorophyceae. Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Dinophyceae, Chloromonineae, Euglenineae, Colourless Flagellata. pp. i-xvii, 1-791. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fujii, S., Yamamoto, R., Nakayama, S., Yasui, S. & Broady, P.A. (1999). Effects of salinity on growth and content of intracellular solutes in Heterococcus sp. (Tribonematales, Xanthophyceae) from Antarctica. Phycological Research 47: 65-70.

Gigova, L., Ivanova, N., Gacheva, G., Andreeva, R. & Furnadzhieva, S. (2012). Response of Trachydiscus minutus (Xanthophyceae) to temperature and light. Journal of Phycology 48(1): 85-93.

Gunnarsson, K. (1985). The genus Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) in Iceland I. Marine and brackish water species from West Iceland. Acta Bot Isl 8: 21-27.

Gupta, R.K. (2012). Algae of India Volume 2. A checklist of Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae. Chrysophyceae and Euglenophyceae. pp. [i]-iii, [1]-428, 8 pls. Salt Lake, Kolkata: Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests.

Henschel, D., Simons, J. & Kirst, G.-O. (1992). Ecotypes of the euryhaline Xanthophyceae Vaucheria dichotoma (L.) Martius. British Phycological Journal 27: 92.

Hesse, M. (1974). Wachstum und synchronisierung der alge Bumilleriopsis filiformis Vischer (Xanthophyceae). Planta 120: 135-146.

Hibberd, D.J. & Leedale, G.F. (1971). Cytology and ultrastructure of the Xanthophyceae. II. The zoospore and vegetative cell of coccoid forms, with special reference to Ophiocytium majus Naegeli. British Phycological Journal 6: 1-23, 27 figs.

Hibberd, D.J. (1981). Notes on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the algal classes Eustigmatophyceae and Tribophyceae (synonym Xanthophyceae). Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 82: 93-119, 17 figs, 1 table.

Hofbauer, W., Gärtner, G., Rennebarth, T., Sedlbauer, K., Mayer, F. & Breuer, K. (). Excentrochloris fraunhoferiana sp. nov. (Botrydiopsidaceae, Xanthophyceae), a new aerophytic species from the surfaces of modern buildings. Fottea 11(2): 279-291.

Ioriya, T. (1977). A new heterotrichacean alga, Tribonema yamadanum sp. nov. (Xanthophyceae). Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Phycology 25(Suppl.): 79-85, 10 figs, 3 tables.

Ioriya, T. (1986). Taxonomic studies of the genus Tribonema (Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyta) from Japan. Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries 73(1): 1-48.

Islam, A.K.M.N. (1973). Freshwater algae of Bangladesh. I. Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Dacca University Studies, Part B 21: 69-84.

Islam, A.K.M.N. (1986). Studies on the genusVaucheria (Xanthophyceae) in Iraq. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 69: 877-902.

Jane, F.W. (1944). Chlororhabdion, a new genus of the Xanthophyceae. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 64: 16-25.

Kleinig, H. & Egger, K. (1967). Carotinoide der Vaucheriales Vaucheria und Botrydium (Xanthophyceae). Zeit. Naturf. 22: 868-872.

Knutzen, J. (1973). Marine species of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) in south Norway. Norwegian Journal of Botany 20: 163-181.

Krienitz, L. & Heynig, H. (1992). Tetraedriella verrucosa (G. M. Smith) comb, nova and its relation to T. regularis (Kützing) Fott (Xanthophyceae). Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement 93(Algological Studies 65): 1-10.

Krienitz, L., Hegewald, E., Reymond, O.L. & Peschke, T. (1993). Variability of LM, TEM and SEM characteristics of Pseudogoniochloris tripus gen. et comb. nov. (Xanthophyceae). Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement 97: 67-82.

Krzyk, A. (2001). New localities of several species of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) in Poland. Polish Botanical Journal 46(2): 169-174.

Leedale, G.F., Leadbeater, B.S.C. & Massalski, A. (1970). The intracellular origin of flagellar hairs in the Chrysophyceae and Xanthophyceae. J. Cell Sci. 6: 701-719.

Lokhorst, G.M. & Star, W. (2003). The flagellar apparatus in Tribonema (Xanthophyceae) reinvestigated. Phycologia 42: 31-43.

Lokhorst, G.M. (2003). The genus Tribonema (Xanthophyceae) in the Netherlands - An integrated field and culture study. Nova Hedwigia 77(1-2): 19-53.

Maistro, S., Broady, P.A., Andreoli, C. & Negrisolo, E. (2007). Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the order Tribonematales (Heterokonta, Xanthophyceae) based on analysis of plastidial genes rbcL and psaA. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution 43(2): 407-417, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Massalski, A. & Leedale, G.F. (1969). Cytology and ultrastructure of the Xanthophyceae. I. Comparative morphology of the zoospores of Bumilleria sicula Borzi and Tribonema vulgare Pascher. British Phycological Journal 4: 159-180, 20 figs.

Mattox, K.R. & Williams, J.P. (1965). Plastid pigments of the Xanthophyceae. Journal of Phycology 1: 191-193, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Matula, J. (1980). Ducellieria chodatii (Ducel.) Tell. and D. corcontica Mat. nova sp. (Xanthophyceae) found in a peat bog in the Karkonosze Mts. Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 26(2-4): 349-353, 8 fig.

Menezes, M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2010). Xanthophyceae. In: Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. (Forzza, R.C. Eds), pp. 448-451. Rio de Janeiro: Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio; Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

Miller, J.D.A. & Fogg, G.E. (1957). Studies on the growth of Xanthophyceae in pure culture. I. The mineral nutrition of Monodus subterraneus Petersen. Arch. für Mikrobiol. 28: 1-17.

Miller, J.D.A. & Fogg, G.E. (1958). Studies on the growth of Xanthophyceae in pure culture. II. The relations of Monodus subterraneus to organic substances. Arch. für Mikrobiol. 30: 1-16.

Mosto, P. (1988). Heterococcus tellii sp. nov. (Xanthophyceae). Physis Secciones B 38(94): 31-35.

Muralidhar, A., Broady, P.A., MacIntyre, D.P., Wilcox, M.D., Garrill, A. & Novis, P.M. (2014). Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of seven species of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae), including two new species, from contrasting habitats in New Zealand. Phytotaxa 183(3): 117-136.

Muralidhar, A., Novis, P.M., Broady, P.A., Collings, D.A. & Garrill, A. (2013). An estuarine species of the alga Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) displays an increased capacity for turgor regulation when compared to a freshwater species. Journal of Phycology 49(5): 967-978.

Noguerol-Seoane, A. & Rifón-Lastra, A. (2002). Monodus unipapilla Reisigl, Gloeobotrys arborum Geitler y Xanthonema debile (Vischer) Silva, tres nuevas Xanthophyceae (Heterokontophyta) para la Península Ibérica. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 59: 334-335.

Pecora, R.A. (1976). Vaucheria synandra (Xanthophyceae, Vaucheriales): first record for North America. Journal of Phycology 12(1): 131-133.

Pecora, R.A. (1978). Brackish water species of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae, Vaucheriales) from Louisiana and Texas. Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 25-29.

Pizarro, H. & Tell, G. (1988). Nota sobre algunos Characiopsis (Xanthophyceae) de la Argentina. Cryptogamie, Algologie 9: 7-11.

Potter, D., Saunders, G.W. & Andersen, R.A. (1997). Phylogenetic relations of the Raphidophyceae and Xanthophyceae as inferred from nucleotide sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. American Journal of Botany 84: 966-972.

Potter, D., Saunders, G.W. & Andersen, R.A. (1997). Phylogenetic relationships of the raphidophyceae and xanthophyceae as inferred from nucleotide sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. American Journal of Botany 84: 966-972, 5 figs, 2 tables.

Rieth, A. (1980). Xanthophyceae. In: Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. ( Eds) Vol.4(1), pp. 1-147. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Rybalka, N., M.Wolf, R.A.Andersen & T.Frield (2013). Congruence of chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded DNA sequence variations used to asses species boundaries in the soil microalga Heterococcus (Stramenopiles, Xanthophyceae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 13{39}: 1-15, 4 fig.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae e Xanthophyceae). Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-234, pls 1-51. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Sieminska, J. (1976). Rhizochloris tatarica n. sp. (Xanthophyceae). Acta Hydrobiologica [Krakow] 6: 323-325.

Skowronski, T., de Knecht, J.A., Simons, J. & Verkleij, J.A.C. (1998). Phytochelatin synthesis in response to cadmium uptake in Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 33: 87-91, 5 figs, 1 table.

Soule, K.M. & Rumpho, M.E. (2012). Light-regulated photosynthetic gene expression and phosphoribulokinase enzyme activity in the heterokont alga Vaucheria litorea (Xanthophyceae) and its symbiotic molluskan partner Elysia chlorotica (Gastropoda). Journal of Phycology 48(2): 373-383.

Starmach, K. (1966). Glony roznowiciowe (Xanthophyceae) w wodách Poludniowej Polski. Fragm. Flor. et Geobot. 12: 533-547.

Stransky, H. & Hager, A. (1970). Das Carotinoidmuster und die Verbreitung des lichtinduzierten Xanthophyllcyclus in verschiedenen Algenklassen. II. Xanthophyceae. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 71: 164-190.

Tarapchak, S. (1972). Studies on the Xanthophyceae of the Red Lake wetlands, Minnesota. Nova Hedwigia 23: 1-43.

Tell, G. (1973). Plasmodios de Myxochloris sphagnicola Pascher (Xanthophyceae), registrados por primera vez para Sud America. Bol. Soc. Argen. Bot. 15: 204-208.

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Wagner, H.-P. & Zaneveld, J.S. (1988). The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963-1967). Blumea 33: 141-180.

Whittle, S.J. & Casselton, P.J. (1975). The chloroplast pigments of the algal classes Eustigmatophyceae and Xanthophyceae. I. Eustigmatophyceae. British Phycological Journal 10: 179-191, 1 fig, 9 tables.

Whittle, S.J. & Casselton, P.J. (1975). The chloroplast pigments of the algal classes Eustigmatophyceae and Xanthophyceae. II. Xanthophyceae. British Phycological Journal 10: 192-204, 7 tables.

Whittle, S.J. (1976). Chlorophyll c in the Xanthophyceae. British Phycological Journal 11: 201.

Whittle, S.J. (1976). The major chloroplast pigments of Chlorobotrys regularis (West) Bohlin (Eustigmatophyceae) and Ophiocytium majus Naegeli (Xanthophyceae). British Phycological Journal 11: 111-114, 2 tables.

Wołowski, K. (2002). Vaucheria species (Xanthophyceae) of the Kraków-Czestochowa Upland (Poland). Annals of Limnology 38(1): 23-34.

Zuccarello, G.C. & Lokhorst, G.M. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Tribonema (Xanthophyceae) using rbcL gene sequence data: monophyly of morphologically simple algal species. Phycologia 44: 384-392.

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Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 September 2018.

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