155,114 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,784 images, 59,951 bibliographic items, 433,854 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Chlorophyceae

Chlorophyceae Wille in Warming, 1884: 22.

Source: Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T.C., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M (2014). A higher level classification of all living organisms. Plos One 10(4): e0119248.

Original publication: Warming, E. (1884). Haandbog i den systematiske botanik: naermest til brug for laerere og universitets-studerende. pp. iv, 1-434. Kjøbenhavn: P.G. Philipsens.

Swimming cells with one to hundreds of flagella, without mastigonemes; when two or four flagella, basal bodies with four microtubular rootlets in cruciate arrangement, alternating between two and more microtubules; basal bodies displaced clockwise or directly opposed; rhizoplast connects basal bodies and extends to nucleus; in colonial forms, basal bodies re-oriented to face outside of colony; closed mitosis; cytokinesis has phycoplast with microtubules, sometimes with furrowing, with formation of plasmodesmata cellcell connections; haplobiontic life cycle; sexual reproduction by isogamy, anisogamy or öogamy; asexual reproduction by aplanospores, akinetes, or autosporic; osmotrophy and autotrophy.

Taxonomic notes:

As part of their working classification of green algae and land plants, Lewis & McCourt (2004: table 2) include the orders Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (among 5/6 orders) in the class Chlorophyceae. Turmel et al. (2008), Novis et al. (2010) and Nemcova et al. (2011) refer to the CS (Chlamydomonadales-Sphaeropleales) clade. The OCC (Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, Chaetopeltidales) form another clade within the class Chlorophyceae. Many authors place the Chlamydomonadaceae in the Volvocales.

Key References
Zuccarello, G.C., Price, N., Verbruggen, H. & Leliaert, F. (2009). Analysis of a plastid multigene data set and the phylogenetic position of the marine macroalga Caulerpa filiformis (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1206-1212.

Turmel, M., Brouard, J.-S., Gagnon, C., Otis, C. & Lemieux, c. (2008). Deep division in the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta) revealed by chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. Journal of Phycology 44(3): 739-750, 4 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Michalopulos, E.A. & Buchheim, J.A. (2001). Phylogeny of the Chlorophyceae with special reference to the Sphaeropleales: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 37: 819-835.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abélard, C. (1982). A propos d'une nouvelle espece de Pedobesia (Chlorophyceae, Derbesiales) provenant des Iles Galapagos: Pedobesia feldmannii. Cryptogamie, Algologie 3: 187-209.

Abhayavardhani, P. & Sarma, Y.S.R.K. (1982). Karyological studies on some desmid taxa (Conjugales, Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 21: 131-136, 10 figs, 2 tables.

Aboal, M. (1988). Aportación al conocimiento de las algas epicontinentales del S.E. de España. VII. Clorofíceas (Chlorophyceae Wille in Warming 1884). Candollea 43: 521-548.

Aboal, M. (1988). Zygnemataceae (Conjugales, Chlorophyceae) of the river Segura basin, southeastern Spain. Nova Hedwigia 47(3-4): 389-402.

Aboal, M. (1991). New records of Zygnemataceae (Zygnemales, Chlorophyceae) from southeastern Spain. Arch. Hydrobiol. Algol. Stud. 65: 23-28.

Aboal, M. (1991). New records of Zygnemataceae (Zygnemales, Chlorophyceae) from southeastern Spain. Nova Hedwigia 52 (3-4): 365-373.

Aboal, M. (1992). A new species of Zygnema (Zygnematales, Chlorophyceae) from Southeastern Spain. Algological Studies 65: 23-28, fig. 1-16.

Ahlgren, G. & Hyenstrand, P. (2003). Nitrogen limitation effects of different nitrogen sources on nutritional quality of two freshwater organisms, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyceae) and Synechococcus sp. (Cyanophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 906-917.

Ahmad, I. & Hellebust, J.A. (1993). Protein biosynthesis in salt-shocked cells of Stichococcus bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 294 -300, 6 figs, 1 table.

Ajisaka, T. & Enomoto, S. (1987). Marine algae from Peleliu Island, Palau: Chlorophyceae (preliminary report). pp. 34-37. Kagoshima: Research Center for the South Pacific.

Aknin, M., Moelletnzaou, R., Cisse, E., Kornprobst, J.M., Gaydou, E.M., Samb, A. & Miralles, J. (1992). Fatty acid composition of 12 species of chlorophyceae from the Senegalese coast. Phytochemistry 31(8): 2739-2741.

Allewaert, C.C., Vanormelingen, P., Pröschold, T., Gómez, P.I., González, M.A., Bilcke, G., D'Hondt, S. & Vyverman W. (2015). Species diversity in European Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Phycologia 54(6): 583-598.

Alongi, G., Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Giaccone, G. (1993). Prima segnalazione di Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyceae, Caulerpales) per le coste italiane. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat. 26(342): 49-53.

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A. & Figueroa, F.L. (2000). Long-term effects of natural sunlights under various ultraviolet radiation conditions on growth and photosynthesis of intertidal Ulva rigida (Chlorophyceae) cultivated in situ. Botanica Marina 43: 119-126, 5 figs.

Alvárez Cobelas, M. & Gallardo, T. (1986). Catálogo de las algas continentales españolas. IV. Chlorophyceae Wille in Warming 1884. Prasinophyceae T. Christensen ex Silva 1980. Acta Bot. Malacitana 11: 17-38.

Alvarez Cobelas. M. & Gallardo, T. (1990). Brachiomonas submarina Bohlin 1897 (Chlorophyceae, Chlamydomonadaceae) en la costa portuguesa. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, II série 63: 23-27.

Anand, P.L. (1940). Marine algae from Karachi. Part I. Chlorophyceae. pp. ii + 52, 26 figs, VI plates.: Panjab University Botanical Publications.

Anderca, M., Furuichi, T. & Muto, S. (2003). Mitochondrial NDP kinase from Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 51(3): 147-153.

Andreoli, C., Rascio, N. & Casadoro, G. (1978). Chlorella nana sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae): a new marine Chlorella. Botanica Marina 21(4): 253-256.

Antia, N.J. & Cheng, J.Y. (1983). Evidence for anomalous xanthophyll composition in a clone of Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 22: 235-242, 3 figs, 2 tables.

Aoyama, H., Kuroiwa, T. & Nakamura, S. (2008). Observations of chromosomal behaviour in living meiotic zygotes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 43: 389-394.

Aoyama, H., Kuroiwa, T. & Nakamura, S. (2013). Chronological transition of mitochondrial morphology in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) poststationary phase growth. Journal of Phycology 49(2): 340-348.

Apaydin Yagci, M. & Turna, I.I. (2002). A new record for the algal flora of Turkey: Chaetomorpha crassa (C.Ag.) Kütz. (Cladophoraceae, Chlorophyceae). Turkish Journal of Botany 26: 171-174, 4 figs.

Arai, S., Takahashi, H., Takano, H., Sakai, A. & Kawano, S. (1998). Isolation, characterization and chromosome mapping of an actin gene from the primitive green alga, Nannochloris bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34: 477-485, 6 figs.

Araúzo, M., Alvarez Cobelas, M. & Rubio, A. (1986). Crecimiento y citocinesis de Staurastrum planctonicum Teiling var. bullosum Teiling (Chlorophyceae, Desmidiaceae) en un embalse eutrófico. Limnética 2: 259-264.

Arce, G. & Bold, H.C. (1958). Some Chlorophyceae from Cuban soil. American Journal of Botany 45: 492-503.

Archibald, P.A. (1972). The genus Nautococcus Korschikov (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales). Phycologia 11: 207-212, 12 figs, 1 table.

Archibald, P.A. (1973). The genus Neochloris Starr (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales). Phycologia 12: 187-193, 14 figs, 3 tables.

Archibald, P.A. (1975). Trebouxia de Pulmaly (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales) and Pseudotrebouxia gen. nov. (Chlorophyceae, Chlorosarcinales). Phycologia 14: 125-137, 18 figs, 2 tables.

Archibald, P.A. (1977). Physiological characteristics of Trebouxia (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales) and Pseudotrebouxia (Chlorophyceae, Chlorosarcinales). Phycologia 16: 295-300, 4 tables.

Archibald, P.A. (1988). Chlorococcum pamirum and C. salinum, two new species of the Chlorophyceae from Central Asia. British Phycological Journal 23: 121-128, 8 figs.

Aziz, A. & Rahman, M.T. (2010). Marine algae of St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh. IX. New records of green algae (Chlorophyceae). Bangladesh Journal of Botany 39(2): 161-168, 5 figs.

Aziz, A. (2010). Micrasterias torreyi Bail. var. nurulislamii Aziz var. nov. (Chlorophyceae) from Bangladesh . Bangladesh J. Plant Taxonomy 17(1): 109-111, 2 fig.

Aziz, A., Islam, S. & Chowdhury, A.H. (2010). Marine algae of St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh. IX. New records of green algae (Chlorophyceae). Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 17(2): 193-198, 3 figs.

Badour, S.S. (1981). The inorganic carbon requirements of Chlamydomonas segnis (Chlorophyceae) for cell development in synchronous cultures. Journal of Phycology 17: 293-299, 4 figs.

Badour, S.S., Tan, C.K. & Waygood, E.R. (1977). Observations on cell development in Chlamydomonas segnis (Chlorophyceae) at low and high carbon dioxide tension. Journal of Phycology 13: 80-86, 7 figs, 1 table.

Ballesteros, E. (1991). Seasonality of growth and production of a deep-water population of Halimeda tuna (Chlorophyceae, Caulerpales) in the north-western Mediterranean. Botanica Marina 34: 291-301, 7 figs, 6 tables.

Baos, R., García-Villada, L., Agrelo, M., López-Rodas, V., Hiraldo, F. & Costas, E. (2002). Short-term adaptation of microalgae in highly stressful environments: an experimental model analysing the resistance of Scenedesmus intermedius (Chlorophyceae) to the heavy metals mixture from the Aznalcóllar mine spill. European Journal of Phycology 37: 593-600.

Barcyte, D., Hodač, L., Nedbalová, L., & Elster, J. (2018). Chloromonas svalbardensis n. sp. with insights into the phylogroup chloromonadinia (Chlorophyceae). J. Eukaryotic Microbiology 65(6): 882-892, 5 fig.

Barr, N.G., Tijsen, R.J. & Rees, T.A.V. (2004). Contrasting effects of methionine sulfoximine on uptake and assimiliation of ammonium in Ulva intestinalis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 697-704.

Barsanti, L., Coltelli, P., Evangelista, V., Frassanito, A,M. & Gualtieri, P. (2016). Swimming patterns of the quadriflagellate Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 52(2): 209-218.

Barsanti, L., Frassanito, A.M., Passarelli, V., Evangelista, V., Etebari, M., Paccagnini, E., Lupetti, P., Lenzi, P., Verni, F. & Gualtieri, P. (2013). Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica gen. et sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae), a new flagellated alga from the Mauritanian desert: morphology, ultrastructure, and phylogenetic framing. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 178-193.

Bates, S.S. & Craigie, J.S. (1988). Fluorescence induction in the macroalgae Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva sp. (Chlorophyceae). Marine Biology, Berlin 98: 457-466.

Bates, S.S., Tessier, A., Cambell, P.G.C. & Buffle, J. (1982). Zinc adsorption and transport byChlamydomonas variabilis and Scenedesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyceae) grown in semicontinuous culture. Journal of Phycology 18: 521-529, 6 figs, 5 tables.

Beardall, J. & Raven, J.A. (1981). Transport of inorganic carbon and the 'CO2 concentrating mechanism' in Chlorella emersonii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 17: 134-141, 1 fig, 4 tables.

Beardall, J. (1981). CO2 accumulation by Chlorella saccharophila (Chlorophyceae) at low external pH: evidence for active transport of inorganic carbon at the chloroplast envelope. Journal of Phycology 17: 371-373, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Beardall, J., Heraud, P., Roberts, S., Shelly, K. & Stojkovic, S. (2002). Effects of UV-B radiation on inorganic carbon acquisition by the marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 41: 268-272.

Beech, P.L. & Melkonian, M. (1993). The basal apparatus of the quadriflagellate Spermatozopsis exsultans (Chlorophyceae): numbering of basal body triplets reveals triplet individuality and developmental modifications. Journal of Phycology 29: 191 -202, 13 figs.

Beem, A.P. van. & Simons, J. (1988). Growth morphology of Draparnaldia mutabilis (Chlorophyceae, Chaetophorales) in synthetic medium. British Phycological Journal 23: 143-151.

Belcher, J.H. & Swale, E.M.F. (1967). Observations on Pteromonas tenuis sp. nov. and P. angulosa (Carter) Lemmermann (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales) by light and electron microscopy. Nova Hedwigia 13: 353-359.

Belcher, J.H. (1959). Some uncommon Chlorophyceae from the Lee Valley. British Phycological Bulletin 1(7): 73-74.

Ben-Amotz, A. & Avron, M. (1989). The wavelength dependence of massive carotene synthesis in Dunaliella bardawil (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 25: 175-178.

Ben-Amotz, A., Gressel, J. & Avron, M. (1987). Massive accumulation of phytoene induced by norflurazon in Dunaliella bardawil (Chlorophyceae) prevents recovery from photoinhibition. Journal of Phycology 23: 176-181, 6 figs, 1 table.

Ben-Amotz, A., Katz, A. & Avron, M. (1982). Accumulation of ß-carotene in halotolerent algae: Purification and characterization of ß-carotene-rich globules from Dunaliella bardawil (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 18: 529-537, 9 figs, 3 tables.

Benhissoune, S., Boudouresque, C.-F. & Verlaque, M. (2001). A checklist of marine seaweeds of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Morocco I. Chlorophyceae Wille s. l.. Botanica Marina 44: 171-182.

Berner, T., Dubinsky, Z., Wyman, K. & Falkowski, P.G. (1989). Photoadaptation and the "package" effect in Dunaliella terteolecta (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 25: 70-78.

Bertos, N.R. & Gibbs, S.P. (1998). Evidence for a lack of photosystem segration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34: 1009-1016, 3 figs, 4 tables.

Betty Lee, W.-S. & Kochert, G. (1976). Bacterial endosymbionts in Volvox carteri (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 12: 194-197, 7 figs.

Bicudo, C.E. de M. (2004). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 18: Chlorophyceae (Volvocales). Revista Brasileira de Botanica 27(1): 85-102.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & D.C.Bicudo (2014). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 36: Chlorophyceae (Chaetophorales). Hoehnea 41(3): 411-422, 31 fig., 1 table.

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Bicudo, C.E.M. & Pereira, F.C. (2003). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 16: Chlorophyceae (Ulotrichales). Hoehnea 30(1): 31-37, 12 fig.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & Santos, C.I. (2001). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 15: Chlorophyceae (Trentepohliales). Hoehnea 28(3): 183-190, 13 fig.

Bicudo, C.E.M. & Skvortzov, B.V. (1968). Isogamy in Furcilla stigmatophora (Chlamydomonadaceae, Chlorophyceae). Sellowia 20: 45-49, Fig. 1-20.

Bicudo, C.E.M. (1976). Prescottiella, a new genus of asymmetrical desmids (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 12(1): 22-24, 3 figs.

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Bigogno, C., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Adlerstein, D. & Cohen, Z. (2002). Biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in the oleaginous microalga Parietochloris incisa (Chlorophyceae): Radiolabeling studies. Lipids 27: 209-216.

Birchem, R. & Kochert, G. (1979). Development of sperm cells of Volvox carteri f. weismannia (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 18: 409-419, 20 figs.

Biswas, K.P. (1949). Common fresh & brackish water algal flora of India and Burma. Catalogue of Indian Myxophyceae (blue green algae), Chlorophyceae (green algae), Xanthophcyeae (yellow green algae) and Bacilleriophycene [sic] (diatoms). Part II. Records of the Botanical Survey of India 15: i-iii, 1-169.

Bitar, G., Dupuy De La Grandrive, R., Foulquie, M. & Verlaque, M. (2005). Neomeris annulata Dickie (Dasycladales, Chlorophyceae): a potential new invader from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Cryptogamie 26: 309-317.

Blinn, D.W. & Morrison, E. (1974). Intercellular cytoplasmic connections in Ctenocladus circannatus Borzi (Chlorophyceae) with possible ecological significance. Phycologia 13: 95-97, 2 figs.

Blinn, D.W. & Stein, J.R. (1970). Distribution and taxonomic reappraisal of Ctenocladus (Chlorophyceae: Chaetophorales). Journal of Phycology 6: 101-105, 4 figs, 4 tables.

Blinn, D.W. (1970). The influence of sodium on the development of Ctenocladus circinnatus Borzi (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 9: 49-53, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Blinn, D.W. (1971). Autecology of a filamentous alga, Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyceae), in saline environments. Canadian Journal of Botany 49: 735-743.

Blunn G.W. & Farnham, W.F. (1986). Preliminary studies on the sponge endobiont Microspora ficulinae (Chlorophyceae). British Phycological Journal 21: 326-327 (Abstract).

Boavida, M.J. & Heath, R.T. (1986). Phosphatase activity of Chlamydomonas acidophila Negoro (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 25: 400-404, 1 fig, 1 table.

Bold, H.C. & MacEntee, F.J. (1974). Phycological notes. III. Two new saccate unicellular chlorophyceae. Journal of Phycology 10: 189-193, 16 figs.

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Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Mitosis and mitotic activity in Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 8: 149-155.

Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Reproduction and early development on Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot: Chlorophyceae. Phycologia 8: 91-99.

Borowitzka, M.A. & Huisman, J.M. (1993). The ecology of Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales): effect of environmental conditions on aplanospore formation. Botanica Marina 36: 233-243, 7 figs, 5 tables.

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Brown, L.M. & Hellebust, J.A. (1980). Some taxonomic characteristics applied to Stichococcus bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 58: 1405-1411.

Brown, L.M. (1982). Photosynthetic and growth responses to salinity in a marine isolate of Nannochloris bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 18: 483-488, 9 figs, 3 tables.

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Buchheim, M., Buchheim, J., Carlson, T., Braband, A., HepperLe, D., Krienitz, L., Wolf, M. & Hegewald, E. (2005). Phylogeny of the Hydrodictyaceae (Chlorophyceae): inferences from rDNA data . Journal of Phycology 41: 1039-1054.

Buchheim, M.A. & Chapman, R.L. (1992). Phylogeny of Carteria (Chlorophyceae) inferred from molecular and organismal data. Journal of Phycology 28: 362-374, 5 figs, 4 tables.

Buchheim, M.A. & Hoffman, L.R. (1985). Sphaeroplea robusta n. sp., a new member of the Sphaeropleaceae (Chlorophyceae) from Texas. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 104: 178-187.

Buchheim, M.A. & Hoffman, L.R. (1986). Ultrastructure of male gametes of Sphaeroplea robusta (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 176-185.

Buchheim, M.A. & Hoffman, L.R. (1987). Structure and reproduction of Sphaeroplea fragilis sp. nov., a new member of the Sphaeropleaceae (Chlorophyceae) from California. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2330-2337.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A. & Chapman, R.L. (1997). Phylogeny of Chloromonas (Chlorophyceae): a study of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 33: 286-293, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A. & Chapman, R.L. (1997). Phylogeny of the VLE-14 Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) group: a study of 18S rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 33: 1024-1030, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A., Carlson, T. & Kugrens, P. (2002). Phylogeny of Lobocharacium (Chlorophyceae) and allies: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 38: 376-383.

Buchheim, M.A., Kirkwood, A.E., Buchheim, J.A., Verghese, B. & Henley, W.J. (2010). Hypersaline soil supports a diverse community of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46(5): 1038-1047.

Buchheim, M.A., Lemieux, C., Otis, C., Gutell, R.R., Chapman, R.L. & Turmel, M. (1996). Phylogeny of the Chlamydomonadales (Chlorophyceae): a comparison of ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the nucleus and the chloroplast. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5(2): 391-402.

Buchheim, M.A., Nickrent, D.L. & Hoffman, L.R. (1990). Systematic analysis of Sphaeroplea (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 173-181, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Sutherland, D.M., Buchheim, J.A. & Wolf, M. (2013). The blood alga: phylogeny of Haemotococcus (Chlorophyceae) inferred from ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 318-329.

Butcher, R.W. (1959). An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. Part I: Introduction and Chlorophyceae. Fisheries Investigations, London, series IV 1: 1-74, 15 pls.

Button, K.S. & Hostetter, H.P. (1977). Copper sorption and release by Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 13: 198-202, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Børgesen, F. (1911). Some Chlorophyceae from the Danish West Indies. Botanisk Tidsskrift 31: 127-152, 13 figs.

Børgesen, F. (1912). Some Chlorophyceae from the Danish West Indies. II. Botanisk Tidsskrift 32: 241-273, 17 figs.

Børgesen, F. (1913). The marine algae of the Danish West Indies. Part I. Chlorophyceae. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 1(4): 1-160, 126 figs, folded map.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 April 2019.

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