153,615 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,981 images, 59,407 bibliographic items, 412,628 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Chlorophyceae

Chlorophyceae Wille in Warming, 1884: 22.

Source: Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T.C., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M (2014). A higher level classification of all living organisms. Plos One 10(4): e0119248.

Original publication: Warming, E. (1884). Haandbog i den systematiske botanik: naermest til brug for laerere og universitets-studerende. pp. iv, 1-434. Kjøbenhavn: P.G. Philipsens.

Description:
Swimming cells with one to hundreds of flagella, without mastigonemes; when two or four flagella, basal bodies with four microtubular rootlets in cruciate arrangement, alternating between two and more microtubules; basal bodies displaced clockwise or directly opposed; rhizoplast connects basal bodies and extends to nucleus; in colonial forms, basal bodies re-oriented to face outside of colony; closed mitosis; cytokinesis has phycoplast with microtubules, sometimes with furrowing, with formation of plasmodesmata cellcell connections; haplobiontic life cycle; sexual reproduction by isogamy, anisogamy or öogamy; asexual reproduction by aplanospores, akinetes, or autosporic; osmotrophy and autotrophy.

Taxonomic notes:

As part of their working classification of green algae and land plants, Lewis & McCourt (2004: table 2) include the orders Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (among 5/6 orders) in the class Chlorophyceae. Turmel et al. (2008), Novis et al. (2010) and Nemcova et al. (2011) refer to the CS (Chlamydomonadales-Sphaeropleales) clade. The OCC (Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, Chaetopeltidales) form another clade within the class Chlorophyceae. Many authors place the Chlamydomonadaceae in the Volvocales.

Key References
Zuccarello, G.C., Price, N., Verbruggen, H. & Leliaert, F. (2009). Analysis of a plastid multigene data set and the phylogenetic position of the marine macroalga Caulerpa filiformis (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1206-1212.

Turmel, M., Brouard, J.-S., Gagnon, C., Otis, C. & Lemieux, c. (2008). Deep division in the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta) revealed by chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. Journal of Phycology 44(3): 739-750, 4 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Michalopulos, E.A. & Buchheim, J.A. (2001). Phylogeny of the Chlorophyceae with special reference to the Sphaeropleales: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 37: 819-835.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abélard, C. (1982). A propos d'une nouvelle espece de Pedobesia (Chlorophyceae, Derbesiales) provenant des Iles Galapagos: Pedobesia feldmannii. Cryptogamie, Algologie 3: 187-209.

Abhayavardhani, P. & Sarma, Y.S.R.K. (1982). Karyological studies on some desmid taxa (Conjugales, Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 21: 131-136, 10 figs, 2 tables.

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Aboal, M. (1991). New records of Zygnemataceae (Zygnemales, Chlorophyceae) from southeastern Spain. Nova Hedwigia 52 (3-4): 365-373.

Aboal, M. (1992). A new species of Zygnema (Zygnematales, Chlorophyceae) from Southeastern Spain. Algological Studies 65: 23-28, fig. 1-16.

Ahlgren, G. & Hyenstrand, P. (2003). Nitrogen limitation effects of different nitrogen sources on nutritional quality of two freshwater organisms, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyceae) and Synechococcus sp. (Cyanophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 906-917.

Ahmad, I. & Hellebust, J.A. (1993). Protein biosynthesis in salt-shocked cells of Stichococcus bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 294 -300, 6 figs, 1 table.

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Archibald, P.A. (1988). Chlorococcum pamirum and C. salinum, two new species of the Chlorophyceae from Central Asia. British Phycological Journal 23: 121-128, 8 figs.

Aziz, A. & Rahman, M.T. (2010). Marine algae of St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh. IX. New records of green algae (Chlorophyceae). Bangladesh Journal of Botany 39(2): 161-168, 5 figs.

Aziz, A. (2010). Micrasterias torreyi Bail. var. nurulislamii Aziz var. nov. (Chlorophyceae) from Bangladesh . Bangladesh J. Plant Taxonomy 17(1): 109-111, 2 fig.

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Beardall, J. & Raven, J.A. (1981). Transport of inorganic carbon and the 'CO2 concentrating mechanism' in Chlorella emersonii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 17: 134-141, 1 fig, 4 tables.

Beardall, J. (1981). CO2 accumulation by Chlorella saccharophila (Chlorophyceae) at low external pH: evidence for active transport of inorganic carbon at the chloroplast envelope. Journal of Phycology 17: 371-373, 1 fig, 2 tables.

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Blinn, D.W. & Stein, J.R. (1970). Distribution and taxonomic reappraisal of Ctenocladus (Chlorophyceae: Chaetophorales). Journal of Phycology 6: 101-105, 4 figs, 4 tables.

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Blinn, D.W. (1971). Autecology of a filamentous alga, Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyceae), in saline environments. Canadian Journal of Botany 49: 735-743.

Blunn G.W. & Farnham, W.F. (1986). Preliminary studies on the sponge endobiont Microspora ficulinae (Chlorophyceae). British Phycological Journal 21: 326-327 (Abstract).

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Bold, H.C. & MacEntee, F.J. (1974). Phycological notes. III. Two new saccate unicellular chlorophyceae. Journal of Phycology 10: 189-193, 16 figs.

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Brown, L.M. (1982). Photosynthetic and growth responses to salinity in a marine isolate of Nannochloris bacillaris (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 18: 483-488, 9 figs, 3 tables.

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Buchheim, M.A. & Hoffman, L.R. (1987). Structure and reproduction of Sphaeroplea fragilis sp. nov., a new member of the Sphaeropleaceae (Chlorophyceae) from California. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2330-2337.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A. & Chapman, R.L. (1997). Phylogeny of Chloromonas (Chlorophyceae): a study of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 33: 286-293, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A. & Chapman, R.L. (1997). Phylogeny of the VLE-14 Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) group: a study of 18S rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 33: 1024-1030, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Buchheim, J.A., Carlson, T. & Kugrens, P. (2002). Phylogeny of Lobocharacium (Chlorophyceae) and allies: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 38: 376-383.

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Buchheim, M.A., Nickrent, D.L. & Hoffman, L.R. (1990). Systematic analysis of Sphaeroplea (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 173-181, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Buchheim, M.A., Sutherland, D.M., Buchheim, J.A. & Wolf, M. (2013). The blood alga: phylogeny of Haemotococcus (Chlorophyceae) inferred from ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 318-329.

Butcher, R.W. (1959). An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. Part I: Introduction and Chlorophyceae. Fisheries Investigations, London, series IV 1: 1-74.

Button, K.S. & Hostetter, H.P. (1977). Copper sorption and release by Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 13: 198-202, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Børgesen, F. (1911). Some Chlorophyceae from the Danish West Indies. Botanisk Tidsskrift 31: 127-152, 13 figs.

Børgesen, F. (1912). Some Chlorophyceae from the Danish West Indies. II. Botanisk Tidsskrift 32: 241-273, 17 figs.

Børgesen, F. (1913). The marine algae of the Danish West Indies. Part I. Chlorophyceae. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 1(4): 1-160, 126 figs, folded map.

Børgesen, F. (1925). Marine algae from the Canary Islands especially Teneriffe and Gran Canaria. I. Chlorophyceae. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Meddelelser 5(3): 1-123, 49 figs.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 November 2018.

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