155,278 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,865 images, 60,056 bibliographic items, 436,069 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Ulvophyceae

Ulvophyceae K.R.Mattox & K.D.Stewart, 1984: 41, 66.

Type of name: Ulva Linnaeus

Source: Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T.C., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M (2014). A higher level classification of all living organisms. Plos One 10(4): e0119248.

Original publication: Mattox, K.R. & Stewart, K.D. (1984). Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. In: Systematics of the Green Algae Special Volume No. 27. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at The Polytechnic of North London 29-31 March 1983. (Irvine, D.E.G. & John, D.M. Eds), pp. 29-72. London: Published for the Systematics Association by Academic Press.

Authority notes: ULVOPHYCEAE K.R. Mattox & K.D. Stewart

Swimming cells with one or two pairs of flagella, without mastigonemes; basal bodies with four microtubular rootlets in cruciate arrangement, and smaller roots of two sizes, alternating between two or more microtubules; flagella with scales and rhizoplasts; cell wall more or less calcified; cell division by furrowing with mitotic spindle closed, centric and persistent; phycoplast absent; thallus can be branched or unbranched, mono- or distromatic sheet (phyllose), or cushionlike forms of compacted tubes; thallus often multinucleate and siphonous; free-living diplobiontic life cycle, iso- or heteromorphic

Key References
Zuccarello, G.C., Price, N., Verbruggen, H. & Leliaert, F. (2009). Analysis of a plastid multigene data set and the phylogenetic position of the marine macroalga Caulerpa filiformis (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1206-1212.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Carvalho, M.C., de M. Carneiro, P.B., Dellatorre, F.G., Gibilisco, P.E., Sachs, J. & Eyre, B.D. (2017). Bulk hydrogen stable isotope composition of seaweeds: clear separation between Ulvophyceae and other classes. Journal of Phycology 53(5): 961-969.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Freshwater Flora of central Europe, Vol. 13: Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae. pp. [1]-vii, [1]-288, 182 fig.: L. Krienitz, ed. Berlin,: Springler Spektrum.

Aboal, M., Egidos, A.I., Marín, J.P. & Asencio, A.D. (2002). Trentepohlia jolithus (L.) Wallroth 1833 (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) in subaerial habitats from southeastern Spain. Algological Studies 107: 153-162.

Amjad, M.T. & Shameel, M. (1993). Two new species and two new reports of Ulva L. (Ulvophyceae) from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Science 2: 5-16, 5 figs, 11 tables.

Bast, F. (2015). Taxonomic reappraisal of Monostromataceae (Ulvophyceae: Chlorophyta) based on multi-locus phylogeny. Webbia: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography 70: 43-57, 7 figs.

Bast, F., John, A.A. & Bhushan, S. (2105). Cladophora goensis sp. nov. (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) – a bloom forming marine algae from Goa, India. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 44(12): 1874-1879.

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Boedecker, C., Leliaert, F., Timoshkin, O.A., Vishnyakov, V.S., Díaz-Martínez, S. & Zuccarello, G.C (2018). The endemic Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae) of ancient Lake Baikal represent a monophyletic group of very closely related but morphologically diverse species. Journal of Phycology 54(5): 616-629.

Boedeker, C., Leliaert, F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2016). Molecular phylogeny of the Cladophoraceae (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) with the resurrection of Acrocladus Nägeli and Willeella Børgesen, and the description of Lurbica gen. nov. and Pseudorhizoclonium gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 52(6): 905-928.

Boedeker, C., Leliaert, F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2017). Genetic diversity and biogeography in Chaetomorpha melagonium (Ulvophyceae, Cladophorales) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) sequences. Botanica Marina 60(3): 319-325.

Boedeker, C., O'Kelly, C.J., Star, W. & Leliaert, F. (2012). Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Aegagropila clade (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae), including the description of Aegagropilopsis gen. nov. and Pseudocladophora gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 48(3): 808-825.

Brooks, F., Rindi, F., Suto, Y., Ohtani, S. & Green, M. (2015). The Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae: Chlorophyta): an usual algal order and its novel plant pathogen, Cephaleuros. Plant Disease 99(6): 740-753.

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Chappell, D.F., O Kelly, C.J., Wilcox, L.W. & Floyd, G.L. (1990). Zoospore flagellar apparatus architecture and the taxonomic position of Phaeophila dendroides (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 29: 515-423.

Cocquyt, E., Verbruggen, H., Leliaert, F. & De Clerck, O. (2010). Evolution and cytological diversification of the green seaweeds (Ulvophyceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 2052.

Cremades, J., López Rodríguez, M.C. & I. Bárbara (1992). Halochlorococcum Dangeard (Chlorocystidaceae, Ulvophyceae), novedad para la Península Ibérica. Anales Jardín Botánico de Madrid 50(1): 109-110, 1 fig.

Cui, J., Monotilla, A.P., Zhu, W., Takano, Y., Shimada, S., Ichihara, K., Matsui, T., He, P., & Hiraoka, M. (2018). Taxonomic reassessment of Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on specimens from the type locality and Yellow Sea green tides. Phycologia 57(6): 692-704.

Darienko, T. & Pröschold, T. (2017). Toward a monograph of non-marine Ulvophyceae using an integrative approach (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae II.). Phytotaxa 324(1): 1-41, 23 figs.

Darienko, T., T.Friedl & T.Pröschold (2009). Desmochloris mollenhaueri - a new terrestrial ulvophycean alga from south-west African soils. (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae I.). Algol. Studies 129: 25-40, 7 fig., 1 table.

Doi, K., Kamiya, M., Hara, Y. and Chihara, M. (1993). Taxonomic studies on Ulva pertusa (Ulvophyceae). II. Preliminary isozyme analysis. Japanese Journal of Phycology 41: 199-206.

Fawley, M.W. & Lee, C.M. (1990). Pigment composition of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Micromonadophyceae) is similar to that of the siphonous green alga Bryopsis plumosa (Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 666-670.

Fawley, M.W., Douglas, C.A., Stewart, K.D. & Mattox, K.R. (1990). Light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of the Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta): characterization and phylogenetic significance. Journal of Phycology 26: 186-195, 4 figs, 4 tables.

Floyd, G.L. & O'Kelly, C.J. (1984). Motile cell ultrastructure and the circumscription of the orders Ulotrichales and Ulvales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). American Journal of Botany 71: 111-120.

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Galán-Cubero, A., Flor-Arnau, N., Ortiz-Lerín, R., Cambra-Sánchez, J. & Durán Lalaguna, C. (2009). Contribución al conocimiento de la ecología de Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) en la cuenca del río Ebro. Algas, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ficología 42: 9.

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Gauna, M.C., Parodi, E.R. & Cáceres, E.J. (2009). Epiphytic relationships of Pseudendoclonium submarinum Wille (Ulvophyceae) and Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (Rhodophyta) from the Patagonian coast of Argentina. Phycological Research 57(4): 313-322.

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Graham, J.M., Graham, L.E. & Kranzfelder, J.A. (1985). Light, temperature and photoperiod as factors controlling reproduction in Ulothrix zonata (Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology 21: 235-239, 4 figs, 2 tables.

Graham, J.M., Kranzfelder, J.A. & Auer, M.T. (1985). Light and temperature as factors regulating seasonal growth and distribution of Ulothrix zonata (Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology 21: 228-234, 4 figs, 4 tables.

Guo, Y., Wang, H.Z., Wu, C.H., Fu, H.H. & Jiang, P. (2017). Cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene in Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(5): 1035-1043.

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Hiraoka, M., Ichihara, K., Zhu, W., Shimada, S., Oka, N., Cui, J., Tsubaki, S. & He, P. (2017). Examination of species delimitation of ambiguous DNA-based Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) clades by culturing and hybridisation. Phycologia 56(5): 517-532.

Hiraoka, M., Obata, S. & Ohno, M. (1998). Pigment content of the reproductive cells of Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae): evidence of anisogamy. Phycologia 37: 222-226, 1 fig, 4 tables.

Hiraoka, M., shimada, S., Ohno, M. & Serisawa, Y. (2003). Asexual life history by quadriflagellate swarmers of Ulva spinulosa (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). Phycological Research 51(1): 29-34.

Hiraoka, M., Shimada, S., Uenosono, M. & Masuda, M. (2004). A new green-tide-forming alga, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka & Shimada sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) from Japan. Phycological Research 52: 17-29, 25 figs, 4 tables.

Huan Zhu, Zhijuan Zhao, Shuang Xia, Zhengyu Hu & Guoxiang Liu (2015). Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses of Phycopeltis spp. (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China. PLoS One 10(2): 1-19.

Ichihara, K., Arai, S., Uchimura, M., Fay, E.J., Ebata, H., Hiraoka, M. & Shimada, S. (2009). New species of freshwater Ulva, Ulva limnetica (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Phycological Research 57(2): 94-103.

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John, D.M. & Johnson, L.R. (1989). A cultural assessment of the freshwater species of Pseudendoclonium Wille (Ulotrichales, Ulvophyceae) Chlorophyta). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Suppl. 82 (Algological Studies) 54: 79-112.

Johnston, E.T., Conklin, K.Y., Fredrick, P. & Sherwood, A.R. (2018). Pyrosequencing and culturing of Hawaiian corticolous biofilms demonstrate high diversity and confirm phylogenetic placement of the green alga Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis in Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae). Phycologia 57(5): 572-580.

Kagami, Y., Mogi, Y., Arai, T., Yamamoto, M., Kuwano, K. & Kawano, S. (2008). Sexuality and uniparental inheritance of chloroplast DNA in the isogamous green alga Ulva compressa (Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 691-702.

Kamiya, M., Doi, K., Hara, Y. & Chihara, M. (1993). Taxonomic studies on Ulva pertusa (Ulvophyceae). I. Morphological study. Japanese Journal of Phycology 41: 191-198.

Kang, E.J., Kim, J.-H., Kim, K. & Kim, K.Y. (2016). Adaptations of a green tide forming Ulva linza (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) to selected salinity and nutrients conditions mimicking representative environments in the yellow Sea. Phycologia 55(2): 210-218.

Kawai, H., Shimada, S., Hanyuda, T., Suzuki, T. & Gomagori City Office (2007). Species diversity and seasonal changes of dominant Ulva species (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) in Mikawa Bay, Japan, deduced from ITS2 rDNA region sequences. Algae 22(3): 221-228, 5 figs, 1 table.

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Kim, D., Lee, J., Choi, J.W., Yang, J.H., Hwang, I.K. & Yoon, H.S. (2019). Flip-flop organization in the chloroplast genome of Capsosiphon fulvescens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 55(1): 214-223.

Kitayama, T. & Yoshida, T. (1992). First report of Phaeophila dendroides (P. Crouan et H. Crouan) Batters (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Phycology 40: 47-50.

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Kuwano, K., Abe, N., Nishi, Y., Seno, H., Nishihara, G.N., Iima, M. & Zachleder, V. (2014). Growth and cell cycle of Ulva compressa (Ulvophyceae) under LED illumination. Journal of Phycology 50(4): 744-752.

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Lemes-Da-Silva, N.M., López-Bautista, J.M. & Branco, L.H.Z. (2018). A new and cryptic species of Trentepohlia (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Brazilian mixed forests. Phycologia 57(4): 385-393.

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Leonardi, P.I., Cáceres, E.J. & Ballesteros, E. (2002). Ultrastructure and taxonomy of Sporocladopsis novae-zelandiae (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 45: 324-330.

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Liu, F., Melton, J.T.III & Bi, Y. (2017). Mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): novel insights into the evolution of mitogenomes in the Ulvophyceae. Journal of Phycology 53(5): 1010-1019.

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Monotilla, A.P., Nishimura, T., Adachi, M., Tanii, Y., Largo, D.B. & Hiraoka, M. (2018). Examination of prezygotic and postzygotic isolating barriers in tropical Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): evidence for ongoing speciation. Journal of Phycology 54(4): 539-549.

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Nielsen, R., Petersen, G., Seberg, O., Daugbjerg, N., O'Kelly, C.J. & Wysor, B. (2013). Revision of the genus Ulvella (Ulvellaceae, Ulvophyceae) based on morphology and tufA gene sequences of species in culture, with Acrochaete and Pringsheimiella placed in synonymy. Phycologia 52(1): 37-56.

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O'Kelly, C.J., Bellows, W.K. & Wysor, B. (2004). Phylogenetic position of Bolbocoleon piliferum (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): evidence from reproduction, zoospore and gamete ultrastructure, and small subunit rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 40: 209-222.

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O'Kelly, C.J., Kurihara, A., Shipley, T.C. & Sherwood, A.R. (2010). Molecular assessment of Ulva spp. (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Phycology 46(4): 728-735.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 May 2019.

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