153,567 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,365 bibliographic items, 410,823 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Class Florideophyceae

Florideophyceae Cronquist, 1960: 437.

Source: Kamiya, M., Lindstrom, S.C., Nakayama, T., Yokoyama, A., Lin, S.-M., Guiry, M.D., Gurgel, F.D.G., Huisman, J.M., Kitayama, T., Suzuki, M., Cho, T.O. & Frey, W. (2017). Rhodophyta. In: Syllabus of Plant Families, 13th ed. Part 2/2 Photoautotrophic eukaryotic Algae. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. [i]-xii, [1]-171. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Original publication: Cronquist, A. (1960). The divisions and classes of plants. The Botanical Review 26: 425-482.

Description:
Growth by means of apical cells and lateral initials forming branched filaments in which the cells are linked throughout by pit connections; life history fundamentally triphasic consisting of gametophytic, carposporophytic, and tetrasporophytic phases; reproductive cells (monosporangia, spermatangia, carposporangia, tetrasporangia) generally terminal or lateral on the filaments; carpogonia terminal or lateral, bearing an apical extension, the trichogyne, to which the spermatangia attach; carposporophyte developing directly from the carpogonium or its derivative.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adams, R. W. & Austin, A. (1979). Potential yields of Iridaea cordata (Florideophyceae) in natural and artificial populations in the Northeast Pacific. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 499-507.

Adams, R.W. & Austin, A. (1979). Potential yields of Iridaea cordata (Florideophyceae) in natural and artifical populations in the northeast Pacific. In: Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium. (Jensen, A. & Stein, J.R. Eds) Vol.9, pp. 499-507. Princeton: Science Press.

Afaq-Husain, S. & Shameel, M. (1998). Validity of Scinaia saifullahii (Florideophyceae). Pakistan Journal of Botany 30(2): 301-303, 4 figs.

Aigner, S., Holzinger, A., Karsten, U. & Kranner, I. (2017). The freshwater red alga Batrachospermum turfosum (Florideophyceae) can acclimate to a wide range of light and temperatue conditions. European Journal of Phycology 52(2): 238-249.

Anadón, R. & Fernández, C. (1988). Cartografía de la biomasa de campos intermareales de Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Florideophyceae) en la costa de Asturias (N. de España). Investigacion Pesquera 52: 265-276.

Andreakis, N., Costello, P., Zanolla, M., Saunders, G.W. & Mata, L. (2016). Endemic or introduced? Phylogeography of Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae) in Australia reveals multiple introductions and a new mitochondrial lineage (Note). Journal of Phycology 52(1): 141-147.

Boney, A.D. (1980). Post-attachment responses of monospores of some endophytic Audouinella spp. (Nemaliales: Florideophyceae). Nova Hedwigia 33: 499-507.

Braud, J.-P. & Perez, R. (1978). Farming on pilot scale of Eucheuma spinosum (Florideophyceae) in Djibouti waters. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 533-539.

Broadwater, S.T. & Scott, J.L. (1983). Fibrous vacuole associated organelles (FVAOs) in the Florideophyceae: a new interpretation of the 'appareil cinétique'. Phycologia 22: 225-233.

Clarkston, B.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2010). A comparison of two DNA barcode markers for species discrimination in the red algal family Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae), with a description of Euthora timburtonii sp. nov. Botany 88: 119-131.

Clayden, S.L. & Saunders, G.W. (2008). Resurrecting the genus Grania within the order Acrochaetiales (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 43: 151-162, 22 figs, 3 tables.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Alongi, G., Dinaro, R. & Pizzuto, F. (1992). On the occurrence in Sicily of three Florideophyceae new to the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 35: 447-449.

Cremades Ugarte, J., Bárbara Criado, I. & No Couto, E. (2007). Sobre la presencia del rodófito Plocamium raphelisianum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) en las costas meridionales europeas. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 64(1): 35-42.

Cremades, J., Barreiro, R., Maneiro, I. & Saunders, G.W. (2011). A new taxonomic interpretation of the type of Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) and its consequences. European Journal of Phycology 46(2): 125-142.

Cremades, J., Maneiro, I. & Barreiro, R. (2009). Consecuencias de la nueva interpretación taxonómica del tipo de Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae). Algas, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ficología 42: 5-6.

Croce, M.E. & Parodi, E.R. (2013). The turf-forming alga Gelidium crinale (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) on Atlantic Patagonian coasts. Botanica Marina 56(2): 131-141.

Dawes, C. J. (1979). Physiological and biochemical comparisons of Eucheuma spp. (Florideophyceae) yielding Iota-carrageenan. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 199-207.

DeBoer, J.A. (1978). Effects of nitrogen enrichment on growth rate and phycocolloid content in Gracilaria foliifera and Neoagardhiella baileyi (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 263-271.

Dixon, P.S. (1966). On the form of the thallus in the Florideophyceae. In: Trends in plant morphogenesis. (Cutter, E.G. Eds), pp. 45-63. London:

Dixon, P.S. (1971). Cell enlargement in relation to the development of thallus form in Florideophyceae. British Phycological Journal 6: 195-205.

Dixon, P.S. (1982). Life histories in the Florideophyceae with particular reference to the Nemaliales sensu lato. Botanica Marina 25: 611-621.

Donaldson, S.L., Chopin, T. & Saunders, G.W. (2000). An assessment of the AFLP method for investigating population structure in the red alga Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae). Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 25-35.

Enright, C.T. (1979). Competitive interaction between Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in Chondrus aquaculture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 209-218.

Evans, J.R. & Saunders, G.W. (2017). PCR fishing for red endophytes in British Columbia Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae) uncovers the species-rich Kallymenicola gen. nov. (Palmariales, Nemaliophycidae). Journal of Phycology 53(3): 577-588, 5 fig. 2 tables.

Fenical, W. & McConnell, O. J. (1979). Antibiotics and antiseptic compounds from the family Bonnemaisoniaceae (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 387-400.

Franklin, L.A., Kräbs, G. & Kuhlenkamp, R. (2001). Blue light and UV-A radiation control the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids in Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 257-270.

Franklin, L.A., Yakovleva, I., Karsten, U. & Lüning, K. (1999). Synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids in Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae) and the consequences for sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation. Journal of Phycology 35: 682-693, 9 figs, 2 tables.

Garbary, D.J., Hansen, G.I. & Scagel, R.F. (1983). The marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington: division Rhodophyta (red algae), class Florideophyceae, orders Acrochaetiales and Nemaliales. Syesis 15 (Suppl. 1): 1-102, 40 figs.

Grusz, A.L. & Freshwater, D.W. (2014). Studies of Costa Rican Gelidiales (Florideophyceae), II. Two Pacific taxa including Gelidium microglossum sp. nov.. Pacific Science 68(1): 97-110.

Guiry, M.D. (1978). Notes on some family names of Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Taxon 27: 191-195.

Guiry, M.D. (1978). The importance of sporangia in the classification of the Florideophyceae. In: Modern Approaches to the Taxonomy of Red and Brown Algae. (Irvine, D.E.G. & Price, J.H. Eds) Vol.10, pp. 111-144. London: Academic Press.

Guzmán del Próo, S.A & de la Campa de Guzmán, S. (1978). Gelidium robustum (Florideophyceae), an agarophyte of Baja California, Mexico. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 303-308.

Guzmán del Próo, S.A. & de la Campa de Guzmán, S. (1977). Gelidium robustum (Florideophyceae). An agarophyte of Baja California, Mexico. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 303-308.

Harlin, M.M., Thorne-Miller, B. & Thursby, G.B. (1978). Ammonium uptake by Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in closed system fish culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 285-292.

Harper, J.T. & Saunders, G.W. (2001). Molecular systematics of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) using nuclear large and small subunit rDNA sequence data. Journal of Phycology 37: 1073-1082.

Hu, Z.-M., Liu, R.-Y., Zhang, J., Duan, D.-L., Wang, G.-G. & Li, W.-H. (2018). A unique genetic lineage at the southern coast of China in the agar-producing Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Florideophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 33(3): 269-278.

Hughey, J. & Gabrielson, P.W. (2012). Comment on "Acquiring DNA sequence data from dried archival red algae (Florideophyceae) for the purpose of applying available names to contemporary genetic species: a critical assesssment". Botany 90: 1191-1194.

Hwang, I.-K. & Kim, H.-S. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 2. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae: Acrochaetiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales, Nemaliales. Nemalian red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-111, figs 1-66. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Hymes, B.J. & Cole, K.M. (1983). The cytology of Audouinella hermannii (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae). I. Vegetative and hair cells.. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 3366-3376.

Hymes, B.J. & Cole, K.M. (1983). The cytology of Audouinella hermannii (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae). II. Monosporogenesis. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 3377-3385.

Kapraun, D.F., Braly, K.S. & Freshwater, D.W. (2007). Nuclear DNA content variation in the freshwater red algal orders Batrachospermales and Thoreales (Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae). Phycologia 49: 54-62.

Karsten, U., Gors, S., Eggert, A. & West, J.A. (2007). Trehalose, digeneaside and floridoside in the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) - a reevaluation of its chemotaxonomic value. Phycologia 46: 143-150.

Kim, D.H. & Henríquez, N.P. (1978). Yields and gel strengths of agar from cystocarpic and tetrasporic plants of Gracilaria verrucosa (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 257-262.

Kim, H.-S. & Lee, I.K. (2012). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 5.Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae: Ceramiales: Ceramiaceae I (Non-corticate species). pp. [1-4], 1-152, figs 1-105. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kim, H.-S. (2012). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 6 Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae: Ceramiales: Ceramiaceae II (Corticated Species), Dasyaceae. pp. [1-4], 1-191, figs 1-132. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kosovel, V. & Talarico, L. (1979). Seasonal variations of photosynthetic pigments in Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss (Florideophyceae-Gigartinales). Bolletino Della Società Adriatica Di Scienze 63: 5-15.

Krayesky, D.M., Norris, J.N., Gabrielson, P.W., Gabriela, D. & Fredericq, S. (2009). A new order of red algae based on the Peyssonneliaceae, with an evaluation of the ordinal classification of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 122: 364-391.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders, G.W. (2007). A nuclear phylogeny of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) inferred from combined EF2, small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA: establishing the new red algal subclass Corallinophycidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1118-1130.

Mamoozadeh, N.R. & Freshwater, D.W. (2011). Taxonomic notes on Caribbean Neosiphonia and Polysiphonia (Ceramiales, Florideophyceae): five species from Florida, USA and Mexico. Botanica Marina 54(3): 269-292.

Mamoozadeh, N.R. & Freshwater, D.W. (2012). Polysiphonia sensu lato (Ceramiales, Florideophyceae) species of Caribbean Panama including Polysiphonia lobophoralis sp. nov. and Polysiphonia nuda sp. nov.. Botanica Marina 55(4): 317-347.

Mollion, J. (1978). Seasonal variations in carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis, (Florideophyceae) in Senegal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 233-240.

Mumford, T.F., Jr (1978). Field and laboratory experiments with Iridaea cordata (Florideophyceae) grown on nylon netting. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 515-523.

Murray, S.N. & Dixon, P.S. (1974). Environmental effects on thallus form in Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Int Seaweed Stmp Abs 8: A23.

Murray, S.N. & Dixon, P.S. (1981). Environmental effects on thallus form in Florideophyceae. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 125-130.

Nam, K.W. & Kang, P.J. (2012). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 7 Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae: Ceramiales: Delesseriaceae: 22 genera including Acrosorium. pp. [1-4], 1-129, figs 1-98. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Nam, K.W. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 3. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae: Laurencia, Chondrophycus, Palisada, Chondria. Marine red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-198, figs 1-141. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Newman, R.H. & Davidson, T.C. (2004). Crystalline forms and cross-sectional dimensions of cellulose microfibrils in the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 47: 490-495.

Ngan, Y. & Price, I.R. (1979). Systematic significance of spore size in the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 14: 285-303.

Ngan, Y. & Price, I.R. (1983). Periodicity of spore discharge in tropical Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 18: 83-95, 6 tables.

Pringle, J.D. (1978). Aspects of the ecological impact of Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae) harvesting in eastern Canada. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 225-232.

Pueschel, C.M., Saunders, G.W. & West, J.A. (2000). Affinities of the freshwater red alga Audouinella macrospora (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) and related forms based on SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis and pit plug ultrastructure. Journal of Phycology 36: 433-439.

Robbins, J. V. (1979). Effects of physical and chemical factors on photosynthetic and respiratory rates of Palmaria palmata (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 273-283.

Sansón, M., Reyes, J. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (1991). Contribution to the seaweed flora of the Canary Islands: new records of Florideophyceae. Botanica Marina 34: 527-536, 32 figs.

Saunders, G.W. & Lehmkuhl, K.V. (2005). Molecular divergence and morphological diversity among four cryptic species of Plocamium (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) in northern Europe. European Journal of Phycology 40: 293-312.

Saunders, G.W. & McDevit, D.C. (2012). Acquiring DNA sequence data from dried archival red algae (Florideophyceae) for the purpose of applying available names to contemporary genetic species: a critical assessment. Botany 90: 191-203.

Saunders, G.W. & McDonald, B. (2010). DNA barcoding reveals multiple overlooked Australian species of the red algal order Rhodymeniales (Florideophyceae), with resurrection of Halopeltis J. Agardh and description of Pseudohalopeltis gen. nov. Botany 88: 639-667, 73 figs.

Saunders, G.W. & Necchi, O., Jr (2002). Nuclear rDNA sequences from Ballia prieurii support recognition of Balliopsis gen. nov. in the Batrachospermales (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 41(1): 61-67.

Saunders, G.W. (2004). A chronicle of the convoluted systematics of the red algal orders Palmariales and Rhodymeniales (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). CEMAR Occasional Notes in Phycology 1: 1-16.

Saunders, G.W., Filloramo, G., Dixon, K., Le Gall, L., Maggs, C.A. & Kraft, G.T. (2016). Multigene analyses resolve early diverging lineages in the Rhodymeniophycidae (Florideophyceae, Rhodphyta). Journal of Phycology 52(4): 505-522.

Saunders, R. G. & Lindsay, J. G. (1979). Growth and enhancement of the agarophyte Gracilaria (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 249-255.

Saunders, R.G. & Lindsay, J.G. (1979). Growth and enhancement of the agarophyte Gracilaria (Florideophyceae). In: Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium. (Jensen, A. & Stein, J.R. Eds) Vol.9, pp. 249-255. Princeton: Science Press.

Scott, J., Bosco, C., Schornstein, K. & Thomas, J. (1980). Ultrastructure of cell division and reproductive differentiation of male plants in the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta): cell division in Polysiphonia. Journal of Phycology 16: 507-524, 45 figs.

Scott, J.L. & Thomas, J.P. (1975). Electron microscope observations of telophase II in the Florideophyceae. Journal of Phycology 11: 474-476.

Shim, J., Shim, E., Kim, G.H., Han, J.W. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2016). Keeping house: evaluation of housekeeping genes for real-time PCR in the red alga, Bostrychia moritziana (Florideophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 167-174.

Simioni, C., Rover, T., Schmidt, E.C., de L. Felix, M.R., Polo, L.K., d. Santos, R., Costa, G.B., Kreusch, M., Pereira, D.T., Ouriques, L.C. & Bouzon, Z.L. (2014). Effects of brefeldin A on the endomembrane system and germ tube formation of the tetraspore of Gelidium floridianum (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae). Journal of Phycology 50(3): 577-586.

Simons, R.H. & Hewitt, F.E. (1977). Marine algae from southern Africa 2. Morphology and taxonomy of five foliaceous Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Republic of South Africa, Department of Industries, Sea Fisheries Branch, Investigational Report 110: (iv +) 46, 38 figs.

Simpson, F.J., Shacklock, P., Robson, D. & Neish, A.C. (1978). Factors affecting cultivation of Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 509-513.

Stuercke, B. & Freshwater, D.W. (2008). Consistency of morphological characters used to delimit Polysiphonia sensu lato species (Ceramiales, Florideophyceae): analyses of North Carolina, USA specimens. Phycologia 47: 541-559.

Stuerke, B. & Freshwater ,D. W. (2010). Two new species of Polysiphonia (Ceramiales, Florideophyceae) from the western Atlantic. Botanica Marina 53(4): 301-311.

Talarico, L. & Kosovel, V. (1980). Qualitative interpretation of the absorption spectra of total biliproteic extracts from some Rhodophyta (Florideophyceae). Bollettino Della Società Adriatica Di Scienze 64: 85-97.

Talarico, L. & Kosovel, V. (1982). Spectral analysis of the biliproteins from Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae). Photosynthetica 16: 184-190.

Tittley, I., Honey, S.I. & David, J. (1985). Catalogue of type specimens and geographical index to the collections of Rhodophyta (red algae) at the British Museum (Natural History) Part 2. Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (orders Hildenbrandiales, Nemiales, Palmariales, Rhodymeniales). : .

Umezaki, I. (1977). Life histories in the Florideophyceae and their evolution. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 28: 1-18.

Umezaki, I. (1989). Life history types of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) and their evolution. Publ. Seto Ma.r Biol. Lab. 34: 1-24.

Waaland, J. R. (1979). Growth and strain selection in Gigartina exasperata (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 241-247.

Waaland, J.R. (1978). Growth and strain selection in Gigartina exasperata (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 241-248.

West, J.A., Scott, J.L, West, K.A., Karsten, U., Clayden, S.L. & Saunders, G.L. (2008). Rhodachlya madagascarensis gen. et sp. nov.: a distinct acrochaetioid represents a new order and family (Rhodachlyales ord. nov., Rhodachlyaceae fam. nov.) of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 47: 203-212.

Whyte, J. N. C. & Englar, J. R. (1979). Chemical composition of natural and cultures Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 437-443.

Whyte, J.N.C. & Englar, J.R. (1979). Chemical composition of natural and cultured Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae). In: Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium. (Jensen, A. & Stein, J.R. Eds) Vol.9, pp. 437-443. Princeton: Science Press.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIA - Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales and Gigartinales sensu lato). pp. 1-508, 167 figs, 4 pls, 4 maps. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Zanolla, M., Altamirano, M., Carmona, R., De la Rosa, J., Souza-Egipsy, V., Sherwood, A., Tsiamis, K., Barbosa, A.M., Muñoz, A.R. & Andreakis, N. (2018). Assessing global range expansion in a cryptic species complex: insights from the red seaweed genus Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae). Journal of Phycology 54(1): 12-24.

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Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 13 November 2018.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:4364

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