154,234 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,059 images, 59,696 bibliographic items, 415,636 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Trentepohliales

Trentepohliales Chadefaud ex R.H.Thompson & D.E.Wujek, 1997: 2 (footnote).

Type of name: Trentepohlia aurea

Source: Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Original publication: Thompson, R.H. & Wujek, D.E. (1997). Trentepohliales: Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [i-vii] viii-x, [1]-149, 60 pls. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.

Authority notes: TRENTEPOHLIALES Chadefaud ex R.H. Thompson & D.E. Wujek

Order of terrestrial green algae widely distributed in humid environments and found on a large variety of aerial substrata (rocks, tree bark, leaves, twigs, fruits, soil, woodwork, concrete, metal, plastics). Some members of the order are endophytic (and possibly parasitic), growing under the cuticle or in the mesophyll of the leaves of vascular plants. Such forms belong to the genera Cephaleuros and Stomatochroon and, when their growth is profuse, may cause substantial harm to the plants colonized; this is a common situation in tropical and subtropical regions, where these algae can damage economically important crops (e. g., tea, coffee, citrus). Reports of epizoic forms are also known, e. g., Trentepohlia abietina growing on spiders in Queensland, Australia ; molecular studies based on cloning and sequencing of the SSU rDNA gene also indicate that Trentepohliales are well represented in the microbial community growing in the fur of sloths (Bradypus spp.). Some Trentepohliales represent the photobionts in several species of lichens, particularly tropical lichens. In humid tropical environments species of this order (mainly of Phycopeltis and Trentepohlia) are the most common lichen phycobionts and it is now known that these associations have developed multiple times independently in several lineages of Trentepohliales. The morphological habit is filamentous. The thallus consists of uniseriate filaments that are sparsely to profusely branched, with a habit that differs among genera. In many species of the genus Trentepohlia the filaments remain free and the thallus is a small tuft formed by numerous separate filaments arising from a common basal portion. In other members of the order, the filaments are intertwined to form irregular crust-like or pseudoparenchymatous aggregates (Printzina, some species of Trentepohlia), or coalesce producing discs of variable shape and thickness (Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis). In Stomatochroon, the thallus is either a single, large lobed anchoring cell or a system of branched filaments growing in the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll. Sexual reproduction takes place by isogamy of biflagellate gametes released from gametangia of variable shape. In most Trentepohliales, the gametangium is a specialized structure morphologically distinct from vegetative cells, and ranges in shape from globular to ovoid or flask-shaped. In the genus Phycopeltis, the gametangium derives from a vegetative cell whose contents divide producing gametes, which are then released through an ostiole formed on the dorsal side. Asexual reproduction takes place by quadriflagellate zoospores that are produced in a globular or ovoid zoosporangium. The zoosporangium is borne on a flask-shaped cell with a retorted neck, called suffultory cell). The zoosporangium and the subtending suffultory cell form the sporangiate lateral, a reproductive structure typical of this order. In some species, the sporangiate lateral is borne at the top of a specialized branch called sporangiophore; the number and shape of the cells forming the sporangiophore differ among species. When the zoospores are mature, the connection between the zoosporangium and the suffultory cell weakens and eventually the zoosporangium is shed. The zoosporangium is then dispersed by wind, rain or animals; when it reaches a suitable substratum, the zoospores are released through an ostiole. The position of the ostiole relative to the attachment of the zoosporangium (i. e., opposite to it or in proximity of it) is considered an important systematic character useful for separation at the genus level. The life history of the Trentepohliales consists of an alternation of generations, either isomorphic or heteromorphic, for which the details differ among genera. The cells are uninucleate, surrounded by a cellulosic cell wall; in some species, a lamellate cap formed by pectic substances is borne on the apical cells. In some species of Trentepohlia the cell wall may become very thick and conspicuously roughened, due to the presence of fine strands of wall material which are deposited with helical pattern (Cribb 1970). Trentepohliales are usually orange, yellow or red in colour, due to the presence of ?-carotene and other carotenoid pigments (i. e. astaxanthin), which are accumulated in the cytoplasm as extraplastidial globules. These colours are more intense in specimens growing in sun-exposed habitats, where the algae are subjected to high irradiance and carotenoids are accumulated in large amounts. The chloroplasts are parietal plates, discoidal, lobed or ribbon-like in shape; their size is variable and pyrenoids are absent. The number of chloroplasts varies in different cells (sometimes even within the same thallus) and their green colour is usually obscured by the carotenoid pigments. Plasmodesmata occur between adjacent vegetative cells derived from the division of a mother cell. In terms of ultrastructure, the Trentepohliales are characterized by multilayered structure (MLS) in the flagellar root system of the gametes and zoospores and a cytokinesis that involves the formation of a phragmoplast similar to that of land plants. The flagellate cells are dorsiventrally compressed, with either two or four flagella and four microtubular roots in a cruciate arrangement. The basal bodies have an 11 o’clock-5 o’clock (or counter-clockwise) configuration, and overlap each other quite distinctly. Because the flagellate cells are strongly compressed dorsiventrally, the microtubular roots are appressed to the basal bodies, and each flagellum bears bilateral wing-like structures. Sporopollenin has been reported as a major component of the cell wall in some members of the order.

Key References
Nelsen, M.P., Plata. E.R., Andrew, C.J., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H.T. (2011). Phylogenetic diversity of trentepohlialean algae associated with lichen-forming fungi. Journal of Phycology 47(2): 282-290.

Zhu, H., Hu, Z.Y. & Liu, G.X. (2017). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Trentepohiales (Chlorophyta) from China. European Journal of Phycology 52(3): 330-341.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Bicudo, C.E.M. & Santos, C.I. (2001). Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 15: Chlorophyceae (Trentepohliales). Hoehnea 28(3): 183-190, 13 fig.

Brooks, F., Rindi, F., Suto, Y., Ohtani, S. & Green, M. (2015). The Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae: Chlorophyta): an usual algal order and its novel plant pathogen, Cephaleuros. Plant Disease 99(6): 740-753.

Harmaja, H. (2011). Printzina lagenifera coll. (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) epiphyllous in a boreal forest. Ann. Bot. Fennici 48: 129-132.

Huan Zhu, Zhijuan Zhao, Shuang Xia, Zhengyu Hu & Guoxiang Liu (2015). Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses of Phycopeltis spp. (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China. PLoS One 10(2): 1-19.

John, D.M. (2002). Order Trentepohliales. In: The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 475-479. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

López-Bautista, J.L., Rindi, F. & Guiry, M.D. (2006). Molecular systematics of the subaerial green algal order Trentepohliales: an assessment based on morphological and molecular data. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56: 1709-1715.

López-Bautista, J.M. & Chapman, R.L. (2003). Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Joutnal of Systematics and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099-2106.

López-Bautista, J.M., Debra A. Waters, D.A. & Chapman, R.L. (2002). The Trentepohliales revisited. Constancea 83(1): 1-23.

López-Bautista, J.M., Kapraun, D.F. & Chapman, R.L. (2006). Nuclear DNA content estimates in the Trentepohliales (Chlorophyta): phylogenetic considerations . Algological Studies 120: 41-50.

Neustupa, J. (2003). The genus Phycopeltis (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) from tropical Southeast Asia. Nova Hedwigia 76(3-4): 487-505.

Neustupa, J. (2015). Organisation type "Green Algae" (Introduction); Clhorophyta, Steptophyta p.p. (except Ulvophyceae, Charophyceae, incl. Trentepohliales. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. [190]-247. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Rindi F., Guiry, M.D., Critchley, A.T. & Ar Gall, E (2003). The distribution of some species of Trentepohliaceae (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) in France. Cryptogamie, Algologie 21: 133-144.

Rindi, F. & Guiry, M.D. (2002). Diversity, life history and ecology of Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) in urban habitats in western Ireland. Journal of Phycology 38: 39-54.

Rindi, F. & López-Bautista, J.M. (2008). Diversity and ecology of Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in French Guiana. Cryptogamie, Algologie 29(1): 13-43.

Rindi, F. & López-Bautista, J.M. (2007). New and interesting records of Trentepohlia (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) from French Guiana, including the description of two new species. Phycologia 46: 698-708.

Rindi, F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Trentepohliales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 570-574. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rindi, F., Guiry, M.D. & López-Bautista, J.M. (2006). New records of Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Africa. Nova Hedwigia 83: 431-449.

Rindi, F., Lam, D.W. & López-Bautista, J.M. (2008). Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Panama. Nova Hedwigia 87(3-4): 421-444.

Rindi, F., Sherwood, A.R. & Guiry, M.D. (2005). Taxonomy and distribution of Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands. Phycologia 44: 270-284, 43 figs, 1 Table.

Starmach, K. (1972). Chlorophyta III. Zielenice nitkowate: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Prasiolales, Sphaeropleales, Cladophorales, Trentepohliales, Sipholales, Dichotomosiphonales. In: Flora slodkowodna Polski. Volume 10. (Starmach, K. & Sieminska, J. Eds), pp. 1-750. Warszawa & Krakow: Panstwowe Wyadwnictwo Naukowe.

Thompson, R.H. & Wujek, D.E. (1997). Trentepohliales: Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [i-vii] viii-x, [1]-149, 60 pls. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.

Tracanna, B.C. (1988). Trentepohliales (Chlorophyta). El género Trentepohlia Martius para las provincias de Salta y Tucumán (Argentina) I. Lilloa 37: 47-59, 6 pls.

Zhu, H., Zhao, Z.-J. , Xia, S., Hu, Z.-Y. & Liu, G.-X. (2014). Morphology and phylogenetic position of Stomatochroon reniformis var. chinensis var. nov. (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae), a rare endobiotic alga from China. Phycologia 53(5): 493-501.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 January 2019.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:4529

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