155,876 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,968 images, 60,249 bibliographic items, 439,627 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Ectocarpales

Ectocarpales Bessey, 1907: 288.

Type of name: Ectocarpaceae C.Agardh, 1828

Source: Silberfeld, T., Racault, M.-F.L.P., Fletcher, R.L., Couloux, A., Rousseau, F. & De Reviers, B. (2011). Systematics and evolutionary history of pyrenoid-bearing taxa in brown algae (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 46(4): 361-377.

Original publication: Bessey, C.E. (1907). A synopsis of plant phyla. University Studies of the University of Nebraska 7: 275-373, 1 pl.

Gametophyte and sporophyte uniseriate filaments (branched or unbranched), with diffuse growth; one or more ribbon-shaped plastids with pyrenoid; isomorphic life-history; isogamous, anisogamous or öogamous sexual reproduction. Emend. F. Rousseau & Reviers, 1999 (Silberfeld et al., 2014).

Nomenclatural notes:

Emend. F. Rousseau & Reviers, 1999 (Silbefeld et al. 2014)

Taxonomic notes:

Incl. Chordariales Setchell & N.L. Gardner (1925), Dictyosiphonales Setchell & N.L. Gardner (1925), Scytosiphonales Feldmann (1949) (Silberfeld et al., 2014).

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aisha, K. & Shameel, M. (2011). Taxonomic study of the order Ectocarpales (Phaeophycota) from the coastal waters of Pakistan. International Journal on Algae 13: 128-148.

Ajisaka, T., Kim, S.-H., Uwai, S. & Kawai, H. (2007). Cladosiphon umezakii sp. nov. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) from Japan. Phycological Research 55(3): 193-202.

Asensi, A. (1974). Observaciones sobre la citologia y morfogenesis de los esporocistos anormales de Ectocarpus dimorphus Silva (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales) . Physis Secciones A 33: 139-147.

Asensi, A.O. (1973). Sorocarpus, un nuevo genero de alga parda para la Argentina (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales). Physis 32: 311-316.

Balakrishnan, M.S. & Kinkar, V.N. (1981). A taxonomic account of Indian Ectocarpales and Ralfsiales. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 4(2): 1-57, 135 figs.

Begum, M. & Khatoon, N. (1992). Contribution to the taxonomy of the Ectocarpales (Phaeophyceae) from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 108: 239-252, 8 figs.

Berecibar, E., Wynne, M.J. & Santos, R. (2009). Report of the brown alga Zosterocarpus oedogonium (Ectocarpales) from Portugal, its first recorded occurrence outside of the Mediterranean Sea. Nova Hedwigia 89: 237-244.

Bernard, M.S., Strittmatter, M., Murúa, P., Heesch, S., Cho, G.Y., Leblanc, C. & Peters, A.F. (2019). Diversity, biogeography and host specificity of kelp endophytes with a focus on the genera Laminarionema an Laminariocolax (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 54(1): 39-51.

Bolton, J.J. (1979). The taxonomy of Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales) in the British Isles, a numerical approach. British Phycological Journal 14: 317-325, 4 figs, 1 table.

Burkhardt, E. & Peters, A.F. (1998). Molecular evidence from nrDNA its sequences that Laminariocolax (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales sensu lato) is a worldwide clade of closely related kelp endophytes. Journal of Phycology 34: 682-691, 9 figs, 5 tables.

Cho, G.Y. & Boo, S.M. (2006). Phylogenetic position of Petrospongium rugosum (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae): insights from the protein-coding plastid rbcL and psaA gene sequences. Cryptogamie, Algologie 27: 3-15.

Cho, G.Y. & Boo, S.M. (2009). First record of Cladosiphon umezaki (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Korea. Algae 24(2): 79-83, 8 figs.

Clayton, M.N. (1974). Studies on the development, life history and taxonomy of Ectocarpales (Phaeophyta) in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 22: 743-813.

Clayton, M.N. (1982). Life history studies in the Ectocarpales (Phaeophyta): contributions toward the understanding of evolutionary processes. Botanica Marina 25: 111-116.

Coppejans, E. (1983). Spongonema tomentosum (Huds.) Kütz. (phaeophyta, Ectocarpales), nouveau pour la flore du Boulonnais (Pas-de-Calais, France). Dumortiera 27: 1-5.

Dangeard, P.J.L. (1970). Réflexions sur quelqus Ectocarpales nées en culture et particuliérement sur les Streblonema. Botaniste 53: 23-61, 12 tables.

Dixon, N.M., Leadbeater, B.S.C. & Wood, K.R. (2000). Frequency of viral infection in a field population of Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 39: 258-263.

Fiore, J. (1977). Life history and taxonomy of Stictyosiphon subsimplex Holden (Phaeophyta, Dictyosiphonales) and Farlowiella onusta (Kuetzing) Kornmann in Kuckuck (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 16: 301-311.

Fletcher, R.L. (1977). Life history and taxonomy of Stictyosiphon subsimplex Holden (Phaeophyta, Dictyosiphonles) and Farlowiella onusta (Kützing) Kornmann in Kuckuck (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 16: 301-311.

Fletcher, R.L. (1984). Observations on the life history of the brown alga Hecatonema maculans (Ectocarpales, Myrionemataceae) in laboratory culture. British Phycological Journal 19: 193.

Geoffroy, A., Mauger, S., De Jode, A., Le Gall, L. & Destombe, C. (2015). Molecular evidence for the coexistence of two sibling species in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) along the Brittany coast. Journal of Phycology 51(3): 480-489.

Giani, M., Sartoni, G., Nuccio, C., Berto, D., Ferrari, C.R., Najdek, M., Sist, P. & Urbani, R. (2016). Organic aggregates formed by benthopleustophyte brown alga Acinetospora crinita (Acinetosporaceae, Ectocarpales). Journal of Phycology 52(4): 550-563.

Hamel, G. (1939). Sur la classification des Ectocarpales. Botaniska Notiser 1939: 65-70.

Hanyuda, T., Takeuchi, K. & Kawai, H. (2019). Tinocladia sanrikuensis sp. nov. (Ectocarpales s.l., Phaeophyceae) from Japan. Phycological Research 67(3): [1-7], 3 figs, 1 table.

Hoshino, M., Ishikawa, S. & Kogame, K. (2018). Concordance between DNA-based species boundaries and reproductive isolating barriers in the Scytosiphon lomentaria species complex (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycology 57(2): 232-242.

Hoshino, M., Okino, T. & Kogame, K. (2019). Parthenogenetic female populations in the brown alga Scytosiphon lomentaria (Scytosiphonaceae, Ectocarpales): decay of a sexual trait and acquisition of sexual traits . Journal of Phycology 55(1): 204-213.

Katsaros, C., Kreimer, G. & Melkonian, M. (1991). Localization of tubulin and a centrin-homologue in vegetative cells and developing gametangia of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb. (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) - A combined immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscope study. Bot Acta 104(2): 87-92.

Kawai, H. & Tokuyama, M. (1995). Laminarionema elsbetiae gen. et sp. nov. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae), a new endophyte in Laminaria sporophytes. Phycological Research 43: 185-190.

Kawai, H., Hanyuda, T., Kim, S.-H., Ichikawa, Y., Uwai, S. & Peters, A.F. (2016). Cladosiphon takenoensis sp. nov. (Ectocarpales s.l., Phaeophyceae) from Japan. Phycological Research 64: 212-218, 5 figs.

Kim, H.-S. & Boo, S.-M. (2010). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 2, Number 1. Heterokontophyta: Phaeophyceae: Ectocarpales. Marine brown algae I. pp. [1-6], 1-195, figs 1-19. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kim, S.-H, Peters, A.F. & Kawai, H. (2003). Taxonomic revision of Sphaerotrichia divaricata (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae), with a reappraisal of S. firma from the north-west Pacific. Phycologia 42(2): 183-192, 9 figs, 3 tables.

Klochkova, T.A., Klochkova, N.G., Belij, M.N., Kim, H.-S. & Kim, G.H. (2012). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Chordaria okhotskensis sp. nov. (ectocarpales, phaeophyceae) from the Sea of Okhotsk. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(1): 3-20.

Knoepffler-Peguy, M. (1970). Quelques Feldmannia Hamel, 1939 (Phaeophyceae-Ectocarpales) des côtes d'Europe. Vie Milieu Ser. A, 21: 137-188.

Knoepffler-Peguy, M. (1973). Étude experimentale du polymorphisme chez quelques Ectocarpales) Feldmannia et Acinetospora). I. Methodes d'etude experimentale. Vie Milieu Ser. A, 23(2): 171-189.

Knoepffler-Peguy, M. (1974). Le genre Acinetospora Bornet 1891 (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Vie et Milieu 24: 43-72.

Kornmann, P. (1990). Pilayella macrocarpa Foslie (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Helgoland and the rejection of Pilayella varia Kjellman. Botanica Marina 33: 257-259.

Krishnamurthy, V. & Baluswami, M. (2010). Phaeophyceae of India and neighbourhood Volume I Ectocarpales, Sphacelariales, Dictyotales, Chordariales and Scytosiphonales. pp. [2], i-iv, 1-193, 308 figs, pls I-VI. Chennai: Krishnamurthy Institute of Algology.

Le Bail, A., Billoud, B., Maisonneuve, C., Peters, A.F., Cock, J.M. & Charrier, B. (2008). Early development pattern of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophceae) sporophyte. Journal of Phycology 44: 1269-1281.

Lee, K.M., Boo, S.M., Kain (Jones), J.M. & Sherwood, A.R. (2013). Cryptic diversity and biogeography of the widespread brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 56(1): 15-25.

Luan Rixiao, Ding Lanping, Lu Baoren & Tseng, C.K. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus III Phaeophyta No. I(1) Ectocarpales Ralfsiales Sphaceariales Dictyotales. pp. [i]-xxii, 1-195, pls I-XXII. Beijing: Science Press. [in Chinese]

Magne, F. (1976). Quelques caractères cytologiques particuliers du Bachelotia antillarum (Phéophycées, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 15: 309-319.

Magne, F. (1976). Quelques caractères cytologiques particuliers du Bachelotia antillarum (Phéophycées, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 15(3/4): 309-319. [in French, English abstract]

Maier, I. (1997). The fine structure of the male gamete of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). I. General structure of the cell. European Journal of Phycology 32: 241-253, 39 figs.

Maier, I. (1997). The fine structure of the male gamete of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). II. The flagellar apparatus. European Journal of Phycology 32: 255-266, 66 figs.

Maier, I., Rometsch, E., Wolf, S., Kapp, M. & Müller, D.G. (1997). Passage of a marine brown algal DNA virus from Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) to Myriotrichia clavaeformis (dictyosiphonales, Phaeophyceae): infection symptoms and recovery. Journal of Phycology 33: 838-844, 19 figs.

Maier, I., Wolf, S., Delaroque, N., Müller, D.G. & Kawai, H. (1998). A DNA virus infecting the marine brown alga Pilayella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in culture. European Journal of Phycology 33: 213-220, 23 figs.

Matsumoto, K., Ichihara, K. & Shimada, S. (2014). Taxonomic reinvestigation of Petalonia (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) in southeast of Honshu, Japan, with a description of Petalonia tenuis sp. nov.. Phycologia 53(2): 127-136.

McKamey, K.A. & Amsler, C.D. (2006). Effects of temperature and light on growth of the Antractic algae Geminocarpus geminatus (Ectocarpales: Phaeophyceae) and Cladophora repens (Cladophorales: Cladophorophyceae) in culture. Phycologia 45: 225-232.

Montecinos, A.E., Couceiro, L., Peters, A.F., Desrut, A., Valero, M. & Guillemin, M.L. (2017). Species delimitation and phylogeographic analyses in the Ectocarpus subgroup siliculosi (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 17-31.

Müller, D.G. & Eichenberger, W. (1995). Note: Crossing experiments, lipid composition, and the species concept in Ectocarpus siliculosus and E. fasciculatus (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Journal of Phycology 31: 173-176, 5 figs, 1 table.

Müller, D.G. & Eichenberger, W. (1997). Mendelian genetics in brown algae: inheritance of a lipid defect mutation and sex alleles in Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 36: 79-81, 1 fig.

Müller, D.G. & Kawai, H. (1991). Sexual reproduction of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Japan. Japanese Journal of Phycology 39: 151-155.

Müller, D.G. & Parodi, E. (1994). Asteronema rhodochortonoides nov. comb. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) - a newly recognized taxon with stellate chloroplast arrangement. Phycologia 33: 471-474, 11 figs, 1 table.

Müller, D.G. & Schmid, C.E. (1996). Intergeneric infection and persistence of Ectocarpus virus DNA in Kuckuckia (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Botanica Marina 39: 401-405.

Müller, D.G. & Stache, B. (1989). Life history studies on Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjellman (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) of different geographical origin. Botanica Marina 32: 71-78.

Müller, D.G. (1969). Anisogamy in Giffordia (Ectocarpales). Naturwissenschaften 56: 220.

Müller, D.G. (1972). Life cycle of the brown alga Ectocarpus fasciculatus var. refractus (Kütz.) Ardis. (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) in culture. Phycologia 11: 11-14, 1 fig.

Müller, D.G. (1986). Apomeiosis in Acinetospora (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 40: 219-224.

Müller, D.G., Bräutigam, M. & Knippers, R. (1996). Virus infection and persistence of foreign DNA in the marine brown alga Feldmannia simplex (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 35: 61-63, 6 figs.

Müller, D.G., Westermeier, R., Morales, J., Garcia Reina, G., del Campo, E., Correa, J.A. & Rometsch, E. (2000). Massive prevalence of viral DNA in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) from two habitats in the North Atlantic and South Pacific. Botanica Marina 43: 157-159, 2 figs.

Ogandaga, C.A.M., Choi, H.G., Kim, J.K. & Nam, K.W. (2016). Growth responses of Chondrus ocellatus Holmes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) to two endophytes, Mikrosyphar zosterae Kuckuck (Ectocarpales, Ochrophyta) and Ulvella ramosa (N.L. Gardner) R. Nielsen (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in culture. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(4): 363-371.

Oliveira, L. & Bisalputra, T. (1977). Ultrastructural and cytological studies on the nature and origin of the cytoplasmic inclusions of aging cells of Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 16: 235-243.

Oliveira, L. & Bisalputra, T. (1978). A virus infection in the brown alga Sorocarpus uvaeformis (Lyngbye) Pringsheim (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales). Annals of Botany 42: 439-445.

Ouriques, L.C. & Bouzon, Z.L. (2000). Stellate chloroplast organization in Asteronema breviarticulatum comb. nov. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyta). Phycologia 39: 267-271.

Parodi, E.R. & Müller, D.G. (1994). Field and culture studies on virus infections in Hincksia hincksiae and Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 29: 113-117, 17 figs.

Pedersen, P.M. (1977). Polytretus reinboldii, a rare brown alga in culture (Ectocarpales, Sorocarpaceae fam. nov.). Botaniska Notiser 130: 35-40.

Pedersen, P.M. (1978). The brown algal order Dictyosiphonales, position, status and possible relations to the Ectocarpales. British Phycological Journal 13: 204.

Pedersen, P.M. (1979). Culture studies on marine algae from West Greenland IV. Giffordia ovata (Fucophyceae, Ectocarpales). Botanisk Tidsskrift 74: 57-65.

Peters, A. F. & Schaffelke, B. (1996). Streblonema (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) infection in the kelp Laminaria saccharina (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in the western Baltic. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 111-116.

Peters, A.F. & Burkhardt, E. (1998). Systematic position of the kelp endophyte Laminarionema elsbetiae (Ectocarpales sensu lato, Phaeophyceae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Phycologia 37: 114-120, 4 figs, 4 tables.

Peters, A.F. & Ellertsdóttir, E. (1996). New records of the kelp endophyte Laminariocolax elsbethiae (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) at Helgoland and its life history in culture. Nova Hedwigia 62: 341-349.

Peters, A.F. & Schaffelke, B. (1996). Streblonema (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) infection in the kelp Laminaria saccharina (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in the western Baltic. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 111-116, 2 figs, 2 tables.

Peters, A.F., Couceiro, L., Tsiamis, K., Küpper, F.C. & Valero, M. (2015). Barcoding of cryptic stages of marine brown algae isolated from incubated substratum reveals high diversity in Acinetosporaceae (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Cryptogamie Algologie 36(1): 3-29.

Peters, A.F., Marie, D., Scornet, D., Kloareg, B. & Cock, J.M. (2004). Proposal of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) as a model organism for brown algal genetics and genomics. Journal of Phycology 40: 1079-1088.

Peters, A.F., Van Wijk, S.J., Scornet, D., Kawai, H., Schroeder, D.S., Cock, J.M. & Boo, S.M. (2010). Reinstatement of Ectocarpus crouaniorum Thuret in Le Jolis as a third common species of Ectocarpus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Western Europe, and its phenology at Roscoff, Brittany. Phycological Research 58(3): 157-170.

Ponce, N.M.A., Leonardi, P.I., Flores, M.L., Stortz, C.A. & Rodriguez, M. (2007). Polysaccharide localization in the sporophyte cell wall of Adenocystis utricularis (Ectocarpales s.l., Phaeophyceae) . Phycologia 46(6): 675-679.

Poza, A.M., Gauna, M.C., Escobar, J. F. & Parodi, E.R. (2017). Heteromorphic phases of Leathesia marina (Ectocarpales, Ochrophyta) over time from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Phycologia 56(5): 579-589.

Russell, G. (1962). An aceto-carmine staining technique for the Ectocarpales. Nature, London 193(4813): 396.

Sáez, C.A., Ramesh, K., Greco, M., Bitonti, M.B. & Brown, M.T. (2015). Enzymatic antioxidant defences are transcriptionally regulated in Es524, a copper-tolerant strain of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 54(4): 425-429.

Sanson, M., Martin, M.J. & Reyes, J. (2006). Vegetative and reproductive morphology of Cladosiphon contortus, C. occidentalis and C. cymodoceae sp. nov. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) from the Canary Islands. Phycologia 45: 529-545.

Sears, J.R. & Wilce, R.T. (1973). Sublittoral benthic marine algae of southern Cape Cod and adjacent islands: Pseudolithoderma paradoxum sp. nov. (Ralfsiaceae, Ectocarpales). Phycologia 12: 75-82.

Shanab, S. & Abdel-Rahman, M.H. (1988). Action de la photopériode et de la température sur la ramification chez Bachelotia antillarum (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Cryptogamie, Algologie 9: 183-193.

Siemer, B.L., Stam, W.T., Olsen, J.L. & Pedersen, P.M. (1998). Phylogenetic relationships of the brown algal orders Ectocarpales, Chordariales, Dictyosiphonales, and Tilopteridales (Phaeophyceae) based on Rubisco large subunit and spacer sequences. Journal of Phycology 34: 1038-1048, 8 figs, 5 tables.

Sophiammal Nettar, P. & Panikkar, M.V.N. (2009). Two new brown algal species from the Family Ralfsiaceae (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) from Kerala, India. Seaweed Research and Utilization 31(1 & 2): 7-10.

Stache-Crain, B., Müller, D.G. & Goff, L.J. (1997). Molecular systematics of Ectocarpus and Kuckuckia (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of nuclear- and plastid-encoded DNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 33: 152-168, 14 figs, 2 tables.

Tan, I.H. & Druehl, L.D. (1994). A molecular analysis of Analipus and Ralfsia (Phaeophyceae) sugests the order Ectocarpales is polyphyletic. Journal of Phycology 30: 721-729, 3 figs, 2 tables.

Wehr, J.D., Stancheva, R., Truhn, K. & Sheath, R.G. (2013). Discovery of the rare freshwater brown alga Pleurocladia lacustris (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in California streams. Western North American Naturalist 73(2): 148-157.

Wilce, R.T., Schneidr, C.W., Quinlan, A.V. & van den Bosch, K. (1982). The life history and morphology of free-living Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. (Ectocarpaceae, Ectocarpales) in Nahant Bay, Massachusetts. Phycologia 21: 336-354.

Yaegashi, K., Yamagishi, Y., Uwai, S., Abe, T., Santiañez, W.J.E. & Kogame, K. (2015). Two species of the genus Acinetospora (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) from Japan: A. filamentosa comb. nov. and A. asiatica sp. nov. Botanica Marina 58(5): 331-343.

Öztürk, M. & Güner, H. (1986). Taxonomy and distribution of Ectocarpales (Phaeophyta) members on Agean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. DOGA TU Bio. D.C. 10: 459-472.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 July 2019.

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