155,278 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,865 images, 60,056 bibliographic items, 436,069 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Cladophorales

Cladophorales Haeckel, 1894: 302, 305.

Type of name: Cladophoraceae Wille

Source: Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Original publication: Haeckel, E. (1894). Systematische Phylogenie der Protisten und Pflanzen. Erster Theil des Entwurfs einer systematischen Stammesgeschichte. pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-400. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer.

Order of marine, brackish and freshwater green macroalgae widely distributed from the tropics to polar environments and found in a great variety of habitats ranging from moist soil, rivers, lakes, ditches, saltmarshes, mangroves, coral reefs, rocky ocean shores, from the intertidal to depths of more than 100 metres. While predominantly a marine order, a wide range of freshwater habitats is also occupied. Some members of the order are semi-terrestrial and two species of Wittrockiella are endophytic, growing in seagrasses or mangrove bark. Although most species grow attached to various substrates, unattached growth forms are produced by several species and can lead to mass developments and blooms in marine, estuarine and freshwater environments. The freshwater genus Pithophora is only known unattached. The morphological habit is essentially filamentous, with a siphonocladous organization of uniseriate filaments consisting of multinucleate cells. Thalli can be unbranched or profusely branched, with branches inserted irregularly or highly ordered. The filamentous habit is modified to giant single cells, three-dimensional networks of anastomosing branches and pseudoparenchymatic clusters in several taxa of the marine (sub)tropical marine Siphonocladus clade. Attached thalli are secured to the substrate at a single point by discoid or coralloid holdfasts formed by the basal cell, or at multiple points by holdfasts or rhizoids produced by many cells. In some cases a basal attachment structure is a polysiphonous cluster formed by the fusion of adventitious rhizoids with the cell walls of the basal cells, or by secondary rhizoids that form anywhere on the thallus in prostrate filaments. Secondary rhizoids can be septate or non-septate, and can end in haptera. Septate and non-septate hairs have been observed in culture in Wittrockiella. Phenotypic plasticity is pronounced and degrees of branching, rhizoid formation and cell dimensions can vary strongly with environmental conditions. The life cycle of sexually reproducing species is diplohaplontic and isomorphic. No specialised sexual structures are formed, vegetative cells transform into sporangia and gametangia, releasing swarmers through central or terminal apertures, forming elongated exit tubes in some species. The haploid gametophytes produce biflagellate gametes, the diploid sporophytes produces quadriflagellate meiospores. Some species reproduce, either additionally or exclusively, by means of asexual, biflagellate or quadriflagellate zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is often by fragmentation. Several freshwater and brackish water taxa can produce cyst-like akinetes. Sexual reproduction has not been observed in a number of species. Mitosis is closed, with a persistent telophase spindle. Vegetative cell division (cytokinesis) is uncoupled from mitosis. Generally, cell division occurs by centripetal invagination of the cell walls, but specialized modes such as lenticular and segregative cell division also exist in the Siphonocladus clade. Cells typically contain numerous, round to angular chloroplasts, which can be interconnected by delicate strands, forming a parietal network or a more or less continuous layer around the large central vacuole. As there is no cytoplasmic streaming, nuclei and chloroplasts have fixed positions. The chloroplasts have bilenticular, zonate or polypyramidal pyrenoids. The cell walls are composed of cellulose I with parallel microfibrils in numerous lamellae, but chitin has also been detected in the cell walls of Pithophora. The flagella of the zoids contain basal bodies with a clockwise (CW) configuration and without terminal caps.

Key References
Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Almeida, W.R. de, Alves, A.M., Guimarães, S.M.P. de B. & Moura, C.W. do N. (2012). Cladophorales and Siphonocladales (Chlorophyta) from Bimbarras Island, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia Stae, Brazil. Iheringia Série Botanica 67(2): 149-164.

Alves, A.M., De Souza Gestinari, L.M. & Do Nascimento Moura, C.W. (2011). Morphology and taxonomy of Anadyomene species (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from Bahia, Brazil. Botanica Marina 54(2): 135-145.

Archer, A. & Burrows, E.M. (1960). Heteromorphic life-histories as a family criterion in the Cladophorales. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 31-33.

Bast, F., John, A.A. & Bhushan, S. (2105). Cladophora goensis sp. nov. (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) – a bloom forming marine algae from Goa, India. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 44(12): 1874-1879.

Blair, S.M. (1983). Taxonomic treatment of the Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium species (Cladophorales; Chlorophyta) in New England. Rhodora 85: 175-211, 13 figs, 3 tables.

Blair, S.M., Mathieson, A.C. & Cheney, D.P. (1982). Morphological and electrophoretic investigations of selected species of Chaetomorpha (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales). Phycologia 21: 164-172.

Boedecker, C., Leliaert, F., Timoshkin, O.A., Vishnyakov, V.S., Díaz-Martínez, S. & Zuccarello, G.C (2018). The endemic Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae) of ancient Lake Baikal represent a monophyletic group of very closely related but morphologically diverse species. Journal of Phycology 54(5): 616-629.

Boedeker, C. & Hansen, G.I. (2010). Nuclear rDNA sequences of Wittrockiella amphibia (Collins) comb. nov. (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) and morphological characterization of the mat-like growth form. Botanica Marina 53(4): 351-356.

Boedeker, C. & Sviridenko, B.F. (2014). Cladophora koktschetavensis from Kazakhstan is a synonym of Aegagropila linnaei (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) and fills the gap in the disjunct distribution of a widespread genotype. Aquatic Botany 101: 64-68, 1 fig.

Boedeker, C., Leliaert, F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2016). Molecular phylogeny of the Cladophoraceae (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) with the resurrection of Acrocladus Nägeli and Willeella Børgesen, and the description of Lurbica gen. nov. and Pseudorhizoclonium gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 52(6): 905-928.

Boedeker, C., Leliaert, F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2017). Genetic diversity and biogeography in Chaetomorpha melagonium (Ulvophyceae, Cladophorales) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) sequences. Botanica Marina 60(3): 319-325.

Boedeker, C., O'Kelly, C.J., Star, W. & Leliaert, F. (2012). Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Aegagropila clade (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae), including the description of Aegagropilopsis gen. nov. and Pseudocladophora gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 48(3): 808-825.

Boedeker, C., O'Kelly, C.J., West, J.A., Hanyuda, T., Neale, A., Wakana, I., Wilcox, M.D., Karsten, U., & Zuccarello, G.C. (2017). Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the genus Wittrockiella (Pithophoraceae, Cladophorales), including the descriptions of W. australis sp. nov. and W. zosterae sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 53(3): 522-540, 6 fig., 2 tables.

Bot, P.V.M., Brussard, C.P.D., Stam, W.T. & van den Hoek, C. (1991). Evolutionary relationships between four species of Cladophora (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Journal of Phycology 27: 617-623.

Bot, P.V.M., Holton, R.W., Stam, W.T. & van den Hoek, C. (1989). Molecular divergence between North Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific Cladophora albida (Cladophorales: Chlorophyta) isolates as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Marine Biology, Berlin 102: 307-313, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Bot, P.V.M., Stam, W.T., Boele-Bos, S.A., Hoek, C.van den & Delden, W. van (1989). Biogeographic and phylogenetic studies in three North Atlantic species of Cladophora (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) using DNA-DNA hybridization. Phycologia 28: 159-168, 1 fig, 4 tables.

Cáceres, E.J. & Parodi, E.R. (1998). Fine structure of zoosporogenesis, zoospore germination and early gametophyte development in Cladophora surera (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 34: 825-834, 29 figs.

Cambridge, M.L., Breeman, A.M. & van den Hoek, C. (1990). Temperature limits at the distribution boundaries of European and American warm temperate Cladophora species (Cladophorales; Clorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Botanica Marina 33: 355-362.

Cambridge, M.L., Breeman, A.M. & van den Hoek, C. (1990). Temperature limits at the distribution boundaries of four tropical to temperate species of Cladophora (Cladophorales: Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Aquatic Botany 38: 135-151.

Cambridge, M.L., Breeman, A.M. & Van Den Hoek, C. (1990). Temperature responses limiting the geographical distribution of two temperate species of Cladophora (Cladophorales; Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Phycologia 29: 74-85.

Cambridge, M.L., Breeman, A.M. & van den Hoek, C. (1991). Temperature responses and distribution of Australian species of Cladophora (Cladophorales: Chlorophyta). Aquatic Botany 40: 73-90, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Chan, K.-Y., Ling Wong, S.L. & Wong, M.H. (1978). Observations on Chaetomorpha brachygona Harv. (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales). I. Ultrastructure of the vegetative cells. Phycologia 17: 419-429, 14 figs, 1 table.

Fritsch, F.E. (1944). Cladophorella calcicola nov. gen. et sp., a terrestrial member of the Cladophorales. Annals of Botany 8: 157-171.

Gajaria, S.C. & Patel, R.J. (1985). Study of marine Cladophorales of Gujarat. Genus Cladophora Kuetz. In: Marine Plants. (Krishnamurthy, V. & Untawale, A.G. Eds), pp. 51-58. Madras: Seaweed Research and Utilizaton Association.

Gajaria, S.C. & Patel, R.J. (1988). Contribution to our knowledge of Cladophorales. IV. Genus Chaetomorpha Kuetz. Seaweed Research and Utilization 11: 1-8, 29 figs, 1 table.

Galán-Cubero, A., Flor-Arnau, N., Ortiz-Lerín, R., Cambra-Sánchez, J. & Durán Lalaguna, C. (2009). Contribución al conocimiento de la ecología de Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) en la cuenca del río Ebro. Algas, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ficología 42: 9.

Galicia-García, C. & Novelo, E. (2000). Cladophorella netzahualpillii sp. nov. (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae), a species reproducing by spores. Phycologia 39: 288-295.

Garbary, D.J. (2010). Taxonomy of Basicladia (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) with two new combinations. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 20(1): 38-40.

Gardavský, A. (1993). Rhizoclonium fractiflexum sp. nova, a new member of Cladophorales (Chlorophyta) described from freshwater aquaria. Archiv für Protistenkunde 143: 125-136.

Ghosh, S. & Prakash Kershi, J. (2010). Observations on the morphology of Chaetocmorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta), at Visakhapatnam coast, India. Journal of Applied Bioscience 36(2): 164-167.

Gordon, D.M., van den Hoek, C. & McComb, A.J. (1985). An aegagropiloid form of the green alga Cladophora montagneana Kütz. (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) from southwestern Australia. Botanica Marina 27: 57-65.

Graham, L.E., Knack, J.J., Graham, M.E., Graham, J.M. & Zulkifly, S. (2015). A metagenome for lacustrine Cladophora (Cladophorales) reveals remarkable diversity of eukaryotic epibionts and genes relevant to materials cycling. Journal of Phycology 51(3): 408-418.

Hanyuda, T., Wakana, I., Arai, S., Miyaji, K., Watano, Y. & Ueda, K. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships within Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences with special reference to Aegagropila linnaei. Journal of Phycology 38: 564-571.

Hayakawa, Y., Ogawa, T., Yoshikawa, S., Ohki, K. & Kamiya, M. (2012). Genetic and ecophysiological diversity of Cladophora (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) in various salinity regimes. Phycological Research 60: 86-97.

Hinson, T.K. & Karraun, D.F. (1991). Karyology and nuclear DNA quantification of four species of Chaetomorpha (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from the western Atlantic. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 45: 273-285.

Hirayama, T. & Hori, T. (1984). Flagellar apparatus of the quadriflagellate zoospore of Chaetomorpha spiralis Okamura (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 27: 335-344.

Hoek, C. van den (1983). Bryobesia johannae, a small tropical representative of the order Cladophorales (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 19: 116-118.

Hoek, C. van den (1984). The systematics of the Cladophorales. In: Systematics of the Green Algae Special Volume No. 27. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at The Polytechnic of North London 29-31 March 1983. (Irvine, D.E.G. & John, D.M. Eds), pp. 157-178. London: Published for the Systematics Association by Academic Press.

Hoek, C. van den, Ducker, S.C. & Womersley, H.B.S. (1984). Wittrockiella salina Chapman (Cladophorales, Chlorophyceae), a mat and ball forming alga. Phycologia 23: 39-46.

Huisman, J.M. & Leliaert, F. (2015). Cladophorales. In: Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 32-67. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Ichihara, K., Shimada, S. & Miyaji, K. (2013). Systematics of Rhizoclonium-like algae (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from Japanese brackish waters, based on molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses. Phycologia 52(5): 398-410.

John, D.M. (2002). Order Cladophorales (=Siphonocladales). In: The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 468-470. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

John, D.M. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Cladophorales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 557-564. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Kapraun, D.F. & Gargiulo, G.M. (1987). Karyological studies of four Cladophora (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) species from coastal North Carolina. Giornale Botanico Italiano 121: 1-26.

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Zhao, Z.-J., Zhu, H., Liu, G.-X. & Z.-Y. Hu (2016). Rhizoclonium ramosum sp. nov. (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta), a new freshwater algal species from China. Fottea, Olomouc 16(1): 12-21, 24 fig., 1 table.

Zhu, H., Zhao, Z.-J., Liu, X.-d., Song, H.-Y., Liu, G.-X. & Hu, Z.-Y. (2018). Molecular phylogeny and morphological diversity of inland Cladophora (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) from China. Phycologia 57(2): 191-208.

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