152,980 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,947 images, 59,201 bibliographic items, 408,279 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Ulvales

Ulvales Blackman & Tansley, 1902: 32.

Type of name: Ulva L.

Source: Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Original publication: Blackman, F.F. & Tansley, A.G. (1902). A revision of the classification of the green algae. New Phytologist 1: 17-24, 47-48, 67-72, 89-96, 114-120, 133-144, 163-168, 189-192, 213-220, 238-244.

Description:
Thalli microscopic or macroscopic, including filamentous, pseudoparenchymatous, tubular or blade-like forms, attached, free-floating, endophytic or shell-boring. Cells uni- or multinucleate, generally possessing a single parietal chloroplast with one to several pyrenoids. Life history variable, with isomorphic or heteromorphic diplohaplontic cell cycle. In some members, sexual life cycle unknown. Asexual reproduction by biflagellate or quadriflagellate zoospores. Sexual reproduction by biflagellate isogametes or anisogametes formed by unisexual or bisexual thalli, often parthenogenetic. Motile cells are naked, uncovered by body scales.

Key References
Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E. & Shimada, S. (2008). First record of Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in the Pacific coast of Mexico. Algae 23(3): 201-207, 5 fig.

Alsufyani, T., Engelen, A.H., Dickmann, O.E., Kuegler, S. & T. Wichard (2014). Prevalence and mechanism of polyunsaturated aldehydes production in the green tide forming macroalgal genus Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 183: 100-109.

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A., Conde, F. & Figueroa, F.L. (2000). Growth seasonality, photosynthetic pigments, and carbon and nitrogen content in relation to enviornmental factors: a field study of Ulva olivascens (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 39: 50-58.

Baamonde López, S., Baspino Fernández, I., Barreiro Lozano, R. & Cremades Ugarte, J. (2007). Is the cryptic alien seaweed Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) widely distributed along European Atlantic coasts?. Botanica Marina 50: 267-274.

Baamonde López, S., I. Baspino Fernández, R. Barreiro Lozano & J.Cremades Ugarte (2007). Is the criptic alien seaweed Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) widely distributed along European Atlantic coasts?. Botanica Marina 50: 267-274.

Baca, B.J. & Cox, E.R. (1979). A developmental mutation in Enteromorpha lingulata J.Ag. (Chlorophyta, Ulvales). Phycologia 18: 369-377, 16 figs, 1 table.

Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Bast, F., John, A.A. & Bhushan, S. (2014). Strong endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian west coast, with description of Ulva paschima sp. nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). PLoS ONE 9(10): e109295.

Björnsäter, B.R. & Wheeler, P.A. (1983). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth and tissue composition of Ulva fenestrata and Enteromorpha intestinalis (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 603-611.

Björnsäter, B.R. & Wheeler, P.A. (1990). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth and tissue composition of Ulva fenestrata and Enteromrpha intestinalis (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 603-611, 5 figs, 4 tables.

Bliding, C. (1963). A critical survey of European taxa in Ulvales. Part I. Capsosiphon, Percursaria, Blidingia, Enteromorpha. Opera Botanica 8(3): 1-160, 92 figs.

Bliding, C. (1969 '1968'). A critical survey of European taxa in Ulvales, Part II. Ulva, Ulvaria, Monostroma, Kornmannia. Botaniska Notiser 121: 535-629, 47 figs.

Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1977). Reproducción de Ulvales de Puerto Deseado (Prov. de Sta. Cruz, Rep. Argentina). II. Monostroma undulatum Wittrock. Physis A 36(92): 1-7.

Boraso, A.L. (1979). Reproducción de Ulvales de Puerto Deseado (Prov. de Santa Cruz). I. Consideraciones generales y reproducción en Enteromorpha. Darwiniana 22(1-3): 241-253.

Braga, M.R.A., Fujii, M.T. & Cordeiro-Marino, M. (1997). Monostromatic green algae (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) of São Paulo and Paraná States (Brazil): distribution, gowth and reproduction. Revista Brasil Bot. 20: 197-203.

Callow, M.E. & Evans, L.V. (1977). Studies on the ship-fouling alga Enteromorpha (Chlorophyceae, Ulvales). IV. Polysaccharide and nucleoside diphosphatase localization. Phycologia 16: 313-320, 6 figs, 2 tables.

Callow, M.E., Callow, J.A., Pickett-Heaps, J.D. & Wetherbee, R. (1997). Primary adhesion of Enteromorpha (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) propugules: quantitative settlement studies and video microscopy. Journal of Phycology 33: 938-947, 18 figs, 1 table.

Carlile, A.L., O'Kelly, C.J. & Sherwood, A.R. (2011). The green algal genus Cloniophora represents a novel lineage in the Ulvales: a proposal for Cloniophoraceae fam. nov.. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1379-1387.

Casais, E & Couce, A.. (2016). Desarrollo de cultivos de Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) como biofiltro en Sistemas de Acuicultura Multitrófica Integrada (AMTI). Master Thesis. : Universidade da Coruña.

Coat, G., Dion, P., Noailles, M.-C., Reviers, B. de, Fontaine, J.-M., Berger-Perrot, Y. & Loiseaux-De Goër, S. (1998). Ulva armoricana (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from the coasts of Brittany (France). II. Nuclear rDNA ITS sequence analysis. European Journal of Phycology 33: 81-86, 4 figs, 2 tables.

Couceiro, L., Cremades, J. & Barreiro, R. (2011). Evidence for multiple introductions of the Pacific green alga Ulva australis Areschoug (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) to the Iberian Peninsula. Botanica Marina 54(4): 391-402.

Dan, A., Hiraoka, M., Ohno, M. & Critchley, A.T. (2002). Observaions on the effect of salinity and photon fluence rate on the induction of sporulation and rhizoid formation in the green alga Enteromorpha prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvales). Fisheries Science 68(6): 1182-1188.

Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.

Dion, P., Reviers, B. de & Coat, G. (1998). Ulva armoricana sp. nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from the coasts of Brittany (France). I. Morphological identification. European Journal of Phycology 33: 73-80, 16 figs, 1 table.

Dural, B. (1990). Taxonomic Investigations of some members os Ulvales distributing in the Çandarli Bay. II. Ulvaceae. B. Enteromorpha species. II Section Prolifera, Clathrata and Intestinalis groups.. Doga, Turk. J. Botany 15: 1-19.

Flagella, M.M., Andreakis, N., Hiraoka, M., Verlaque, M. & Buia, M.C. (2010). Identification of cryptic Ulva species (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) transported in ballast water. Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki 13: 47-57.

Floyd, G.L. & O'Kelly, C.J. (1984). Motile cell ultrastructure and the circumscription of the orders Ulotrichales and Ulvales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). American Journal of Botany 71: 111-120.

Fujimura, T. & Kajiwara, T. (1990). Production of bioflavor by regeneration from protoplasts of Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 143-149.

Gallardo, T. & Pérez-Cirera, J.L. (1982). Contribución a la autoecología y distribución de las Ulvales de talo monostromático en las costas de la Península Ibérica. : Actas II Simposio Ibérico de Estudio del Bentos Marino 3:33-39.

Garbary, D.J. & Tam, C. (1989). Blidingia minima var. stolonifera var. nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from British Columbia: systematics, life history and morphogenesis. Nordic Journal of Botany 9: 321-328.

Gauna, M.C., Escober, J.F., Odorisio, M., Cáceres, E.J. & Parodi, E.R. (2017). Spatial and temporal variation in algal epiphyte distribution on Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from northern Patagonia in Argentina . Phycologia 56(2): 125-135.

Gayral, P. (1971). Mise au point sur la systématique de l'ordre des Ulvales. Bulletin. Société Phycologique de France 16: 63-67.

Giaccone, G. & De Marinis, A. (1985). Contributo allo studio delle Ulvales del golfo di Palermo. : .

Guidone, M., Thornber, C., Wysor, B. & O'Kelly, C.J. (2013). Molecular and morphological diversity of Narrangansett Bay (RI, USA) Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) populations. Journal of Phycology 49(5): 979-995.

Han, T., Kong, J.-A., Brown, M.T. (2009). Aquatic toxicity tests of Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) using spore germination and gametophyte growth. European Journal of Phycology 44(3): 357-363.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2002). Phylogenetic systematics of the Ulvaceae (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) using chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 38: 1200-1212.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Haynuda, T., Heesch, S., Nelson, W., Sutherland, J., Arai, S., Boo, S.M. & Kawai, H. (2016). Genetic diversity and biogeography of native and introduced populations of Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 64: 2014-2019, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Hiraoka, M., Dan, A., Shimada, S., Hagihira, M., Migita, M. & Ohno, M. (2003). Different life histories of Enteromorpha prolifera (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from four rivers on Shikoku Island, Japan. Phycologia 42: 275-284.

Hiraoka, M., Obata, S. & Ohno, M. (1998). Pigment content of the reproductive cells of Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae): evidence of anisogamy. Phycologia 37: 222-226, 1 fig, 4 tables.

Hiraoka, M., shimada, S., Ohno, M. & Serisawa, Y. (2003). Asexual life history by quadriflagellate swarmers of Ulva spinulosa (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). Phycological Research 51(1): 29-34.

Hiraoka, M., Shimada, S., Serisawa, Y., Ohno, M. & Ebata, H. (2003). Two different genetic strains of stalked-Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) grow on intertidal rocky shores in Ebisujima, central Japan. Phycological Research 51(3): 161-167.

Hiraoka, M., Shimada, S., Uenosono, M. & Masuda, M. (2004). A new green-tide-forming alga, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka & Shimada sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) from Japan. Phycological Research 52: 17-29, 25 figs, 4 tables.

Hofman, L.C., Nettleton, J.C., Neefus, C.D., & Mathieson, A.C. (2010). Cryptic diversity of Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in the Great Bay Estuarine System (Atlantic USA): introduced and indigenous distromatic species. European Journal of Phycology 45(3): 230-239.

Ichihara, K., Arai, S. & Shimada, S. (2009). cDNA cloning of a lectin-like gene preferentially expressed in freshwatewr from the macroalga Ulva limnetica (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 57(2): 104-110.

Ichihara, K., Arai, S., Uchimura, M., Fay, E.J., Ebata, H., Hiraoka, M. & Shimada, S. (2009). New species of freshwater Ulva, Ulva limnetica (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Phycological Research 57(2): 94-103.

Ichihara, K., Mineur, F. & Shimada, S. (2011). Isolation and temporal expression analysis of freshwater-induced genes in Ulva limnetica (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(3): 584-590.

Iima, M. & Fukusumi, K. (1996). First report of Chloropelta caespitosa (Ulvaceae, Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) in Japan. Phycological Research 44: 167-171.

Innes, D.J. & Yarish, C. (1984). Genetic evidence for the occurence of asexual reproduction in populations of Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Ag. (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) from Long Island Sound. Phycologia 23: 311-320.

Innes, D.J. (1988). Genetic differentiation in the intertidal zone in populations of the alga Enteromorpha linza (Ulvales: Chlorophyta). Marine Biology, Berlin 97: 9-16.

Jiménez del Rio, M., Ramazanov, Z. & García-Reina, G. (1996). Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) tank culture as biofilters for dissolved inorganic nitrogen from fishpond effluents. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 61-66.

Kagami, Y., Fujishita, M., Matsuyama-Serisawa, K., Yamamoto, M., Kuwano, K., Saga, N. & Kawano, S. (2005). DNA content of Ulva compressa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) nuclei determined with laser scanning cytometry. Phycological Research 53(1): 77-83.

Kapraun, D. F. (1990). Parasexual fusion products in green algae: Enteromorpha and Ulvaria (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 151-159.

Kapraun, D.F. & Bailey, J.C. (1992). Karyology and cytophotometric estimation of nuclear DNA variation in seven species of Ulvales (Chlorophyta). Japanese Journal of Phycology 40: 13-24.

Kapraun, D.F. & Flynn, E.H. (1973). Culture studies of Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Ag. Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing) Bliding (Chlorophyceae, Ulvales) from Central America. Phycologia 12: 145-152, 26 figs.

Kawai, H., Shimada, S., Hanyuda, T., Suzuki, T. & Gomagori City Office (2007). Species diversity and seasonal changes of dominant Ulva species (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) in Mikawa Bay, Japan, deduced from ITS2 rDNA region sequences. Algae 22(3): 221-228, 5 figs, 1 table.

Kim, K.Y. & Lee, I.K. (1992). Phenology of marine Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Greville (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae) growing along tidal levels. Korean Journal of Botany 35: 69-75.

Kim, K.Y., Ahn, Y.S. & Lee, I.K. (1991). Growth and morphology of Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Ag. and E. prolifera (Müller) J. Ag. (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). Korean Journal of Phycology 6(1): 31-45, 10 figs, 5 tables.

Kim, K.Y., Lee, I.K. & Choi, C.II. (1990). Effects of temperature and salinity on germination and vegetative growth of Enteromorpha multiramosa Bliding (Chlorophyceae, Ulvales). Korean Journal of Botany 33: 141-146.

Kono, S., Kuwano, K., Ninomiya, M., Onishi, J. & Saga, N. (1997). Cryopreservation of Enteromorpha intestinales (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in liquid nitrogen. Phycologia 36: 76-78, 1 fig, 1 table.

Kornmann, P. & Sahling, P.-H. (1978). Die Blidingia-Arten von Helgoland (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 31: 391-413.

Kylin, H. (1947). Über die Fortpflanzungsverhältnisse in der Ordnung Ulvales. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund Förhandlingar 17: 174-182.

Lahaye, M., Alvarez-Cabal Cimadevilla, E., Kuhlenkamp, R., Quemener, B., Lognoné, V. & Dion, P. (1999). Chemical composition and 13C NMR spectroscopic characterisation of ulvans from Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 515-521.

Lahaye, M., Ray, B., Baumberger, S., Quemener, B. & Axelos, M. A. V. (1996). Chemical characterisation and gelling properties of cell wall polysaccharides from species of Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 473-480.

Lee, T.-M., Huang, Y.-L. & Chen, M.-H. (2005). Copper induction of phosphorus deficiency in Ulva fasciata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 44: 620-628.

Lee, T.-M., Tsai, P.-F., Shyu, Y.-T. and Sheu, F. (2005). The effects of phosphite on phosphate starvation responses of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 975-982.

Leonardi, P.I., Correa, J.A. & Cáceres, E.J. (1997). Ultrastructure and taxonomy of the genus Endophyton (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 32: 175-183, 24 figs.

Lindstrom, S.C., Hanic, L.A. & Golden, L. (2006). Studies of the green alga Percursaria dawsonii (=Blidingia dawsonii comb. nov., Kornmanniaceae, Ulvales) in British Columbia. Phycological Research 54(1): 40-56, 3 tables, 19 figs.

Mata, L. & Santos, R. (2003). Cultivation of Ulva rotunda (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in raceways using semi-intensive fishpond effluents: yield and biofiltration. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 237-242.

Matsumoto, K. & Shimada, S. (2015). Systematics of green algae resembling Ulva conglobata, with a description of Ulva adhaerens sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 50(1): 100-111.

Melkonian, M. (1979). Structure and significance of cruciate flagellar root systems in green algae: zoospores of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 32: 425-435.

Melkonian, M. (1980). Flagellar apparatus, mating structure and gametic fusion in Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). British Phycological Journal 15: 196.

Melton, J.T.III, García-Soto, G.C. & J.M.López-Bautista (2016). A new record of the bloom-forming green algal species Ulva ohnoi (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in the Caribbean Sea. Algas. Boletín Informativo de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 51: 62-64.

Micalef, H. (1972). Mise en évidence de phosphatase acide dans l'appareil de Golgi des cellules végétatives d'Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 2481-2484.

Micalef, H. (1975). Application de techniques cytochimiques classiques à la mise en évidence, en microscopie photonique, de l'appareil de golgi dans les cellules végétatives de l'Ulva lacuta L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Soc Phycol de France Bull No 21: 8-11.

Micalef, H. (1975). Données complémentaires sur les caratères cytomorphologiques et cytochimiques de la zone golgienne des cellules végétatives de l'Ulva lacuta L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 281: 775-778.

Micalef, H. (1976). Aspects cytomorphologiques et cytochimiques de l'évolution ultrastructurale de la zone golgienne au cours de la zoïdogenèse chez l'Ulva lacuta L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 282: 1781-1784.

Mogi, Y., Kagami, Y., Kuwano, K., Miyamura, S., Nagumo, T. & Kawano, S. (2008). Asymmetry of eyespot and mating structure position in Ulva compressa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) revealed by a new field emission scanning electron microscopy method. Journal of Phycology 44: 1290-1299.

O'Kelly, C.J. & Floyd, G.L. (1983). The flagellar apparatus of Entocladia viridis motile cells, and the taxonomic position of the resurrected family Ulvellaceae (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 19: 153-164.

Ogandaga, C.A.M., Choi, H.G., Kim, J.K. & Nam, K.W. (2016). Growth responses of Chondrus ocellatus Holmes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) to two endophytes, Mikrosyphar zosterae Kuckuck (Ectocarpales, Ochrophyta) and Ulvella ramosa (N.L. Gardner) R. Nielsen (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in culture. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(4): 363-371.

Papenfuss, G.F. (1960). On the genera of the Ulvales and the status of the order. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 56: 303-318, 21 figs, 6 pls.

Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., Vergara, J.J., Pino, R.R., Hernández, I., Peralta, G. & Niell, F.X. (1996). The effect of photoacclimation on the photosynthetic physiology of Ulva curvata and Ulva rotundata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 31: 349-359, 11 figs, 2 tables.

Phillips, J.A., Lawton, R.J., Denys, R., Paul, N.A. & Carl, C. (2016). Ulva sapora sp. nov., an abundant tubular species of Ulva (Ulvales) from the tropical Pacific Ocean. Phycologia 55(1): 55-64.

Rinkel, B.E., Hayes, P., Gueidan, C. & Brodie, J. (2012). A molecular phylogeny of Acrochaete and other endophytic green algae (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 1020-1027.

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Sfriso, A. (2010). Coexistence of Ulva rigida and Ulva laetevirens (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in Venice Lagoon and other Italian transitional and marine environments. Botanica marina 53: 9-18.

Shimada, S., Hiraoka, M., Nabata, S., Lima, M. & Masuda, M. (2003). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Japanese Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae), with special reference to the free-floating Ulva. Phycological Research 51(2): 99-108.

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Stewart, K.D., Mattox, K.R. & Floyd, G.L. (1973). Mitosis, cytokinesis, the distribution of plasmodesmata and other cytological characteristics of the Ulotrichales, Ulvales and Chaetophorales: phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations. Journal of Phycology 9: 128-141.

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Tittley, I. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Ulvales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 575-576. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vairappan, C.S. & Suzuki, M. (2000). Dynamics of total surface bacteria and bacterial species counts during desiccation in the Malaysian sea lettuce, Ulva reticulata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 48: 55-62.

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Vinogradova, K.L. (1969). K. sistematike poryadka Ulvales (Chlorophyta) s.l. A contribution to the taxonomy of the order Ulvales. Botanicheskij Zhurnal SSSR 54: 1347-1355, one un-numbered figure. [in Russian with English title and summary]

Wolf, M.A., Sciuto, K., Andreoli, C. & Moro, I. (2012). Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): cryptic species and new introductions. Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1510-1521.

Woolcott, G.W. & King, R.J. (1998). Ulvaria (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in eastern Australia: morphology, anatomy and ontogeny compared with molecular data. Botanica Marina 41: 63-76, 4 figs, 9 tables.

Wu, T.M. & Lee, T.M. (2008). Regulation of activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in response to excess copper. Phycologia 47: 346-360.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 September 2018.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:4584

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