154,918 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,111 images, 59,859 bibliographic items, 429,125 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Bryopsidales

Bryopsidales J.H.Schaffner, 1922: 129.

Type of name: Bryopsidaceae Bory de Saint Vincent. 1829

Source: Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Original publication: Schaffner, J.H. (1922). The classification of plants XII. Ohio Journal of Science 22: 129-139.

Thallus siphonous, generally macroscopic or sometimes microscopic, ranging from simple, branched siphons to complex thalli. Siphons consisting of a large central vacuole, surrounded by a thin parietal layer of cytoplasm containing many plastids and nuclei, which divide by asynchronously. Cytoplasm exhibiting streaming. Plastids fusiform or ellipsoidal. Thalli homoplastidic or heteroplastidic. Chloroplasts with or without pyrenoid. Accessory photosynthetic pigments siphonoxanthin and siphonein. Principal cell wall polysaccharides mannan, xylan and glucan (cellulose). Thallus surface of several species calcified. Reproductive zoids bi- or quadriflagellate; some members with stephanokont zoids. Sexually reproducing species mainly with a haplontic life cycle, or sometimes isomorphic or heteromorphic diplohaplontic life cycle. Almost entirely marine, except for a single genus, Dichotomosiphon, which also occurs in freshwater habitats.

Key References
Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Bandeira-Pedrosa, M.E., Barreto Pereira, S.M., Bouzon, Z.L. & Oliveira, E.C. (2004). Halimeda cuneata (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a new record for the Atlantic Ocean. Phycologia 43: 50-57.

Beach, K., Walters, L., Vroom, P., Smith, C., Coyer, J. & Hunter, C. (2003). Variability in the ecophysiology of Halimeda spp. (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA. Journal of Phycology 39: 633-643.

Bilan, M.I., Vinogradova, E.V., Shashkov, A.S. & Usov, A.I. (2006). Isolation and preliminary characterization of a highly pyruvylated galactan sulfate from Codium yezoense (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta).. Botanica Marina 49: 259-262.

Boisset, F. & Ferrer-Gallego, P.P. (2015). Typification of the marine siphonous green alga Caulerpa prolifera (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Phytotaxa 221(2): 148-156, 3 figs.

Brück, B. & Schnetter, R. (1993). Vegetative propagation of the microthallus in a strain of Bryopsis plumosa (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) from the Canary Islands. Phycologia 32: 310-312, 6 figs.

Brück, B. & Schnetter, R. (1997). Life history and karyology of Bryopsis plumosa (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) from the Canary Islands. Phycologia 36: 128-137, 8 figs.

Cabrera, R. & Martínez Daranas, B. (2005). Variabilidad morfológica de una población de Avrainvillea asarifolia f. olivacea D.S. Littler et M.M. Littler (Bryopsidales, Udoteaceae). Rev. Invest. Mar. 26(1): 3-8.

Cabrera, R. & Suárez, A.M. (2003). Adiciones a las clorofíceas de Cuba del Género Avrainvillea Decaisne, 1842 (Bryopsidales, Udoteaceae). Rev. Invest. Mar. 24(2): 95-98.

Cabrera, R. & Suárez, A.M., Pina-Amargós, F. & Martínez Daranas, B. (2003). Adición a las Chlorophyceae de Cuba (Bryopsidales). Rev. Invest. Mar. 24(1): 71-72.

Cabrera, R., Suárez, A.M. & Zayas, C. (2005). Adición a las clorofíceas cubanas: Avrainvillea nigricans f. floridana Littler & M. Littler, 1992 (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales). Rev. Invest. Mar. 26(1): 81-83.

Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.

Chang, J.-S., Dai, C.-F. & Chang, J. (2003). Gametangium-like structures as propagation buds in Codium edule Silva (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 46: 431-437.

Clifton, K.E. & Clifton, L.M. (1999). The phenology of sexual reproduction by green algae (Bryopsidales) on Caribbean coral reefs. Journal of Phycology 35: 24-34, 6 figs, 1 table.

Coppejans, E., Leliaert, F., Verbruggen, H., Prathep, A. & De Clerck, O. (2011). Rhipidosiphon lewmanomontiae sp. nov. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a calcified udoteacean alga from the central Indo-Pacific based on morphological and molecular investigations. Phycologia 50(4): 403-412.

Cremen M.C.M., Huisman J.M., Marcelino V.R. & Verbruggen H. (2016). Taxonomic revision of Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in southwestern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 29: 41-54, 8 figs.

Curtis, N.E., Dawes, C.J. & Pierce, S.K. (2008). Phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit rubisco gene supports the exclusion of Arainvillea and Cladocephalus from the Udoteaceae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 44: 761-767.

De Clerck, O., Verbruggen, H., Huisman, J.M., Faye, E.J., Leliaert, F., Schils, T. & Coppejans, E. (2008). Systematics and biogeography of the genus Pseudocodium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), including the description of P. natalense sp. nov. from South Africa. Phycologia 47: 225-235.

Dijoux, L., Verbruggen, H., Mattio, L., Duong, N. & Payri, C. (2012). Diversity of Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in New Caledonia: a combined morphological and molecular study. Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1465-1481.

Dragastan, O., Richter, D.K., Kube, B. Popa, M., Sarbu, A. & Ciugulea, I. (1997). A new family of Paleo-Mesozoic calcareous green siphons-algae (order Bryopsidales, class Bryopsidophyceae, phylum Siphonophyta). Revista Esp. Micropaleontol. 29: 69-135, 10 pls., 20 figs., 4 tables.

Faye, E.J., Uchimura, M., Shimada, S., Inoue, T. & Kakamura, Y. (2008). Pseudocodium okinawense (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a new species from Okinawa and the first report of the genus from eastern Asia. European Journal of Phycology 43: 99-105.

Fernández, P.V., Ciancia, M., Miravalles, A.B. & Estevez, J.M. (2010). Cell-wall polymer mapping in the coenocytic macroalga Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 46(3): 456-465.

González, A.V., Beltrán J., & Santelices, B. (2014). Colonization and growth strategies in two Codium species (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) with different thallus forms. Phycologia 53(4): 353-358.

González, A.V., Chacana, M.E. & Silva, P.C. (2012). Codium bernabei sp. nov. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a coalescing green seaweed from the coast of Chile. Phycologia 51(6): 666-671.

Granier, B. (2018). A new and unique bodyplan in fossil Bryopsidales, with description of Jaffrezocodium bipennatus n. gen., n. sp., an (?) Albian-Cenomanian calcareous green alga. Cretaceous Research 85: 207-213, 5 figs.

Harper, I.S. & Pienaar, R.N. (1985). Life history and cytological studies in Bryopsis flanaganii (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyceae) from the Natal coast. South African Journal of Botany 51: 401-407, 37 figs.

Henne, K.-D. & Schnetter, R. (1999). Revision of the Pseudobryopsis/Trichosolen complex (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) based on features of gametangial behaviour and chloroplasts. Phycologia 38: 114-127, 34 figs, 2 tables.

Hillis, L.W., Engman, J.A. & Kooistra, W.H.C.F. (1998). Morphological and molecular phylogenies of Halidexa (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) identify three evolutionary lineages. Journal of Phycology 34: 669-681, 6 figs, 5 tables.

Hodgson, L.M. Pham Huu Tri, Lewmanomont, K. & McDermid, K.J. (2004). Annotated checklist of species of Caulerpa and Caulerpella (Bryopsidales, Caulerpaceae) from Vietnam, Thailand and the Hawaiian Islands. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to the Pacific and other locations Volume IX. (Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. Eds) Vol.9, pp. 21-38.

Hoffman, R., Shemesh, E., Ramot, M., Dubinsky, Z., Pinchasov-Grinblat, Y. & Iluz, D. (2011). First record of the Indo-Pacific seaweed Codium arabicum Kütz. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 54(5): 487-495.

Hoffman, R., Wynne, M.J., Schils, T., Lopez-Bautista, J. & Verbruggen, H. (2017 '2018'). Codium pulvinatum (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a new species from the Arabian Sea, recently introduced into the Mediterranean Sea. Phycologia 57(1): 79-89.

Hollants, J.K., Leliaert, F., De Clerck, O. & Willems, A. (2010). How endo- is endo-? Surface sterilization of delicate samples: A Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) case study. Symbiosis 51: 131-138.

Huisman, J.M., Dixon, R.R.M., Hart, F.N., Verbruggen, H. & Anderson, R.J. (2015). The South African estuarine specialist Codium tenue (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) discovered in a south-western Australian estuary. Botanica Marina 58(6): 511-521.

Inokuchi, R., Motojima, K. & Okada, M. (2002). Cosmid library of the marine macroalga Bryopsis maxima (Bryopsidales, Ulvophyceae). Phycological Research 50(3): 209-216.

Kaldy, J.E. (1996). Range extension of Halimeda incrassata (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales): occurrence in the Lower Laguna Madra of Texas. South W. Naturalist 41: 419-423.

Kazi, M.A., Reddy, C.R.K. & Jha, B. (2014). Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes. PLOS One 8(12): 1-13, 6 figs.

Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. (2010). Bryopsidales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 157-209. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kobara, T. & Chihara, M. (1984). Laboratory culture and taxonomy of two species of Pedobesia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyceae) in Japan. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 97(2): 151-161, 37 figs.

Kojima, R., Hanyuda, T. & Kawai, H. (2015). Taxonomic re-examination of Japanese Halimeda species using genetic markers, and proposal of a new species Halimeda ryukyuensis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 63(3): 178-188, 22 fig., 2 tables.

Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Verbruggen, H. (2005). Genetic patterns in the calcified tropical seaweeds Halimeda opuntia, H. distorta, H. hederacea and H. minima (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) provide insights in species boundaries and interoceanic dispersal. Journal of Phycology 41: 177-187.

Kooistra, W.H.C.F. (2002). Molecular phylogenies of Udoteaceae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) reveal nonmonophyly for Udotea, Penicillus and Chlorodesmis. Phycologia 41: 453-462.

Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Coppejans, E.G.G. & Payri, C. (2002). Molecular systematics, historical ecology, and phylogeography of Halimeda (Bryopsidales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24: 121-138.

Kornmann, P. & Sahling, P.-H. (1976). Wiedereinführung von Bryopsis lyngbyei (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) als selbständige Art. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 28: 217-225.

Kraft, G.T. & Olsen-Stojkovich, J. (1985). Avrainvillea calithina (Udoteaceae, Bryopsidales), a new green alga from Lord Howe Island, NSW, Australia. Phycologia 24: 339-345, 16 figs.

Kraft, G.T. (1986). The green algal genera Rhipiliopsis A. & E.S. Gepp and Rhipiella gen. nov. (Udoteaceae, Bryopsidales) in Australia and the Philippines. Phycologia 25: 47-72, 54 figs, 1 table.

Krellwitz, E.C., Kowallik, K.V. & Manos, P.S. (2001). Molecular and morphological analyses of Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from the western North Atlantic and Caribbean. Phycologia 40: 330-339.

Lam, D.W. & Zechman, F.W. (2006). Phylogenetic analyses of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 42: 669-678.

Lee, T.-C. & Hsu, B.-D. (2009). Disintegration of the cells of siphonous green alga Codium edule (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) under mild heat stress . Journal of Phycology 45(2): 348-356, 9 figs.

Leliaert, F., Verbruggen, H., D'Hondt, S., Lopez-Bautista, J.M. & De clerck, O. (2014). The forgotten genus Pseudoderbesia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Cryptogamie Algologie 35(3): 207-219.

Littler, D.S. & Littler, M.M. (1990). Reestablishment of the green alga genus Rhipidosiphon Montagne (Udoteaceae, Bryopsidales) with a description of Rhipidosiphon floridensis sp. nov. British Phycological Journal 25: 33-38, 11 figs.

Littler, D.S. & Littler, M.M. (1990). Systematics of Udotea species (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in the tropical western Atlantic. Phycologia 29(2): 206-252.

Littler, M. M. & Littler, D. S. (1990). Productivity and nutrient relationships in psammophytic versus epilithic forms of Bryopsidales (Chlorophyta): comparisons based on a short-term physiological assay. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 49-55.

Littler, M.M. & Littler, D.S. (1990). Productivity and nutrient relationships in psammophytic versus epilithic forms of Bryopsidales (Chlorophyta): comparisons based on a short-term physiological assay. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 49-55.

Littler, M.M., Littler, D. & Brooks, B.L. (2004). Extraordinary mound-building forms of Avrainvillea (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta): their experimental taxonomy, comparative functional morphology and ecological strategies. Atoll Research Bulletin 515: 1-26, 25 figs.

Mya Kyawt Wai, Thida Nyunt, Soe Pa Pa Kyaw and Soe-Htun, U. (2009). The morphology and distribution of the genus Avrainvillea (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from Myanmar. Journal of Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science 7(5): 199-211.

Mya Kyawt Wai, Thida Nyunt, Soe Pa Pa Kyaw and Soe-Htun, U. (2009). The morphology and distribution of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from Myanmar. Journal of Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science 7(5): 183-187.

N'Yeurt, A.D.R., Littler, D.S. & Littler, M.M. (1996). Avrainvillea rotumensis sp. nov. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), a peltate species from the South Pacific. Phycological Research 44: 81-84.

Neustupa, J. & Nemcova, Y. (2018). Morphological allometry constrains symmetric shape variation, but not asymmetry, of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Ulvophyceae) segments. PLoS ONE 13(10 e0206492): 1-23, 4 figs, 4 tables.

Nizamuddin, M. (1995). Species of the genus Bryopsis Lamouroux (Bryopsidales-Chlorophyceae-Chlorophyta) from the coast of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 27: 3-39.

Oliveira-Carvalho, M. de F. de, Pereira, S.M.B. & Pedroche, F.F. (2010). Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil. Nova Hedwigia 91: 87-109.

Oliveira-Carvalho, M.F., Oliveira, M.C., Pereira, S.M.B. & Verbruggen, H. (2012). Phylogenetic analysis of Codium species from Brazil, with the description of the new species C. pernambucensis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 47(4): 355-365.

Payri, C.E. & Verbruggen, H. (2009). Pseudocodium mucronatum, a new species from New Caledonia, and an analysis of the evolution of climatic preferences in the genus (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(4): 953-961.

Phillips, J.A. (2009). Reproductive ecology of Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in subtropical eastern Australia. European Journal of Phycology 44(1): 81-88.

Pueschel, C.M. & West, J.A. (2007). Cytoplasmic streaming of calcium oxalate crystals in Callipsygma wilsonis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 55(4): 278-285.

Robledo, D. & Freile-Pelegrín, Y. (2005). Seasonal variation in photosynthesis and biochemical composition of Caulerpa spp. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from the Gulf of Mexico. Phycologia 44: 312-319.

Sangil, C., Martín-García, L., Alfonso-Carrillo, J., Barquín, J. & Sansón, M. (2018). Halimeda incrassata (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) reaches the Canary Islands: mid- and deep-water meadows in the eastern subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Botanica Marina 61(2): 103-110.

Sauvage, T., Payri, C., Draisma, S.G.A., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F., Verbruggen, H., Belton, G.S., Gurgel, F.D., Gabriel, D., Sherwood, A.R. & Fredericq, S. (2013). Molecular diversity of the Caulerpa racemosa-Caulerpa peltata complex (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in New Caledonia, with new Australasian records for C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Phycologia 52(1): 6-13.

Sauvage, T., Wynne, M.J., Paul, V.J. & Fredericq, S. (2014). Morphological and molecular clarification of the enigmatic Caulerpa floridana W.R. Taylor (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) from the Dry Tortugas, Florida. European Journal of Phycology 49(3): 370-383.

Scrosati, R (2001). Population dynamics of Caulerpa sertularioides (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) from Baja California, Mexico, during El Niño and La Niña years. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 721-726.

Silva, P.C., Pedroche, F.F., Chacana, M.E. & Miller, K.A. (2014). Validation of the names of two new species of Codium (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) from Isla Guadelupe and Rocas Alijos, Pacific Mexico and the southern California Channel Islands, with some remarks on insular endemism. Botanica Marina 57(4): 243-250.

Taskin, E., Wynne, M.J. & Bakir, N. (2018). First report, based on morpho-anatomical data, of the green alga Pseudocodium okinawense (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 61(4): 415-419.

Turan, G., Tekogul, H., Cirik, S. & Meinesz, A. (2011). First record of the invasive green seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales) on the coast of turkey. Cryptogamie Algologie 32(4): 379-382.

Tussenbroek, B.I. van, Santos, M.G. B. & Dijk, J.K. van (2006). Unusual synchronous spawning by green algae (Bryopsidales), after the passage of Hurricane Wilma (2005) . Botanica Marina 49(3): 270, 271.

van Tussenbroek, B.I. & van Dijk, J.K. (2007). Spatial and temporal variability in biomass and production of psammophytic Halimeda incrassata (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in a Caribbean reef lagoon. Journal of Phycology 43: 69-77.

Verbruggen H., Vlaeminck C., Sauvage T., Sherwood A.R., Leliaert F., De Clerck O. (2009). Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudochlorodesmis strains reveals cryptic diversity above the family level in the siphonous green algae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45: 726-731.

Verbruggen, H. & Kooistra, W.H.C.F (2004). Morphological characterization of lineages within the calcified tropical seaweed genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) . European Journal of Phycology 39: 213-228.

Verbruggen, H. & Schils, T. (2012). Rhipilia coppejansii, a new coral reef-associated species from Guam (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1090-1098.

Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.

Verbruggen, H., De Clerck, O., Cocquyt, E., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Coppejans, E. (2005). Morphometric taxonomy of siphonous green algae: a methodological study within the genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales). Journal of Phycology 41: 126-139.

Verbruggen, H., De Clerck, O., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Coppejans, E. (2005). Molecular and morphometric data pinpoint species boundaries in Halimeda section Rhipsalis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 606-621.

Verbruggen, H., De Clerck, O., N'Yeurt, A.D.R., Spalding, H. & Vroom, P. (2006). Phylogeny and taxonomy of Halimeda incrassata, including descriptions of H. kanaloana and H. heteromorpha spp. nov. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 337-362.

Verbruggen, H., De Clerck, O., Schils, T., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Coppejans, E. (2005). Evolution and phylogeography of Halimeda section Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 789-803.

Verbruggen, H., Leliaert, F., Maggs, C.A., Shimada, S., Schils, T., Provan, J., Booth, D., Murphy, S., De Clerck, O., Littler, D.S., Littler, M.M. & Coppejans, E. (2007). Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the green algal genus Codium (Bryopsidales) based on plastid DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 240-254.

Verbruggen, H., Littler, D.S., & Littler, M.M. (2007). Halimeda pygmaea and Halimeda pumila (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta: two new dwrarf species from fore reef slopes in Fiji and the Bahamas. Phycologia 46: 513-520.

Verbruggen, H., Vlaeminck, C., Sauvage, T., Sherwood, A.R., Leliaert, F. & de Clerck, O. (2009). Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudochlorodesmis strains reveals cryptic diversity above the family level in the siphonous green algae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(3): 726-731, 1 fig.

Verlaque, M., Afonso-Carillo, J., Gil-Rodríguez, M.C., Durand, C., Boudouresque, C.F. & Le Parco, Y. 2004 (2004). Blitzkrieg in a marine invasion: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) reaches the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic). Biological Invasions 6: 269-281.

Vroom, P.S. & Smith, C.M. (2003). Reproductive features of Hawaiian Halimeda velasquezii (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), and an evolutionary assessment of reproductive characters in Halimeda. Cryptogamie: Algologie 24: 355-370.

Vroom, P.S., Smith, C.M. & Keeley, S.C. (1998). Cladistics of the Bryopsidales: a preliminary analysis. Journal of Phycology 34: 351-360, 2 figs, 5 tables.

Vroom, P.S., Smith, C.S., Coyer, J.A., Walters, L.J., Hunter, C.L., Beach, K.S. & Smith, J.E. (2003). Field biology of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) across a depth gradient: comparative growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction. Hydrobiologia 501: 149-166.

Vroom, P.S., Smith, J.E. & Smith, C.M. (2001). Observations of reproduction in Rhipidosiphon javensis (Halimedineae, Bryopsidales) in Hawaii (Research Note). Phycologia 40: 97-100.

Walters, L.J., Smith, C.M., Coyer, J.A., Hunter, C.L., Beach, K.S. & Vroom, P.S. (2002). Asexual propagation in the coral reef macroalga Halimeda (Chlrophyta, Bryopsidales): production, dispersal and attachment of small fragments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 278: 47-65.

Woolcott, G.W., Knöller, K. & King, R.J. (2001 '2000'). Phylogeny of the Bryopsidaceae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta): cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular data. Phycologia 39: 471-181.

Wynne, M.J., Verbruggen, H. & Angel, D.J. (2009). The recognition of Caulerpa integerrima (Zanardini) comb. et stat. nov. (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from the Red Sea. Phycologia 48(4): 291-301, 13 figs, 2 tables.

Ximenes, C.F., Cassano, V., Oliveira-Carvahlo, M. de F. de, Bandiera-Pedrosa, M.E., Gurgel, C.F.D., Verbruggen, H. & Pereira, S.M.B. (2017). Systematics of the genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil including the description of Halimeda jolyana sp. nov. Phycologia 56(4): 369–381, 22 figs.

Xu, M., Lü, F., Peng, G., Niu, J. & Wang, G. (2012). Subcellular localization of a lectin in Bryopsis hypnoides (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyceae) and its expression during cell organellar aggragation. Phycologia 51(3): 340-346.

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Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 March 2019.

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