153,581 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,369 bibliographic items, 411,009 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Nemaliales

Nemaliales F.Schmitz in Engler, 1892: 17.

Source: Kamiya, M., Lindstrom, S.C., Nakayama, T., Yokoyama, A., Lin, S.-M., Guiry, M.D., Gurgel, F.D.G., Huisman, J.M., Kitayama, T., Suzuki, M., Cho, T.O. & Frey, W. (2017). Rhodophyta. In: Syllabus of Plant Families, 13th ed. Part 2/2 Photoautotrophic eukaryotic Algae. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. [i]-xii, [1]-171. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Original publication: Schmitz, F. (1892). [6. Klasse Rhodophyceae]. 2. Unterklasse Florideae. In: Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. Eine Uebersicht über das gesammte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen. Grosse Ausgabe. (Engler, A. Eds), pp. 16-23. Berlin: Borntraeger.

Key References
Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIA - Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales and Gigartinales sensu lato). pp. 1-508, 167 figs, 4 pls, 4 maps. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Schmitz, F. (1892). [6. Klasse Rhodophyceae]. 2. Unterklasse Florideae. In: Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. Eine Uebersicht über das gesammte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen. Grosse Ausgabe. (Engler, A. Eds), pp. 16-23. Berlin: Borntraeger.

Lin, S.-M., Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Huisman, J.M., Guiry, M.D. Payri, C., Nelson, W.A. & Liu, S.-L. (2015). A phylogenetic re-appraisal of the family Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) based on sequence analyses of two plastid genes and post-fertilization development. Journal of Phycology 51(3): 546-559.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abbott, I. A. (1981). Carpogonial morphology and post fertilization events in the lower Nemaliales (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 54-58.

Abbott, I.A. & Huisman, J.M. (2003). The Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) of the Hawaiian Islands II: the species of Liagora with quadripartite carposporangia, including descriptions of L. donaldiana sp. nov. and L. julieae sp. nov.. Phycologia 42: 594-605.

Abbott, I.A. & Huisman, J.M. (2005). Studies in the Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) I. The genus Trichogloea. Phycological Research 53(2): 149-163.

Abbott, I.A. & Yoshizaki, M. (1981). A second species of Dotyophycus (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) that emphasizes the distinctness of a diffuse gonimoblast. Phycologia 20: 222-227.

Abbott, I.A. (1970). Yamadaella, a new genus in the Nemaliales (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 9: 115-123, 9 figs.

Abbott, I.A. (1976). Dotyophycus pacificum gen. et sp. nov., with a discussion of some families of Nemaliales (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 15: 125-132, 9 figs.

Abbott, I.A. (1984). Two new species of Liagora (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) and notes on Liagora farinosa Lamouroux. American Journal of Botany 71: 1015-1022, 25 figs.

Abbott, I.A. (1990). A taxonomic and nomenclatural assessment of the species of Liagora (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) in the herbarium of Lamouroux. Cryptogamie, Algologie 11: 111-136, 29 figs.

Abbott, I.A. (1990). A taxonomic assessment of the species of Liagora (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) recognized by J. Agardh, based upon studies of type specimens. Cryptogamic Botany 1: 308-322, 17 figs, 2 tables.

Abbott, I.A. (1995). A new "tetrasporangial" species of Liagora (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) from Hawaii. Chinese Journal of Limnology and Oceanography 13: 343-347, 5 figs.

Afaq-Husain, S. & Shameel, M. (1991). The structure and reproduction of a new species Helminthocladia nizamuddinii (Nemaliales-Rhodophyta) from the coast of Pakistan. Botanica Marina 34: 81-89, 31 figs.

Afaq-Husain, S. & Shameel, M. (2001). Structure and reproduction of Scinaia moniliformis pakistanensis var. nov. (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Pakistan Journal of Botany 33(1): 53-68, 42 figs, 1 table.

Afaq-Husain, S., Nizamuddin, M. & Shameel, M. (1991). The structure and reproduction of a new taxon Dermonema abbottiae (Nemaliales-Rhodophyta) from the coast of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 34: 75-82, 39 figs, 1 table.

Afaq-Husain, S., Shameel, M., Usmanghani, K., Ahmad, M. & Ahmad, V.U. (1991). Phycochemical studies on Dermonema abbottiae (Nemaliales-Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 34: 215-220, 3 tables.

Bird, C.J. (1980). First record of female gametophytes of Bonemaisonia hamifera Hariot (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) in Nova Scotia. Proc. N. S. Acad. Sci. 30: 189-190.

Boney, A.D. (1972). Fluorescent substances from Acrochaetium species (Nemaliales, sub-class Florideophycidae, Rhodophyceae). Journal of Natural History 6: 47-53.

Boney, A.D. (1980). Post-attachment responses of monospores of some endophytic Audouinella spp. (Nemaliales: Florideophyceae). Nova Hedwigia 33: 499-507.

Borsje, W.J. (1973). Taxonomy and life history of Acrochaetium species (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 22: 79-80.

Chaing, Y.-M. (1970). Observations on the development of the carposporophyte of Scinaia pseudojaponica Yamada et Tanaka (Nemaliales, Chaetangiaceae). Journal of Phycology 6: 289-292.

Chen, L.C.-M., Edelstein, T., Bird, C. & Yabu, H. (1978). A culture and cytological study of the life history of Nemalion helminthoides (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Proc. N. S. Inst. Sci. 28: 191-199.

Chiang, Y.-M. (1972). Observations on the development of the carposporophyte of Liagora boergesenii Yamada (Nemaliales, Helminthocladiaceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 111-113.

Chihara, M. & Yoshizaki, M. (1972). Reproductive system of Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series B (Botany) 15: 395-401.

Cinelli, F. & Codomier, L. (1973). La genre Scinaia (Rhodophycées, Nemaliales) de la Méditerranée occidentale. Giornale Botanico Italiano 107: 281-290.

D'Lacoste, L.G. & Ganesan, E.K. (1972). A new freshwater species of Rhodochorton (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) from Venezuela. Phycologia 11: 233-238.

Dixon, P.S. & Irvine, L.M. (1977). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 1. Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-252, 90 figs. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Dixon, P.S. (1982). Life histories in the Florideophyceae with particular reference to the Nemaliales sensu lato. Botanica Marina 25: 611-621.

Garbary, D.J., Hansen, G.I. & Scagel, R.F. (1983). The marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington: division Rhodophyta (red algae), class Florideophyceae, orders Acrochaetiales and Nemaliales. Syesis 15 (Suppl. 1): 1-102, 40 figs.

Guimarães, S.M.P.B., Cordeiro-Marino, M., Fujii, M.T. & Yokoya, N.S. (1990). Occurrence of Helminthocladia calvadosii (Lamouroux ex Duby) Setchell (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Brasil: vegetative and reproductive morphological aspects. Revista Brasil. Bot. 13: 69-74.

Guiry, M.D. (1990). The life history of Liagora harveyana (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from south-eastern Australia. British Phycological Journal 25: 353-362, 14 figs.

Haines, H. H., Matulewicz, M. C. & Cerezo, A. S. (1990). Sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Nothogenia fastigiata (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 637-643.

Haines, H.H., Matulewicz, M.C. & Cerezo, A.S. (1990). Sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Nothogenia fastigiata (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 637-643.

Hall, J.D. & Murray, S.N. (1998). The life history of a Santa Catalina Island population of Liagora californica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the field and in laboratory culture. Phycologia 37: 184-194, 17 figs, 4 tables.

Hudson, P.R. & Wynne, M.J. (1969). Sexual plants of Bonnemaisonia geniculata (Nemaliales). Phycologia 8: 207-213.

Huisman, J.M. & Abbott, I.A. (2003). The Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) of the Hawaiian Islands I: First record of the genus Gloiotrichus for Hawai'i and the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 57: 267-273.

Huisman, J.M. & Womersley, H.B.S. (1992). Cystocarp development in the red alga Notogenia fastigiata (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales). Phycologia 31: 359-364.

Huisman, J.M. & Wynne, M.J. (1999). Liagora tsengii sp. nov. (Liagoraceae, Nemaliales) from the Lesser Antilles, West Indies. Botanica Marina 42: 219-225.

Huisman, J.M. (1986). The red algal genus Scinaia (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales) from Australia. Phycologia 25: 271-296, 82 figs.

Huisman, J.M. (2002). The type and Australian species of the red algal genera Liagora and Ganonema (Liagoraceae, Nemaliales). Australian Systematic Botany 15: 773-838.

Huisman, J.M. (2006). Algae of Australia Nemaliales. pp. [i-iv] v-viii, 1-153. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Huisman, J.M. (2006). Nemaliales. In: Algae of Australia Nemaliales. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 11. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A. & Sherwood, A.R. (2004). Large subunit rDNA gene sequences and reproductive morphology reveal Stenopeltis to be a member of the Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta), with a description of Akalaphycus gen. nov. European Journal of Phycology 39: 257-272.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A. & Sherwood, A.R. (2004). The Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) of the Hawaiian Islands III: the genus Ganonema, with a description of G. yoshizakii sp. nov.. Phycologia 43: 296-310.

Huisman, J.M., Harper, J.T. & Saunders, G.W. (2004). Phylogenetic study of the Nemaliales (Rhodophyta) based on large-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences supports segregation of the Scinaiaceae fam. nov. and resurrection of Dichotomaria Lamarck. Phycological Research 52(3): 224-234.

Huisman, J.M., Saunders, G.W. & Sherwood, A.W. (2006). Recognition of Titanophycus, a new genus based on Liagora valida Harv. (Liagoraceae, Nemaliales). In: Algae of Australia Nemaliales. (McCarthy, P.M. Eds), pp. 116-119. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Huisman, J.M., Sherwood, A.R. & Abbott, I.A. (2004). Studies of Hawaiian Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta): Large subunit rDNA gene sequences support conspecificity of Galaxaura rugosa and G. subverticillata. Cryptogamie Algologie 25: 337-352.

Hwang, I.-K. & Kim, H.-S. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 2. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae: Acrochaetiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales, Nemaliales. Nemalian red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-111, figs 1-66. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Itono, H. (1979). Actinotrichia robusta, a new species of the Chaetangiaceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Japanese Journal of Phycology 27: 137-141.

Kornmann, P. & Sahling, P.-H. (1980). Kalkbohrende Mikrothalli bei Helminthocladia und Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 34: 31-40.

Kornmann, P. & Sahling, P.-H. (1980). Shell-boring microthalli in Helminthocladia and Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Helgo. Meeresunters. 34: 31-40.

Kraft, G.T. (1988). Dotyophycus abbottiae (Nemaliales), a new red algal species from Western Australia. Phycologia 27(1): 131-141, 22 figs, 1 table.

Kraft, G.T. (1989). Cylindraxis rotundatus gen. et sp. nov. and its generic relationships within the Liagoraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 28: 275-304, 33 figs, 3 tables.

Krishnamurthy, V. & Sundararajan, M. (1985). Four new taxa of Nemaliales from India. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 8: 43-63, 95 figs, 1 plate.

Krishnamurthy, V. & Sundararajan, M. (1987). Studies on some Indian Nemaliales I. Liagora doridis Zeh, L. orientalis J. Ag. and L. visakhapatnamensis Umamaheswara Rao. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 10: 71-80, 37 figs.

Krishnamurthy, V. & Sundararajan, M. (1987). Studies on some Indian Nemaliales II. The genus Scinaia Bivona-Bernardi. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 10: 109-125, 59 figs.

Kurihara, A., Arai, S., Shimada, S. & Masuda, M. (2005). The conspecificity of Galaxaura apiculata and G. hystrix (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) inferred from comparative morphology and rbcL, and ITS1 sequences. European Journal of Phycology 40: 39-52.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders, G.W. (2010). Establishment of a DNA-barcode library for the Nemaliales (Rhodophyta) from Canada and France uncovers overlooked diversity in the species Nemalion helminthoides (Velley) Batters. Cryptogamie Algologie 31(4): 403-421.

Lee, Y. & Ko, Y.D. (2006). The red algal genus Scinaia (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales) on Jeju Island, Korea. Algae 21(3): 267-281, 6 figs.

Lee, Y.-P. & Lee, I.K. (1988). Contribution to the generic classification of the Rhodochortaceae (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Botanica Marina 31: 119-131, 8 figs, 1 table.

Lee, Y.-P. & Yoshida, T. (1997). The Acrochaetiaceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Hokkaido. Scientific Papers of the Institute of Algological Research, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University 9(2): 159-229.

Lee, Y.P. & Lee, I.K. (1988). Contribution to the generic classification of the Rhodochortonaceae (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Botanica Marina 31: 119-131.

Leôn-Cisneros, K. & Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. (2005). Morphometrics of Scinaia latifrons (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the southwestern Gulf of California, Mexico. Algae 20(1): 31-36, 6 figs, 1 table.

León-Cisneros, K., Nogueira, E.M., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. & Neto, A.I. (2011). Life-cycle of Scinaia interrupta (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 23: 467-473.

León-Cisneros, K., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. & Neto, A.I. (2011). A reevaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores. Helgolander Mar. Res. 65: 111-121.

León-Cisneros, K., Riosmena-Rodríguez, R., Neto, A.I. & Hernández-Carmona, G. (2009). The red algal genus Scinaia (Nemaliales; Rhodophyta) on the Gulf of California, Mexico: a taxonomic account. Phycologia 48(3): 186-210, 60 figs, 10 tables.

Maggs, C.A. & Guiry, M.D. (1982). The taxonomy, morphology and distribution of species of Scinaia Biv.-Bern. (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in north-western Europe. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 517-523.

Magruder, W.H. (1984). Reproduction and life history of the red alga Galaxaura oblongata (Nemaliales, Galaxauraceae). Journal of Phycology 20: 402-409, 27 figs.

Masuda, M. & Horiguchi, K. (1988). Additional notes on the life history of Nemalion vermiculare Suringar (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Japanese Journal of Phycology 36: 231-236.

Nicolson, D.H. & Norris, J.N. (1983). Ordinal orthography: Nemalionales vs. Nemaliales (Rhodophyta). Taxon 32: 288-292.

Nunes, J.M. de C. (2005). A família Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) no estado da Bahia, Brasil. Hoehnea 32(3): 429-444.

Ogden, N.B. (1992). Morphology, reproduction and range extension of Rhodogorgon (? Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 470-477.

Papenfuss, G. F. & Chiang, Y.-M. (1969). Remarks on the taxonomy of Galaxaura (Nemaliales, Chaetangiaceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 303-314.

Papenfuss, G.F. & Chiang, Y.M. (1969). Remarks on the taxonomy of Galaxaura (Nemaliales, Chaetangiaceae). In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Seaweed Symposium, Santiago de Compostela...1968. ( Eds), pp. 303-314. Madrid: Subsecretaría de la Marina Mercante.

Popolizio, T.R., Schneider, C.W. & Lane, C.E. (2015). A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. Journal of Phycology 51(4): 637-658.

Popolizio, T.R., Schneider, C.W., Chengsupanimit, T., Saunders, G.W. & Lane, C.E. (2013). Notes on the marine algae of the Bermudas. 13. Helminthocladia kempii sp. nov. (Nemaliales, Liagoraceae) based upon H. calvadosii sensu auct. from western Atlantic. Cryptogamie Algologie 34: 22-244, 11 figs, 2 tables.

Rozas, E. & Freitas, J.C. (2007). Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 13: 544-548.

Sánchez, I., Fernández, C. & Rico, J.M. (2003). Distribution, abundance and phenology of two species of Liagora (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in northern Spain. Phycologia 42(1): 7-17.

Schneider, C.W. (1983). The red algal genus Audouinella Bory (Nemaliales: Arochaetiaceae) from North Carolina. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 22: i-iii, 1-25.

Searles, R.B. & Lewis, S.M. (1983). North Carolina marine algae. XI. A new species of Helminthocladia (Liagoraceae,Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) with a reappraisal of the generic limits of Helminthocladia and Helminthora. Journal of Phycology 19: 164-172.

Stegenga, H. & Borsje, W.J. (1976). The morphology and life history of Acrochaetium dasyae Collins (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 24: 15-29.

Stegenga, H. & Borsje, W.J. (1977). The morphology and life history of Acrochaetium polyblastum (Rosenv.) Børg. and Acrochaetium hallandicum (Kylin) Hamel (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 26: 451-470.

Stegenga, H. & Mulder, A.S. (1979). Remarks on the Audouinella microscopica (Näg.) Woelkerling complex, with a brief survey of the genus Chromastrum Papenfuss (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 28: 289-311.

Stegenga, H. & van Erp, N.D. (1979). Morphological variation in the genus Acrochaetium (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 28: 425-448.

Stegenga, H. & van Wissen, M.J. (1979). Remarks on the life histories of three acrochaetioid algae (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 28: 97-115.

Stegenga, H. & Vroman, M. (1976). The morphology and life history of Acrochaetium densum (Drew) Papenfuss (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 25: 257-280.

Stegenga, H. (1978). Life histories of Rhodochorton purpureum and Rhodochorton floridulum (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales) in culture. British Phycological Journal 13: 279-289.

Suzuki, M., Segawa, T., Mori, H., Akiyoshi, A., Ootsuki, R., Kurihara, A., Sakayama, H., Kitayama, T., Abe, T., Kogame, K., Kawai, H. & Nozaki, H. (2016). Next-generation sequencing of an 88-year-old specimen of the poorly known species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov. PLoS ONE 11(7): 1-17.

Talarico, L. & Cortese, A. (1993). Response of Audouinella saviana (Meneghini) Woelkerling (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) cultures to monochromatic light. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 477-484.

Talarico, L. (1990). R-phycoerythrin from Audouinella savina (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of aggregates and sub-units. Phycologia 29: 292-302.

Thida Nyunt & Soe-Htun, U. (2014). A revision on morphotaxonomy and phytogeographical distribution of the genus Galaxaura Lamouroux (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Myanmar. Mawlamyine University Research Journal 5(1): [1-11].

Thida Nyunt and Soe-Htun, U. (2008). Studies on the morphology and distribution of Galaxaura arborea Kjellman (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Myanmar. Universities Research Journal 1(4): 327-334.

Umezaki, I. (1972). The life histories of some Nemaliales whose tetrasporophytes were unknown. In: Contributions to the Systematics of Benthic Marine Algae of the North Pacific. (Abbott, I.A. & Kurogi, M. Eds), pp. 231-242. Kobe, Japan: Japanese Soc. Phycol..

Velásquez-Boadas, A., Vera, B., Villarroel, J. & Rodriguez, J. (2014). Primer registro de Nemalion cari-cariense (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) para la costa venezolana. Ciencia (Venezuela) 22(2): 80-89, 6 figs.

Vélez, S. M., Vega, R.M. & García-Ríos, C.I. (2000). Primer informe de Trichogloeopsis pedicellata (M. Howe). I. A. Abbott y Doty (Nemaliales: Rhodophyta) para Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 36(1-2): 151-153.

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Vroom, P.S & Abbott, I.A. (2004). Scinaia huismanii sp. nov. (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta): an addition to the exploration of the marine algae of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Phycologia 43: 445-454.

Wang, W.-L. & Chiang, Y.-M. (2001). The reproductive development of the red alga Actinotrichia fragilis (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales). European Journal of Phycology 36: 377-384.

Wang, W.-L., Liu, S.-L. & Lin, S.-M. (2005). Systematics of the calcified genera of the Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) with an emphasis on Taiwan species. Journal of Phycology 41: 685-703.

Yin Yin Htay & Soe-Htun, U. (2010). Morphology and distribution of the genus Liagora Lamouroux (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Myanmar. Mawlamyine University Research Journal 2(1): 1-13.

Yoshizaki, M. (1977). Morphology and taxonomy of the Japanese representatives of Nemaliales (1). Thallus structure and reproductive organs of Nemalion multifidum. Japanese Journal of Botany 52: 72-79.

Yoshizaki, M. (1978). Morphology and taxonomy of the Japanese representatives of Nemaliales (2). Thallus structure and reproductive organs of Dermonema dichotomum and D. pulvinatum. Japanese Journal of Botany 53: 145-153.

Yoshizaki, M. (1979). Morphology and taxonomy of the Japanese representative of Nemaliales (4) Thallus structure and reproductive organs of Yamadaella cenomyce. Japanese Journal of Botany 54: 225-233.

Yoshizaki, M. (1987). The structure and reproduction of Patenocarpus paraphysiferus gen. et sp. nov. (Dermonemataceae, Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 26: 47-52.

Zablackis, E. (1987). The red alga Scinaia furcata sp. nov. (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales) from Hawaii. Phycologia 26: 53-58, 12 figs, 1 table.

Zeng, C. (Tseng, C.K.), Luan, R., Chen, Z. & Li, W. (2005). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus II Rhodophyta No. II Acrochaetiales Nemaliales Bonnemaisoniales. pp. [i-vii], i-xxiii, 1-180 , pls I-VIII. Beijing: Science Press.

Zhao Xiongfei [Zhao, X.F.] (1995). [Granufilum, a new fresh water genus of Acrochaetiaceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Zhejiang Province, China]. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 26(4): 431-438. [in Chinese with English abstract]

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 November 2018.

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