152,876 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,939 images, 59,121 bibliographic items, 408,269 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Gracilariales

Gracilariales Fredericq & Hommersand, 1989: 225.

Source: Kamiya, M., Lindstrom, S.C., Nakayama, T., Yokoyama, A., Lin, S.-M., Guiry, M.D., Gurgel, F.D.G., Huisman, J.M., Kitayama, T., Suzuki, M., Cho, T.O. & Frey, W. (2017). Rhodophyta. In: Syllabus of Plant Families, 13th ed. Part 2/2 Photoautotrophic eukaryotic Algae. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. [i]-xii, [1]-171. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Original publication: Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Proposal of the Gracilariales ord. nov. (Rhodophyta) based on an analysis of the reproductive development of Gracilaria verrucosa. Journal of Phycology 25: 213-227, 57 figs..

Authority notes: GRACILARIALES S. Fredericq & M.H. Hommersand

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Álvarez-Gómez, F., Bouzon, Z.L., Korbee, N., Celis-Plá, P., Schmidt, E.C. & Figueroa, F.L. (2017). Combined effects of UVR and nutrients on cell structure, photosynthesis and biochemistry in Gracilariopsis longissima (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Algal Research 24: 190-202.

Araki, S., Sakurai, T., Oohusa, T., Kayama, M. & Nisizawa, K. (1990). Content of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids in polar lipids from Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 513-519.

Ardito M., S., Núñez-Resendiz, M.L., Dreckman, K.M. & Sentíes, A. (2017). Gracilaria falconii sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): a new species with flat axes from Venezuela. Phytotaxa 292(3): 271-278, 9 figs, 1 table.

Ayres-Ostrock, L.M. & Plastino, E.M. (2014). Effects of UV-B radiation on growth rates, pigment content and ultrastructure of red (wild type),greenish-brown and green strains of Gracilaria birdiae (Gracilariales, Rhodphyta). European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 197-212.

Bellanger, F., Verdus, M. C., Henocq, V. & Christiaen, D. (1990). Determination of the composition of the fibrillar part of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) cell wall in order to prepare protoplasts. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 527-531.

Bellanger, F., Verdus, M.C., Henocq, V. & Christiaen, D. (1990). Determination of the composition of the fibrillar part of Gracilaria verrucosa Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) cell wall in order to prepare protoplasts. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 527-531.

Bellorin, A.M., Buriyo, A., Sohrabipour, J., Oliveira, M.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2008). Gracilariopsis mclachlanii sp. nov. and Gracilariopsis persica sp. nov. of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyceae) from the Indian Ocean. Journal of Phycology 44: 1022-1032.

Bellorin, A.M., Oliveira, M.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2002). Phylogeny and systematics of the marine algal family Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on small subunit rDNA and ITS sequences of Atlantic and Pacific species. Journal of Phycology 38: 551-563.

Bird, C. J. & Rice, E. L. (1990). Recent approaches to the taxonomy of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and the Gracilaria verrucosa problem. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 111-118.

Bird, C.J. & Rice, E.L. (1990). Recent approaches to the taxonomy of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and the Gracilaria verrucosa problem. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 111-118.

Bird, C.J., Nelson, W.A., Rice, E.L., Ryan, K.G. & Villemur, R. (1990). A critical comparison of Gracilaria chilensis and G. sordida (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales). Journal of Applied Phycology 2: 375-382.

Bird, C.J., Rice, E.L., Murphy, C.A. & Ragan, M.A. (1992). Phylogenetic relationships in the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) as determined by 18S rDNA sequences. Phycologia 31: 510-522.

Bird, K. T. & Ryther, J. H. (1990). Cultivation of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) strain G-16 for agar. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 347-351.

Bird, K.T. & Ryther, J.H. (1990). Cultivation of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) strain G-16 for agar. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 347-351.

Bonomi Barufi, J., Cabral de Oliveira, E., Plastino, E.M., Cabral de Oliveira, M. (2010). Life history, morphological variability and growth rates of the life phases of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Rhodophyta: Gracilariales) in vitro . Scientia Marina 74(2): 297-303.

Buschmann, A. H., Max, T., Nils, K. & Lena, K. (1996). Integrated tank cultivation of salmonids and Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 75-82.

Campbell, M.A., Presting, G.P., Bennett, M.S. & Sherwood, A.R. (2014). Highly conserved organellar genomes in the Gracilariales as inferred using new data from the Hawaiian invasive alga Gracilaria salicornia. Phycologia 53(2): 109-116.

Candia, A. (1991). The life history of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): Deviations in the reproductive pattern and genetic implications.. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 64: 331-334.

Candia, A. (1992). The life history of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) - deviations in the reproductive pattern and genetic implications. Rev Chil Hist Nat 64(2): 331-334.

Chan, C.X., Teo, S.S., Ho, C.L., Othman, R.Y. & Phang, S.M. (2004). Optimisation of RNA extraction from Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 16(4): 297-301.

Chow, F. & de Oliveira, M.C. (2009). Rapid and slow modulation of nitrate reductase activity in the red macroalga Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): influence of difference nitrogen sources. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 325-332, 5 figs.

Cohen, S., Faugeron, S., Martinez, E.A., Correa, J.A., Viard, F., Destombe, C. & Valero, M. (2004). Molecular identification of two sibling species under the name Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales). Journal of Phycology 40: 742-747.

Destombe, C., Godin, J. & Remy, J.-M. (1990). Viability and dissemination of spermatia of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 219-223.

Destombe, C., Godin, J., Lefevre, J.R., Dehorter, O. & Vernet, P. (1992). Differences in dispersal abilities of haploid and diploid spores of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 35: 93-98, 6 figs.

Destombe, C., Valero, M. & Guillemin, M.L. (2010). Delineation of two sibling red algal species, Gracilaria gracilis and Gracilaria dura (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), using multiple DNA markers: resurrection of the species G. dura previously described in the northern Atlantic 200 years ago. Journal 0f Phycology 46(4): 720-727.

Durairatnam, M., Brito Medeiros, T. M. d. & Sena, A. M. d. (1990). Studies on the yield and gel strength of agar from Gracilaria domingenis Sonder ex Kuetzing (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) following the addition of calcium. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 551-553.

Dutcher, J.A., Kapraun, D.F. & Sizemore, R.K. (1990). Inter- and intraspecific variation of nuclear DNA reassociation kinetics in the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 2: 259-267.

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Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M. (1990). Morphology and systematics of Holmsella pachyderma (Pterocladiophilaceae, Gracilariales). British Phycological Journal 25: 39-51, 40 figs..

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M. (1990). Taxonomy of Melanthalia obtusata var. abscissa and its placement in the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta). Cryptogamic Botany 2: 4-11.

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Comparative morphology and taxonomic status of Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 25: 228-241, 49 figs..

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Proposal of the Gracilariales ord. nov. (Rhodophyta) based on an analysis of the reproductive development of Gracilaria verrucosa. Journal of Phycology 25: 213-227, 57 figs..

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Reproductive morphology and development of the cystocarp in Curdiea flabellata Chapman (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). New Zealand Journal of Botany 27: 521-530.

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1990). Diagnoses and key to the genera of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 172-178, 14 figs..

Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (1992). Studies on cylindrical species of western Atlantic Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): G. cylindrica Børgesen and G. blodgettii Harvey. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.2, pp. 211-231. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College.

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M. H. (1990). Diagnoses and key to the genera of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 173-178.

Fredericq, S., Hommersand, M.H. & Norris, J.N. (1989). Morphological observations on the adelphoparasite Gracilariophila oryoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Japanese Journal of Phycology 37: 167-179.

Furneaux, R. H., Miller, I. J. & Stevenson, T. T. (1990). Agaroids from New Zealand members of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) - a novel dimethylated agar. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 645-654.

Furneaux, R.H., Miller, I.J. & Stevenson, T. (1990). Aragoids from New Zealand members of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) — a novel dimethylated agar. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 645-654.

Gan, S.Y., Qin, S., Othman, R.Y., Yu, D. & Phang, S.M. (2003). Transient expression of lacZ in particle bombarded Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 15(4): 351-353.

Ganesan, E. K. (1993). Morphological and taxonomic studies on some little-known species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales : Rhodophyta) from Venezuela.1.G. damaecornis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 91-96.

Ganesan, E.K. (1994). Morphology and taxonomy of the little-known species Gracilaria cuneata J.E. Areschoug (Gracilariales: Rhodophyta) from Venezuela. Caribbean J. Sci. 30: 124-129.

Garcia-Rodriguez, L.D., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R., Kim, S,Y., Lopez-Meyer, M., Orduna-Rojas, J., Lopez-Vivas, J.M. & Boo, S.M. (2013). Recent introduction of Gracilaria parvispora (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in Baja California, Mexico. Botanica Marina 56(2): 143-150.

Gargiulo, G.M., De Masi, F. & Tripodi, G. (1992). Morphology, reproduction and taxonomy of the Mediterranean species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 53-80.

Godin, J., Destombe, C. & Maggs, C.A. (1993). Unusual chromosome number of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the Cape Gris-Nez area, Northern France. Phycologia 32: 291-294, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Goff, L.J., Moon, D.A. & Coleman, A.W. (1994). Molecular delineation of species and species relationships in the red algal agarophytes Gracilariopsis and Gracilaria (Gracilariales). Journal of Phycology 30: 521-537, 10 figs, 8 tables.

González, M., Montoya, R., Candia, A., Goméz, P. & Cisternas, M. (1996). Organellar DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and nuclear random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of morphotypes of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Chile. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symmposium 15: 229-234.

Guimarães, M., Plastino, E.M. & Oliveira, E.C. (1999). Life history, reproduction and growth of Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Botanica Marina 42: 481-486.

Guimaráes, M., Goncalves Viana, A., Duarte, M.E.R., Ascëncio, S.D., Plastgino, E.M. & Noseda, M.D. (2007). Low-molecular-mass carbohydrates and soluble polysaccharides of green and red morphs of Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 50: 314-317.

Guimarães, M., Plastino, E.M. & Destombe, C. (2003). Green mutant frequency in natural populations of Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil. European Journal of Phycology 38(2): 165-170.

Gulbransen, D.J., McGlathery, K.J., Marklund, M., Norris, J.N. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2012). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) in Virginia coastal bays, USA: cox1 analysis reveals high genetic richness of an introduced macroalga. Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1278-1283.

Gurgel, C.F.D, Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2003). Gracilariopsis silvana sp. nov., G. hommersandii sp. nov., and G. cata-luziana sp. nov., three new species of Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the western Atlantic. Hidrobiologica 13: 57-68.

Gurgel, C.F.D. & Fredericq, S. (2004). Systematics of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): a critical assessment based on rbcL sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 40: 138-159.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2004). Molecular systematics and taxonomy of flattened species of Gracilaria Greville (Gracilariaceae, Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the Western Atlantic. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to the Pacific and other locations Volume IX. (Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. Eds) Vol. 9, pp. 159-200.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Fredericq, S., Norris, J.N. & Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. (2008). Two new flat species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil: G. abyssalis sp. nov. and G. brasiliensis sp. nov.. Phycologia 47: 249-264.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Liao, L.M., Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (2003). Systematics of Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analyses and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 39: 154-171.

Guzman-Uriostegui, A. & Robledo, D. (1999). Factors affecting sporulation of Gracilaria cornea (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) carposporophytes from Yucatan, Mexico.. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 285-290.

Guzmán-Urióstegui, A., García-Jiménez, P., Marián, F., Robledo, D. & Robaina, R. (2002). Polyamines influence maturation in reproductive structures of Gracilaria cornea (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 38: 1169-1175.

Haglund, K., Björklund, M., Gunnare, S., Sandberg, A., Olander, U. & Pedersén, M. (1996). New method for toxicity assessment in marine and brackish environments using the macroalga Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 317-325.

Hanisak, M. D. (1990). The use of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) as amodel system to understand the nitrogen nutrition of cultured seaweeds. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 79-87.

Hanisak, M.D. (1990). The use of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) as a model system to understand the nitrogen nutrition of cultured seaweeds. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 79-87.

Hommersand, M.H. & Freshwater, D.W. (2009). Gracilaria hummii sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new name for the agarophyte "Gracilaria confervoides" harvested in North Carolina during World War II. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 503-516, 8 figs.

Hughes, M.H., Michetti, K.M. & Leonardi, P.I. (2014). Settlement of Gracilaria gracilis carpospores (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) on natural substrates from the southwestern Atlantic coast (Chubut, Argentina). Botanica Marina 57(2): 131-137.

Hurtado-Ponce, A.Q. (1992). Rheological properties of agar from Gracilariopsis heteroclada (Zhang et Xia) Zhang et Xia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) treated with powdered lime and aqueous alkaline solution. Botanica Marina 35: 365-369.

Hurtado-Ponce, A.Q. (1994). Agar production from Gracilariopsis heteroclada (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) grown at different salinity levels. Botanica Marina 37: 97-100, 1 fig, 3 tables.

Iyer, R., Tronchin, E.M., Bolton, J.J. & Coyne, V.E. (2005). Molecular systematics of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) with emphasis on Southern Africa. Journal of Phycology 41: 672-684.

Kakita, H. & Kamishima, H. (2007). Effects of environmental factors and metal ions on growth of the red alga Gracilaria chorda Holmes (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 243-248.

Kamiya, M., Kawai, H., Moon, D. & Goff, L.J. (2011). Isolation and characterization of phase-specific cDNAs from carposporophytes of Gracilariopsis andersonii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 46(1): 27-35.

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Kapraun, D.F. & Dutcher, J.A. (1991). Cytophotometric estimation of inter- and intraspecific nuclear DNA content variation in Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 34: 139-144.

Kapraun, D.F. (1993). Karyology and cytophotometric estimation of nuclear DNA content variation in Gracilaria, Gracilariopsis and Hydropuntia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 28: 253-260.

Kapraun, D.F., Dutcher, J.A. & Freshwater, D.W. (1993). Quantification and characterization of nuclear genomes in commercial red seaweeds: Gracilariales and Gelidiales. Hydrobiologia 260-261: 679-688.

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Lim, P.E. & Phang, S.M. (2004). Gracilaria species (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) of Malaysia including two new records. Malaysian Journal of Science 23(2): 71-80.

Lin, S.-M. & De Clerck, O. (2006). A new flattened species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Taiwan. Cryptogamie, Algologie 27: 233-244, 21 figs.

Lyra, G. de M., Gurgel, C.F.D., Costa, E. da Silva, Barreto de Jesus, P., Caires, T.A., Gama de Matos, J.C., Oliveira, M.C., Oliveira, E.C. & Nunes, J.M.C. (2015). A new tropical species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): Gracilaria silviae sp. nov. Phytotaxa 222(3): 199-210, 12 figs.

Macchiavello, J., Saito, A., Garófalo, G. & Oliveira, E.C. (1999). A comparitive analysis of agarans from commercial species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) grown in vitro. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 397-400.

Mantri, V.A., Thakur M.C., Manoj K., Reddy, C.R.K and Jha, B. (2009). The carpospore culture of industrially important red alga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Aquaculture 297: 85-90.

Meneses, I. (1996). Assessment of populations of Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) utilizings RAPDs. Journal of Applied Phycology 8: 185-192.

Michetti, K.M., Miravalles, A.B., Hughes, M.H. & Leonardi, P.I. (2016). Infection process of Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales) on the agarophyte Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales). Botanica Marina 59(1): 51-61.

Montaño, N.E., Villanueva, R.D. & Romero, J.B. (1999). Chemical characteristics and gelling properties of agar from the Philippine Gracilaria spp. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 541-548.

Muangmai, N., Lewmanomont, K., Prathep, A., Terada, R. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2017). Gracilaria coppejansii sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new flattened species from the Andaman coast of southern Thailand. Botanica Marina 60(5): 533-541.

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Murano, E., Brandolin, C., Zanetti, F., Paoletti, S. & Rizzo, R. (1990). Characterization of an agar fraction extracted from Gracilaria dura (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 567-571.

Naidoo, R.K., Rafudeen, M.S. & Coyne, V.E. (2016). Investigation of the Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) proteome response to nitrogen limitation. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 369-383.

Navarro-Angulo, L. & Robledo, D. (1999). Effects of nitrogen source, N:P ratio and N-pulse concentration and frequency on the growth of Gracilaria cornea (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 315-320.

Nelson, W.A. & Dalen, J. (2014). Taxonomic notes on the New Zealand macroalgal flora: synonymic checklist of the red algal order Gracilariales with selection of lectotypes and description of a new species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 52(2): 236-244.

Nelson, W.A. & Knight, G.A. (1997). Reproductive structures in Curdiea coriacea (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) including the first report of spermatangia for the genus. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 195-202.

Nelson, W.A. & Ryan, K.G. (1991). Comparative study of reproductive development in two species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). 11. Carposporogenesis. Cryptogamic Botany 2/3: 234-241.

Nelson, W.A., Knight, G.A. & Falshaw, R. (1999). A new agarophyte, Curdiea balthazar sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), from the Three Kings Islands, Northern New Zealand.. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 57-63.

Nelson, W.A., Payri. C.E., Sutherland, J.E. & Dalen, J. (2013). The genus Melanthalia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): new insights from New Caledonia and New Zealand. Phycologia 52(5): 426-436.

Norris, J.N. & Fredericq, S. (1990). Studies on cylindrical species of western Atlantic Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): G. cylindrica Børgesen and G. blodgettii Harvey. Journal of Phycology 26: 20.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 September 2018.

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