153,585 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,387 bibliographic items, 411,011 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Gelidiales

Gelidiales Kylin, 1923: 132.

Source: Huisman, J.M., Boo, G.H. & Boo, S.M. (2018). Gelidiales. In: Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 2. Red algae. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 245-264. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Original publication: Kylin, H. (1923). Studien über die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Florideen. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, Ny Följd 63(11): 1-139.

Description:
Thallus firm and cartilaginous, attached by a fibrous or discoid holdfast; some species stoloniferous. Erect axes terete to compressed or flattened, subdichotomously to irregularly or pinnately branched; growth apical. Structure uniaxial, with distichous or decussate lateral filaments arising in pairs from each axial cell, these branching, forming secondary pit connections with adjacent filaments and forming a cortex. Cortical cells small and closely packed in transverse section; inner cortex and/or medulla with or without thickened internal rhizines. Reproductive structures in determinate fertile branches. Sexual plants dioecious, rarely monoecious. Female gametophytes with a notch at fertile branch tips and a longitudinal furrow that contains the developing female reproductive structures. Carpogonia on inner cortical cells, lateral and sessile, or intercalary, usually with nutritive filaments arising on adjacent cells. Post-fertilisation stages involving multiple fusions among reproductive and surrounding vegetative cells. Cystocarps with a thick pericarp with 1 or more ostioles; carposporangia solitary or in chains. Male gametophytes bearing spermatangia in colourless patches. Tetrasporangia embedded, usually cruciately divided; occasionally bisporangial, with 2 nuclei per spore. Life history triphasic, with gametophytes and tetrasporophytes usually isomorphic, rarely biphasic and possibly heteromorphic [modified from Womersley & Guiry (1994) and Abbott (1999)].

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Afaq-Husain, S. & Shameel, M. (1996). Morphology, anatomy and reproduction of the populations of a new alga Gelidium usmanghanii (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Candollea 51(2): 433-443, 18 figs..

Akatsuka, I. & Masaki, T. (1983). Beckerella irregularis sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Gelidiaceae) from Japan. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 34: 11-19.

Akatsuka, I. (1970). Morphology of the cortical layer of some species of Gelidiales. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for Phycology 18: 72-76. [in Japanese, English summary]

Akatsuka, I. (1986). Japanese Gelidiales (Rhodophyta), especially Gelidium. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 34: 171-263.

Akatsuka, I. (1987). Taxonomy and distribution of Beckerella (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Aquatic Botany 28: 257-274.

Alfonso, B., Hernández, J.C. & Sansón, M. (2018). Tetraspore germination of two vulnerable marine algae, Gelidium canariense and G. arbusculum (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales). Botanica Marina 61(2): 111-114.

Alfonso, B., Sangil, C. & Sansón, M. (2017). Morphological and phenological reexamination of the threatened endemic species Gelidium canariense (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands. Botanica Marina 60(5): 543-553.

Andriamampandry, A.V. (1988). Beckerella pterocladiodes sp. nov. et Gelidium madagascariense sp. nov. deux espèces de Gelidiales - Rhodophytes de Fort-Dauphin (Madagascar). Cryptogamie, Algologie 9: 243-259, 26 figs.

Bailey, J.C. & Freshwater, D.W. (1997). Molecular systematics of the Gelidiales: inferences from separate and combined analyses of plastid rbcL and nuclear SSU gene sequences. European Journal of Phycology 32: 343-352, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Barbagallo, C., Cormaci, M. & Furnari, G. (1979). Sul contenuto in agar di Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Thiret et Birnet (Rhodophyceae, Gelidiales). Pubbl Inst bot Univ Catania : 1-4.

Bird, K.T. (1976). Simultaneous assimilation of ammonium and nitrate by Gelidium nudifrons (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 12: 238-241.

Boo, G.H. & Geraldino, P.J.L. (2016). Pterocladiella maribagoensis (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta), a new marine alga from Cebu, Philippines. Phytotaxa 288(3): 239-248, 10 figs.

Boo, G.H., Cai, Y. & Boo, S.M. (2016). Molecular identification of gelidioid algae (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Singapore with a description of Gelidium sentosaense sp. nov.. Phycologia 55(3): 247-256.

Boo, G.H., Cai, Y., Kim, J.Y. & Boo, S.M. (2015). Phylogeny and morphology of Parviphycus myriocladus (Børgesen) comb. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Asian waters. Botanica Marina 58(6): 475-483.

Boo, G.H., Calderón, M.S. & Boo, S.M. (2017). A new marine alga, Pterocladiella andresii sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) and its relationship to P. caloglossoides from Pacific South America. Phytotaxa 319(2): 139-148, 19 fig., 1 table.

Boo, G.H., Kim, K.M., Nelson, W.A., Riosmena-Rodríguez, R., Yoon, K.J. & Boo, S.M. (2014). Taxonomy and distribution of selected species of the agarophyte genus Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 26: 1243-1251.

Boo, G.H., Le Gall, L., Hwang, I.K. & Boo, S.M. (2016). Pterocladiella feldmannii sp. nov. and P. hamelii sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta), two new species uncovered in Madagascar during the Atimo Vatae expedition. Cryptogamie Algologie 37(3): 179-198, 21 figs.

Boo, G.H., Le Gall, L., Hwang, I.K., Miller, K.A. & Boo, S.M. (2018). Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Ptilophora (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) with descriptions of P. aureolusa, P. malagasya, and P. spongiophila from Madagascar. Journal of Phycology 54(2): 249-263.

Boo, G.H., Le Gall, L., Miller, K.A., Freshwater, D.W., Wernberg, T., Terada, R., Yoon, K.J. & Boo, S.M. (2016). A novel phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on five genes including the nuclear CesA, with descriptions of Orthogonacladia gen. nov. and Orthogonacladiaceae fam. nov. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 359-372, 6 figs.

Boo, G.H., Le Gall, L., Rousseau, F., Reviers, B. de, Coppejans, E., Anderson, R. & Boo, S.M. (2015). Phylogenetic relationships of Gelidiella (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Madagascar with a description of Gelidiella incrassata sp. nov.. Cryptogamie Algologie 36(2): 219-237.

Boo, G.H., Park, J.K. & Boo, S.M. (2013). Gelidiophycus (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales): A new genus of marine algae from East Asia. Taxon 62(6): 1105-1116.

Boo, G.H., Park, J.K., Gerung, G.S. & Boo, S.M. (2013). Transfer of the red alga Gelidium zollingeri Sonder (Gelidiales) to Yonagunia (Halymeniales) based on morphological and molecular evidence. Phycologia 52(3): 279-287.

Bottalico, A., Boo, G.H., Russo, C., Boo, S.M. & Perrone, C. (2014). Parviphycus albertanoae sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from the Mediterranean Sea. Phycologia 53(3): 243-251.

Bottalico, A., Delle Foglie, C.I.& Fanelli, M. (2008). Growth and reproductive phenology of Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales) from the southern Adriatic Sea. Botanica Marina 51: 124-131.

Bottalico, A., Russo, C., Furnari, G. & Perrone, C. (2015). Parviphycus bompardii sp. nov. and P. albertanoae (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta), two species misidentified as Gelidiella ramellosa in the Mediterranean Sea. Phytotaxa 291(2): 155-164.

Bouza, N., Caujape-Castells, J., Gonzalez-Perez, M.A. & Sosa, P.A. (2006). Genetic structure of natural populations in the red algae Gelidium canariense (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers . Journal of Phycology 42: 304-311.

Bouzon, Z.L., Ouriques, L.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2005). Ultrastructure of tetraspore germination in the agar-producing seaweed Gelidium floridanum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 44: 409-415.

Bouzon, Z.L., Ouriques, L.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2007). Spore adhesion and cell wall formation in Gelidium floridanum (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 61-68.

Børgesen, F. (1943). Some marine algae from Mauritius. III. Rhodophyceae. Part 2. Gelidiales, Cryptonemiales, Gigartinales. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Meddelelser 19(1): 1-85, 42 figs, 1 plate.

Carter, A.R. & Anderson, R.J. (1985). Regrowth after experimental harvesting of the agarophyte Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta) in the eastern Cape Province. South African Journal of Marine Science 3: 111-118.

Carter, A.R. & Anderson, R.J. (1986). Seasonal growth and agar contents in Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Port Alfred , South Africa. Botanica Marina 29: 117-123.

Carter, A.R. & Simons, R.H. (1987). Regrowth and production capacity of Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) under various harvesting regimes at Port Alfred, South Africa. Botanica Marina 30: 227-231.

Carter, A.R. (1993). Chromosome observations relating to bispore production in Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 36: 253-256, 5 figs.

Chapman, V.J. (1956). The marine algae of New Zealand. Part II. Rhodophyceae. Issue 1: Bangiophyceae and Florideophycidae (Nemalionales, Bonnemaisoniales, Gelidiales). In: . ( Eds), pp. 1-113. Lehre: Cramer.

Chapman, V.J. (1969). The marine algae of New Zealand. Part III. Rhodophyceae, Issue 1. Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae (Nemalionales, Bonnemaisoniales, Gelidiales). In: . ( Eds), pp. 1-113. Lehre: Cramer.

D'Antonio, C.M. & Gibor, A. (1985). A note on some influences of photon flux density on the morphology of germlings of Gelidium robustum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in culture. Botanica Marina 28: 313-316.

de Oliveira Filho, E.C. & Berchez, F.A.S. (1993). Resource biology of Pterocladia capillaceae (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) populations in Brazil. Hydrobiologia 260/261: 255-261.

Delivopoulos, S.G. (2003). Ultrastructure of cystocarp development in Gelidium robustum (Gelidiaceae: Gelidiales: Rhodophyta). Marine Biology 142: 659-667.

Diaz-Tapia, P. & Bárbara, I. (2014). Seaweeds from sand-covered rocks of the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Part 2. Palmariales, Ceramiales (excluding Rhodomelaceae), Gelidiales, Gigartinales, Plocamiales, Rhodymeniales and Scytothamniales. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(2): 157-199.

Domínguez Álvarez, S., Rico, J.M. & Gil-Rodriguez, M.C. (2011). Photosynthetic response and zonation of three species of Gelidiales from Tenerife, Canary Islands. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 68: 117-124.

Fan, K.-C. & Papenfuss, G.F. (1959). Red algal parasites occurring on members of the Gelidiales. Madroño 15: 33-38, 10 figs.

Fan, K.-C. (1961). Morphological studies of the Gelidiales. University of California Publications in Botany 32: [i-iv], 315-368, 15 figs, Plates 33-46.

Feldmann, J. & Hamel, G. (). Floridées de France VII. Gélidiales. Revue Algologique IX: 210-264 (+ plates), 36 figs, 5/6 plates (some confusion in numbering of plates). [in French]

Feldmann, J. & Hamel, G. (1936). Floridées de France VII. Gélidiales. Revue Algologique 9: 85-140, 36 figs, pls 2-6.

Fralick, R. A., Baldwin, H. P., Neto, A. I. & Hehre, E. J. (1990). Physiological responses of Pterocladia and Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from the Azores, Portugal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 479-482.

Fredriksen, S. & Rueness, J. (1990). Culture studies on Pterocladia melanoidea (Schousboe ex Bornet) comb. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 29: 182-190.

Fredriksen, S., Rico, J.M. & Rueness, J. (1993). Comparison of Gelidium latifolium (Grev.) Born. et Thur. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) isolates from Spain and Norway. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 117-122.

Freshwater, D.W. & Rueness, J. (1994). Phylogenetic relationships of some European Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) species based upon rbcL nucleotide sequence analysis. Phycologia 33(3): 187-194, 2 figs, 3 tables.

Freshwater, D.W., Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1995). A molecular phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on analysis of plastid rbcL nucleotide sequences. Journal of Phycology 31(4): 616-632, 9 figs, 3 tables.

Freshwater, D.W., Tudor, K., O'Shaughnessy, K. & Wysor, B. (2010). DNA barcoding in the red algal order Gelidiales: comparison of COI with rbcL and verification of the "barcoding gap". Cryptogamie Algologie 31(4): 435-449.

Freshwater, W.D. (1993). Cytophotometric estimation of inter- and intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content in ten taxa of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology abd Ecology 166: 231-239.

Friedlander, M. (2009). Advances in cultivation of Gelidiales. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 1-6.

Ganesan, M., Reddy, C.R.K., Eswaran, K. & Jha, B. (2008). Seasonal variation in the biomass, quantity and quality of agar from Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann et Hamel (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India. Phycological Research 56(2): 93-104.

Givernaud, T., Sqali, N., Barbaroux, O., Orbi, A., Semmaoui, Y., Eddine Rezzoum, N., Mouradi, A. & Kaas, R. 2005 (2005). Mapping and biomass estimation for a harvested population of Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Phycologia 44: 66-71.

Givernaud, T.H., Mouradi, A., Hassani, A., Akallal, R. & Riyahi, J. (2003). Design of a new technique for the reseeding of overharvested beds of Gelidium sesquipedale (Turn.) Thuret (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) in Morocco. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 123-130.

Grusz, A.L. & Freshwater, D.W. (2014). Studies of Costa Rican Gelidiales (Florideophyceae), II. Two Pacific taxa including Gelidium microglossum sp. nov.. Pacific Science 68(1): 97-110.

Guiry, M.D. & Womersley, H.B.S. (1993). Capreolia implexa gen. et sp. nov. in Australia and New Zealand (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta); an intertidal red alga with an unusual life history. Phycologia 32: 266-277.

Hatta, A.M. & Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. (1991). A taxonomic revision of Indonesian Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Blumea 35: 347-380, 14 figs, 4 tables.

Hernández, I., Fernández, J.A. & Niell, F.X. (1995). A comparative study of alkaline phosphatase activity in two species of Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 30: 69-77, 8 figs, 3 tables.

Hommersand, M.H. & Fredericq, S. (1988). An investigation of cystocarp development in Gelidium pteridifolium with a revised description of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 27: 254-272, 34 figs.

Hommersand, M.H. & Fredericq, S. (1996). Vegetative and reproductive development of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from La Jolla, California. Nova Hedwigia 112: 147-160.

Huisman, J.M., Boo, G.H. & Boo, S.M. (2018). Gelidiales. In: Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 2. Red algae. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 245-264. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Huisman, J.M., Phillips, J.C. & Freshwater, D.W. (2009). Rediscovery of Gelidiella ramellosa (Kützing) Feldmann et Hamel (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from near the type locality in western Australia. Cryptogamie, Algologie 30(1): 3-16.

Iha, C., Milstein, D., Guimaraes, S.M.P.B., Freshwater, D.W. & Oliveira, M.C. (2015). DNA barcoding reveals high diversity in the Gelidiales of the Brazilian southeast coast. Botanica Marina 58(4): 295=305.

Iha, C., O'Shaughnessy, K.A., Guimarães, S.M.P.B., Oliveira, M.C. & Freshwater, D.W. (2016). Taxonomic reappraisal of Gelidium coarctacum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) and Gelidium lineare sp. nov. from the tropical western Atlantic. Phycologia 55(5): 555-563.

Jamas, M., Iha, C., Oliveira, M.C., Guimarães, S.M.P.B. & Fujii, M.T. (2017). Morphological and molecular studies on Gelidiaceae and Gelidiellaceae (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil with description of the new species Gelidium calidum. Phytotaxa 314(2): 195-218, 10 fig., 3 tables.

Kaneko, T. (1968). Morphological and developmental studies of Gelidiales II. On Acanthopeltis japonica Okamura. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 19: 165-172, 4 text figs, 1 table, 6 plates .

Kapraun, D. F., Dutcher, J. A. & D., W. F. (1993). Quantification and characterization of nuclear genomes in commercial red seaweeds: Gracilariales and Gelidiales. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 679-688.

Kapraun, D.F. & Bailey, J.C. (1989). Karyology and nuclear DNA content of Gelidium pusillum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from North Carolina, USA. Japanese Journal of Phycology 37: 201-207.

Kapraun, D.F., Dutcher, J.A. & Freshwater, D.W. (1993). Quantification and characterization of nuclear genomes in commercial red seaweeds: Gracilariales and Gelidiales. Hydrobiologia 260-261: 679-688.

Kim, K.M. & Boo, S.M. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships and distribution of Gelidium crinale and G.pusillum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) using coxl and rbcl sequences. Algae 27: 83-94.

Kim, K.M., Gerung, G.S. & Boo, S.M. (2011). Corrigendum [Two-gene sequences and morphology of Gelidium zollingeri (Kützing) comb. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta)]. Algae 26(2): 209.

Kim, K.M., Gerung, G.S. & Boo, S.M. (2011). Two-gene sequences and morphology of Gelidium zollingeri (Kützing) comb. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Algae 26(1): 33-40, 4 figs. 1 table.

Kim, K.M., Hwang, I.K., Park, J.K. & Boo, S.M. (2011). A new agarophyte species, Gelidium eucorneum sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta), based on molecular and morphological data. Journal of Phycology 47(4): 904-910.

Kim, K.M., Hwang, I.K., Yoon, H.S. & Boo, S.M. (2012). Four novel Gelidium species (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) discovered in Korea: G. coreanum, G. jejuensis, G. minimum and G. prostatum. Phycologia 51(4): 461-474.

Kraft, G.T. & Abbott, I.A. (1998). Gelidiella womersleyana (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta), a diminutive new species from the Hawaiian Islands. Botanica Marina 41: 51-61, 17 figs, 1 table.

Kraft, G.T. (1976). The morphology of Beckerella scalaramosa, a new species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) from the Philippines. Phycologia 15: 85-91, 15 figs.

Kumar, G.R., Reddy, C.R.K., Ganesan, M., Thiruppathi, S., Dipakkore, S., Eswaran, K., Roa, P.V.S. & Jha, B. (2004). Tissue culture and regeneration of thallus from callus of Gelidiella acerosa (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 43: 596-602, 9 figs, 3 tables.

Lee, H.-B. & Kim, J.-I. (1995). Notes on gelidiales species from Korea. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.5, pp. 161-174. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College System.

Lee, H.B. (1994). Some species of Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Korea. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I. Eds) Vol.4, pp. 67-79.

Lee, Y. & Kim, B. (2003). New red alga, Acanthopeltis longiramulosa sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Jeju Island, Korea. Phycological Research 51(4): 259-265.

Lin, S.-M. & Freshwater, D.W. (2008). The red algal genus Gelidiella (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Taiwan, including Gelidiella fanii sp. nov. Phycologia 47: 168-176.

Liso, R., Calabrese, G. & Chieppa, M. (1978). Research on ascorbic acid physiology in red algae. IV. On the seasonal variation of AA/DHA ratio in Pterocladia capillacea (Gmel.) Born. et Thur. (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales). Phycologia 17: 143-147, 2 figs, 1 table.

Matsuhiro, B. & Urzúa, C.C. (1990). Agars from Gelidium rex (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 545-549.

Matsuhiro, B. & Urzua, C.C. (1990). Agars from Gelidium rex (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta).. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 545-549.

Matsuhiro, B. & Urzúa, C. C. (1990). Agars from Gelidium rex (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 545-549.

Meer, J. P. v. d. (1990). Isolation and genetic characterization of self-sterile mutants in a monoecious red alga Gelidium vagum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 389-395.

Mercado, J.M., Niell, F.X. & Gil-Rodríguez, M.C. (2001). Photosynthesis might be limited by light, not inorganic carbon availability, in three intertidal Gelidiales species. New Phytologist 149: 431-439.

Millar, A.J.K. & Freshwater, D.W. (2005). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of the marine algal order Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) from New South Wales, including Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Australian Systematic Botany 18: 215-263.

Mouradi-Givernaud, A., Givernaud, T., Morvan, H. & Cosson, J. (1992). Agar from Gelidium latifolium (Rhodophyceae, Gelidiales): biochemical composition and seasonal variations. Botanica Marina 35: 153-159, 6 figs, 1 table.

Nelson, W.A., Farr, T.J. & Broom, J.E.S. (2006). Phylogenetic diversity of New Zealand Gelidiales revealed by rbcL sequence data. Journal of Applied Phycology 18: 653-661.

Nelson, W.A., Farr, T.J. & Broom, J.E.S. (2007). Phylogenetic diversity of New Zealand Gelidiales as revealed by rbcl sequence data. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 427-435.

Nelson, W.A., Knight, G.A., Falshaw, R., Furneaux, R.H., Falshaw, A. & Lynds, S.M. (1994). Characterisation of the enigmatic, endemic red alga Gelidium allanii (Gelidiales) from northern New Zealand - morphology, distribution, agar chemistry. Journal of Applied Phycology 6: 497-507, 5 figs, 3 tables.

Norris, R.E. (1987). A re-evaluation of Ptilophora Kützing and Beckerella Kylin (Gelidiales, Rhopdophyceae) with a review of South African species. Botanica Marina 30: 243-258, 23 figs.

Norris, R.E. (1990). Ptilophora hildebrandii (Hauck) comb. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyceae), its range extended to South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 56: 133-135, 3 figs.

Norris, R.E. (1992). A proposed phylogenetic scheme for the Gelidiales. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.2, pp. 151-171. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College.

Norris, R.E. (1992). The marine red algae of Natal, South Africa: order Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Mem. Bot. Survey S. Afr. 61: (iii +) 43, 22 figs.

Oates, B.R. & Cole, K.M. (1994). Comparative studies on hair cells of two agarophyte red algae, Gelidium vagum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) and Gracilaria pacifica (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 33: 420-433, 29 figs, 1 table.

Oliveira, E.C. & Berchez, F.A.S. (1993). Resource biology of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) population in Brazil. Hydrobiologia 260/261: 255-261.

Oliveiro, E. C., Saito, R. M., Santos Neto, J. F. & Garófalo, G. M. C. (1996). Temporal and spatial variation in agar from a population of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 501-504.

Olivieria F. , E. C. d. & Berchez, F. A. S. (1993). Resource biology of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) populations in Brazil. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 255-261.

Patwary, M.U., Sensen, C.W., MacKay, R.M. & van der Meer, J.P. (1998). Nucleotide sequence of small-subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear rRNA genes support the autonomy of some genera of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 34: 299-305, 3 figs, 4 tables.

Perrone, C. & Delle Foglie, C.I. (2006). Parviphycus felicinii sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from south-east Italy. Cryptogamie, Algologie 27: 199-209, 26 figs.

Perrone, C., Felicini, G.P. & Bottalico, A. (2006). The prostrate system of the Gelidiales: diagnostic and taxonomic importance. Botanica Marina 49: 23-33.

Polifrone, M., Gil-Rodriguez, M.C., Domínguez Álvarez, S., Stroobant, M. & Viera-Rodriguez, M.A. (2012). Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69: 247-252.

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Rico, J.M., Freshwater, D.W., Norwood, K.G. & Guiry, M.D. (2002). Morphology and systematics of Gelidiella tenuissima (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Phycologia 41: 463-469.

Rodríguez, D. (1996). Vegetative propagation by fragmentation of Gelidium sclerophyllum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 361-365.

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Rojas H., R., León M., N. & Rojas O., R. (1996). Practical and descriptive techniques for Gelidium rex (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 367-370.

Roleda, M.Y., Ganzon-Fortes, E.T. & Montaño, N.E. (1997). Agar from vegetative and tetrasporic Gelidiella acerosa (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 40: 501-506.

Roleda, M.Y., Ganzon-Fortes, E.T., Montaño, N.E. & de los Reyes, F.N. (1997). Temporal variation in the biomass, quantity and quality of agar from Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskål) Feldmann et Hamel (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales) from Cape Bolinao, NW Philippines. Botanica Marina 40: 487-495.

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Rueness, J. & Fredriksen, S. (1998). Intraspecific reproductive variation in Gelidium pusillum (Stackh.) Le Jol. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) fom Europe. Journal of Applied Phycology 10: 253-260, 17 figs.

Rueness, J. & Fredriksen, S. (1990). Field and culture studies of species of Gelidium(Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from their northern limit of distribution in Europe. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 419-424.

Salinas, J.M. (1991). Spray system for re-attachment of Gelidium sesquipedale (Clem.) Born. et Thur. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 221: 107-117.

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Santelices, B. (1976). Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes of some Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 15: 165-173, 33 figs.

Santelices, B. (1977). A taxonomic review of Hawaiian Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Pacific Science 31: 61-84.

Santelices, B. (1978). Multiple interaction of factors in the distribution of some Hawaiian Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Pacif Sci 32: 119-147.

Santelices, B. (1978). The morphological variation of Pterocladia caerulescens (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in Hawaii. Phycologia 17: 53-59.

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