153,607 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,405 bibliographic items, 411,227 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Gigartinales

Gigartinales F.Schmitz in Engler, 1892: 18.

Source: Huisman, J.M. (2018). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 2. Red algae. pp. [i]-xii, 1-672, 189 figs. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Original publication: Schmitz, F. (1892). [6. Klasse Rhodophyceae]. 2. Unterklasse Florideae. In: Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. Eine Uebersicht über das gesammte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen. Grosse Ausgabe. (Engler, A. Eds), pp. 16-23. Berlin: Borntraeger.

Description:
Thallus of various forms. Structure uniaxial or multiaxial. Procarpic or not. Zygote transfer by connecting cells or filaments or by direct fusion. Carposporophyte usually with a fusion cell and extensive sterile gonimoblasts, some composed mostly of carposporangia. Tetrasporangia cruciately or zonately divided.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. (2001). Dudresnaya babbittiana (Dumontiaceae, Gigartinales), a new red algal species from Midway Atoll, North Central Pacific. Cryptogamie: Algologie 22: 249-261, 12 figs.

Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. (2002). On two species of Kallymenia (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) from the Hawaiian Islands, Central Pacific. Pacific Science 56: 149-162.

Abbott, I.A. (1978). Morphologic and taxonomic observations on Neoagardhiella (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), with emphasis on Pacific populations. Journal of Phycology 14: 48-53.

Abbott, I.A., Chiang, Y.M., Fredericq, S., Norris, J.N., Tsuda, R.T., Xia, B.M., X. & Yamamoto, H. (1985). The red alga Gracilaria Greville (Gracilariaceae, Gigartinales): Introduction. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds) Vol.I, pp. 67-68. California Sea Grant College Program.

Abdala Díaz, R.T., Chabrillón, M., Cabello-Pasini, A., Gómez-Pinchetti, J.L. & Figueroa, F.L. (2011). Characterization of polysaccharides from Hypnea spinella (Gigartinales) and Halopithys incurva (Ceramiales) and their effect on RAW 264.7 macrophage activity. J. Appl. Phycol 23: 523-528.

Abdelahad, N., Barbato, F., O'Heir, S., Fratini, F., Valleta, A., Ninivaggi, L. & Alfinito, S. (2016). Reproduction of Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in natural populations of the Lazio coasts (central Italy) and in culture. Cryptogamie Algologie 37(4): 265-272.

Afaq-Husain, S., Shameel, M. & Khan, R. (1992). Phycochemical investigations on four species of Hypnea (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 35: 141-146, 1 fig, 3 tables.

Afaq-Husain, S., Shameel, M., Usmanghani, K., Ahmad, M., Perveen, S. & Ahmad, V.U. (1991). Brominated sesquiterpene metabolites of Hypnea pannosa (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 3: 111-113, 1 fig.

Aguilar-Rosas, L.E. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (1997). Nueva combinación de una especie endémica del género Chondracanthus Kützing (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) para el Golfo de California. Cienca Marina 23: 155-161.

Alongi, G. & Cormaci, M. (1993). Un comportement particulier du Schizymenia dubyi de Sicile, et interpretation du cas du Schizymenia epiphytica (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algologie 14(4): 173-181.

Amat, M. A. & Braud, J.-P. (1990). Ammonium uptake by Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 467-471.

Amat, M. A. & Braud, J.-P. (1993). The use of acetic acid as a source of carbon by cultured Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) Stackhouse. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 451-456.

Amini, A., Mouradi, A., Bennasser, L. & Givernaud, T. (2007). Seasonal variations in thalli and carrageenan composition of Gigartina pistillata (Gmelin) Stackhouse (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) harvested along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Phycological Research 55(2): 143-149.

Ampili, P., Panikkar, M.V.N. & Chauhan, V.D. (1991). Studies on spore germination and early growth in Sarconema filiforme (Sonder) Kylin (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Japanese Journal of Phycology 39: 277-279, 11 figs.

Andres, M., Werlinger, C., Palacios, M., Navarro, N.P. & Cuadra, P. (2007). Effects of UVB radiation on the initial stages of growth of Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia crispata and Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 225-233.

Andriamampandry, A.V. (1991). Confirmation de la présence d'Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman f.) Collins et Hervey (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) à Fort-Dauphin, Madagascarq. Cryptogamie, Algologie 12: p 67.

Ang, P. J., De Wreede, R. E., Shaughnessy, F. & Dyck, L. (1990). A simulation model for an Iridaea splendens (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) population in Vancouver, Canada. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 191-196.

Ang, P.O., Jr, De Wreede, R.E., Shaughnessy, F. & Dyck, L. (1990). A simulation model for an Iridaea splendens (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) population in Vancouver, Canada.. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 191-196.

Apt, K.E. (1984). Note: Effects of the symbiotic red alga Hypneocolax stellaris on its host Hypnea musciformis (Hypneaceae, Gigartinales). Journal of Phycology 20: 148-150, 1 fig, 1 table.

Ardré, F. (1978). Sur le cycles morphologiques du Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turn.) J. Ag. et du Gymnogongrus devoniensis (Grev.) Schott. (Gigartinales, Phyllophoracées) en culture. Revue Algologique, Nouvelle Serie 13: 151-176.

Athanasiadis, A. (1988). North Aegean marine algae II. Studies on the thallus structure and reproduction of Nemastoma dichotomum J. Agardh and Predaea ollivierii J. Feldmann (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Botanica Marina 31: 23-32.

Augier, H. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (1971). Découverte des cystocarpes de Feldmannophycus rayssiae (J. Feld. et G. Feld.) nov. gen. (Rhodophycées, Gigartinales). Bulletin de la Société Phycologique de France 16: 25-30.

Avila, M., Ask, E., Rudolph, B., Nuñez, M. & Norambuena, R. (1999). Economic feasibility of Sarcothalia (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) cultivation. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 435-442.

Avila, M., Otaíza, R., Norambuena, R. & Nuñez, M. (1996). Biological basis for the management of 'luga negra' (Sarcothalia crispata Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in southern Chile. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 245-252.

Azanza-Corrales, R. & Sa-a, P. (1990). The farmed Eucheuma species (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in Danajon Reef, Philippines: carrageenan properties. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 521-525.

Bárbara, I. & Cremades, J. (2004). Grateloupia lanceola versus Grateloupia turuturu (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) en la Península Ibérica. Anales del Jardín de Madrid 61: 103-118.

Bárbara, I. & Cremades, J. (1997). Grateloupia lanceola versus Grateloupia doryphora (Gigartinales, Rhodophya) en las costas de la Península Ibérica. : In Cryptogámica, X.S.d.B. (ed.) XII Simposio de Botánica Criptogámica, Valencia, pp. 53-54.

Bárbara, I., Gallardo, T., Cremades, J., Barreiro, R., Maneiro, I. & Saunders, G.W. (2013). Pseudopolyides furcellarioides gen. et sp. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) an erect member of the Cruoriaceae based on morphological and molecular evidence. Phycologia 52(2): 191-203.

Barreiro, R., Quintela, M., Bárbara, I. & Cremades, J. (2006). RAPD differentiation of Grateloupia lanceola and the invasive Grateloupia turuturu (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in the Iberian Peninsula. Phycologia 45(2): 213-217.

Berchez, F. A. S., Pereira, R. T. L. & Kamiya, N. F. (1993). Culture of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) on artificial substrates attached to linear ropes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 415-420.

Bird, C. J., Helleur, R. J., Hayes, E. R. & McLachlan, J. (1987). Analytical pyrolysis as a taxonomic tool in Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 207-211.

Bird, C.J. & McLachlan, J. (1982). Some underutilized taxonomic criteria in Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Botanica Marina 25: 557-562.

Bird, C.J. & McLachlan, J. (1986). The effect of salinity on distribution of species of Gracilaria Grev. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales): an experimental assessment. Botanica Marina 29: 231-238.

Bird, C.J. & Oliveira Filho, E.C. de (1986). Gracilaria tenuifrons sp. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), a species from the tropical western Atlantic with superficial spermatangia. Phycologia 25: 313-320.

Bird, C.J., Helleur, R.J., Hayes, E.R. & McLachlan, J. (1987). Analytical pyrolysis as a taxonomic tool in Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales). Hydrobiologia 151-152: 207-211.

Bird, C.J., McLachlan, J. & Oliveira Filho, E.C. de (1986). Gracilaria chilensis sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), from Pacific South America. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 2928-2934.

Bird, C.J., Oliveira Filho, E.C. de & McLachlan, J. (1986). Gracilaria cornea, the correct name for the western Atlantic alga hitherto known as G. debilis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 2045-2051.

Bird, C.J., Saunders, G.W. & Mclachlan, J. (1991). Biology of Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), a commercial carrageenophyte. Journal of Applied Phycology 3: 61-82.

Bird, C.J., van der Meer, J.P. & McLachlan, J. (1982). A comment on Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf. (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 62: 453-459.

Bird, N.L., Chen, L.C.-M. & McLachlan, J. (1979). Effects of temperature, light and salinity on growth in culture of Chondrus crispus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) and Fucus serratus (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 22: 521-527.

Bodard, M. (1966). Sur le développement des tétrasporocystes d'Anatheca montagnei Schmitz (Soliériacées, Gigartinales). Bull I F A N Sér A 28: 867-894.

Boillot, A. (1965). Sur l'alternance de générations héteromorphes d'une Rhodophycée, Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing (Gigartinales, Furcellariacées). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. 261: 4191-4193.

Boraso de Zaixso, A.L., Casas, G. & Romanello, E. (1991). Análisis de la influencia de los factores ambientales en el crecimiento de Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales).. In: Investigaciones 1985-1988 de la UNPSJB. ( Eds), pp. 169-171. Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica.

Bradley, P. M. & Cheney, D. P. (1990). Some effects of plant growth regulators on tissue cultures of the marine red alga Agardhiella subulata (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 353-360.

Bradley, P.M. & Cheney, D.P. (1990). Some effects of plant growth regulators on tissue cultures of the marine red alga Agardhiella subulata (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 353-360.

Braga, M.R.A. (1986). Estudoes taxonômicas em Gigartina teedii (Roth Lamouroux e G. elegans Greville in Saint-Hilaire (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Revista Brasil Bot. 9: 191-199.

Braga, M.R.A. (1990). Reproductive characteristics of Gigartina teedii (Roth) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), a turf-forming species: field and laboratory culture studies.. Botanica Marina 33: 410-409.

Braud, J. P. & Delépine, R. (1981). Growth response of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) to light and temperature in laboratory and outdoor tanks culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 553-558.

Braud, J. P. (1984). Carbonic system-incident energy relationship in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) tank culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 463-466.

Brodie, J., Guiry, M.D. & Masuda, M. (1991). Life history and morphology of Chondrus nipponicus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Japan. British Phycological Journal 26: 33-50.

Brodie, J., Guiry, M.D. & Masuda, M. (1993). Life history, morphology and crossability of Chondrus ocellatus forma ocellatus and C. ocellatus forma crispoides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the north-western Pacific. European Journal of Phycology 28: 183-196.

Brown, L.M. & McLachlan, J. (1982). Atypical carotenoids for the Rhodophyceae in the genus Gracilaria (Gigartinales). Phycologia 21: 9-16.

Bucher, K.E. & Norris, J.N. (1992). A new deep-water red alga, Titanophora submarina sp. nov. (Gymnophloeaceae, Gigartinales), from the Caribbean Sea. Phycologia 31: 180-191, 12 figs, 2 tables.

Bula-Meyer, G. (1992). Is Platoma tenuis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the Atlantic really conspecific with Predaea masonii from the Mexican Pacific?. Revista Fac. Oceanogr., Pesq. Cienc. Alimentarias, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal 2: 61-71.

Bulboa, C.R. & de Paula, E.J. (2005). Introduction of non-native species of Kappaphycus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in subtropical waters: Comparative analysis of growth rates of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum in vitro and in the sea in south-eastern Brazil. Phycological Research 53(3): 183-188.

Bulboa, C.R. & Macchiavello, J.E. (2001). The effects of light and temperature on different phases of the life cycle in the carrageenan producing alga Chondracanthus chamissoi (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Botanica Marina 44: 371-374.

Buriyo, A.S., Semesi, A.K. & Mtolera, M.S.P. (2001). The effect of seasons on yield and quality of carrageenan from Tanzanian alga Eucheuma denticulatum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). South African Journal of Botany 67(3): 488-491.

Buschmann, A. & Santelices, B. (1987). Micrograzers and spore release in Iridaea laminarioides Bory (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 108: 171-179.

Buschmann, A.H. & Bravo, A. (1990). Intertidal amphipods as potential dispersal agents of carpospores of Iridaea laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 417-420.

Børgesen, F. (1929). Marine algae from the Canary Islands especially from Tenerife and Gran Canaria. III Rhodophyceae. Part II. Cryptonemiales, Gigartinales and Rhodymeniales. Det Kgl. Videnskabernes Selskab. Biologiske Meddelsr. 7: 1-97, 4 pls, 10 figs..

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Børgesen, F. (1943). Some marine algae from Mauritius. III. Rhodophyceae. Part 2. Gelidiales, Cryptonemiales, Gigartinales. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Meddelelser 19(1): 1-85, 42 figs, 1 plate.

Cabioch, J. (1972). Un nouveau cas d'anomalie du cycle des Gigartinales (algues Floridées). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 275.

Calabrese, G. & Felicini, G.P. (1973). Research on red algal pigments. 5. The effect of the intensity of white and green light on the rate of photosynthesis and its relationship to pigment components in Gracilaria compressa (C. Ag.) Grev. (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales). Phycologia 12: 195-199, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Calabrese, G. (1972). Research on red algal pigments. 2. Pigments of Petroglossum nicaeense (Duby) Schotter (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales) and their seasonal variations at different light intensities. Phycologia 11: 141-146, 3 figs.

Calderon, M.S. & Boo, S.M. (2014). A new species of phyllophoracean red algae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Korea: Stenogramma guleopensis sp. nov. Botanica Marina 57(5): 343-349, 13 fig., 2 tables.

Calderon, M.S. & Boo, S.M. (2016). Phylogeny of Phyllophoraceae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) reveals Asterfilopsis gen. nov. from the Southern Hemisphere. Phycologia 55(5): 543-554.

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Casado, M. & Gallardo, T. (2000). Aportación al conocimiento del género Neurocaulon (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae) en la Península Ibérica (Resumen). Algas 24: 5-10.

Cecere, E. (1989). Un'alga della famiglia delle Solieriaceae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) nel Mar Piccolo di Taranto. In: Alghe e loro Utilizzatione Convegno Nazionale. ( Eds), pp. 177-178. Lecce: Camera di Commercio Industria Artigiantoe Agricoltura; Università Degli Studi.

Cecere, E., Petrocelli, A. & Verlaque, M. (2004). Morphology and vegetative reproduction of the introduced species Hypnea cornuta (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Italy, Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 47: 381-388.

Chang, C.F. & Xia, B.M. (1988). On two new Gracilaria (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from South China. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.2, pp. 127-129. California Sea Grant College Program.

Chapman, V.J. (1979). Issue 4: Gigartinales. In: The marine algae of New Zealand. Part III. Rhodophyceae. (Chapman, V.J. Eds), pp. 279-506. Lehre: Cramer.

Chen, L.C.-M. (1977). The sporophyte of Ahnfeltia plicata (Huds.) Fries (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales) in culture. Phycologia 16: 163-168.

Chen, L.C.-M., Edelstein, T. & McLachlan, J. (1974). The life history of Gigartina stellata (Stackh.) Batt. (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales) in culture. Phycologia 13: 287-194.

Chiang, Y.-M. (1981). Cultivation of Gracilaria (Rhodophycophyta, Gigartinales) in Taiwan. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 569-574.

Chiang, Y.-M. (1997). Species of Hypnea Lamouroux (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Taiwan. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.6, pp. 163-177. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College System.

Chiovitt, A., Kraft, G.T., Bacic, A., Craik, D.J. & Liao, M.L. (2008). Kappa-/beta-carrageenans from Australian red algae of the Acrotylaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 47: 35-40.

Chiovitti, A., Kraft, G.T., Bacic, A., Craik, D.J. & Liao, M.-L. (2001). Chemistry, properties and phylogenetic implications of the methylated carrageenans from the red algae of the genus Areschougia (Areschougiaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 37: 1127-1137.

Chiovitti, A., Kraft, G.T., Bacic, A., Craik, D.J., Munro, S.L.A. & Liao, M.-L. (1998). Carrageenans from Australian representatives of the Family Cystocloniaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), with description of Calliblepharis celatospora sp. nov., and transfer of Austroclonium to the Family Areschougiaceae. Journal of Phycology 34: 515-535, 27 figs, 6 tables.

Chiovitti, A., Kraft, G.T., Saunders, G.W., Liao, M.-L. & Bacic, A. (1995). A revision of the systematics of the Nizymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on polysacharides, anatomy and nucleotide sequences. Journal of Phycology 31: 153-166, 11 figs, 3 tables.

Chiovitti, A., Liao, M.-L., Kraft, G.T., Munro, S.L.A., Craik, D.J. & Bacic, A. (1995). Cell wall polysaccharides from Australian red algae of the family Solieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta): iota/kappa/beta-carrageenans from Melanema dumosum. Phycologia 34: 522-527, 6 figs, 1 table.

Chiovitti, A., Liao, M.-L., Kraft, G.T., Munro, S.L.A., Craik, D.J. & Bacic, A. (1996). Cell wall polysaccharides from Australian red algae of the family Solieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta): highly methylated carrageenans from the genus Rhabdonia. Botanica Marina 39: 47-59.

Cho, G.Y., Hwang, I.K., Calderon, M.S. & Boo, S.M. (2018). Phylogenetic relationships of Stenogramma (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) with a description of S. coreanum sp. nov. Phycologia 57(3): 243-250.

Choi, H.-G., Nam, K.W. & Norton, T.A. (2001). No whirlwind romance: typhoons, temperature and the failure of reproduction in Caulacanthus okamurae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 36: 353-358.

Choi, H.G. & Nam, K.W. (2001). Growth, tetrasporogensis, and life history in culture of Caulacanthus okamurae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Korea. Botanica Marina 44: 315-320.

Chopin, T. & Floc'H, J. (1992). Eco - Physiological and biochemical study of two of the must constranting forms of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Marine Ecology Progress Series 81: 185-195.

Chopin, T., Bird, C.J., Murphy, C.A., Osborne, J.A., Patwary, M.U. & Floc'h, J.-Y. (1996). A molecular investigation of polymorphism in the North Atlantic red alga Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales). Phycological Research 44: 69-80, 3 figs, 6 tables.

Chopin, T., Kerin, B.F. & Mazerolle, R. (1999). Phycocolloid chemistry as a taxonomic indicator of phylogeny in the Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae: a review and current developments using Fourier transform infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Phycological Research 47: 167-188.

Christiaen, D., Stadler, T., Ondarza, M. & Verdus, M. C. (1987). Structures and functions of the polysaccharides from the cell wall of Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 139-146.

Clarkston, B.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2010). A comparison of two DNA barcode markers for species discrimination in the red algal family Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae), with a description of Euthora timburtonii sp. nov. Botany 88: 119-131.

Clarkston, B.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2012). An examination of the red algal genus Pugetia (Kallymeniaceae, Gigartinales), with descriptions of Salishia firma gen. & comb. nov., Pugetia cryptica sp. nov. and Beringia wynnei sp. nov.. Phycologia 51(1): 33-61.

Clarkston, B.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2013). Resolving species diversity in the red algal genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Gigartinales) in Canada using molecular assisted alpha taxonomy . European Journal of Phycology 48(1): 27-46.

Codomier, L. (1972). Sur le développement comparé des spores des Sebdeniacées (Gigartinales) et des Cryptonemiacées (Cryptonemiales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275(D): 747-749.

Codomier, L. (1973). Caractères généraux et développement des spores de Sebdenia dichotoma (J. Ag.) Berthold (Rhodophycées, Gigartinales). Phycologia 12: 97-105.

Codomier, L.. (1972). Recherches sur la reproduction, le cycle de vie et l'ontogénése des Cryptonemiales et des Gigartinales Méditerrannéenes a thalle foliace Thèse présentée à Université de Paris VI pour obtenir le grade de Docteur es-Science Naturelles. pp. [i], 1-179. Paris: Université de Paris VI.

Collén, J., Roeder, V., Rousvoal, S., Collin, O., Kloareg, B. & Boyen, C. (2006). An expressed sequence tag analysis of thallus and regenerating protoplasts of Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 104-112.

Conde, F. & Gallardo, T. (2002). Mapas de distribución de algas marinas de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. XIV. Calliblepharis (Cystocloniaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae). Bot. Complutensis 26: 137-146.

Cordeiro-Marino, M. & Poza, A.C. (1981). Life history of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius (Phyllophoraceae, Gigartinales). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 155-161.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 November 2018.

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