153,585 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,387 bibliographic items, 411,011 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Family Gracilariaceae

Gracilariaceae Nägeli, 1847: 240, 254.

Source: Gurgel, C.F.D., Norris, J.N., Schmidt, W.E., Le, H.N. & Fredericq, S. (2018). Systematics of the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) including new subfamilies, tribes, subgenera, and two new genera, Agarophyton gen. nov. and Crassa gen. nov. Phytotaxa 374(1): 1-23.

Original publication: Nägeli, C. (1847). Die neuern Algensysteme und Versuch zur Begründung eines eigenen Systems der Algen und Florideen. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten 9(2): 1-275, pls I-X.

Description:
Thalli of various forms, erect or recumbent, unbranched or branched. Growth apparently uniaxial, but the central axis soon obscured. Structure pseudoparenchymatous; medulla of large hyaline multinucleate to enucleate cells, grading to a cortex of smaller uninucleate or multinucleate cells. Secondary pit connections numerous. Cell walls and intercellular matrix containing agar. Pit plugs with 1 cap layer. Spermatangia arising on surface cortical cells or in conceptacle-like depressions. Carpogonial branches outwardly directed, 2-celled, borne on an intercalary supporting cell that also bears 2 or more sterile branches. Auxiliary cells and connecting cells absent. Following fertilisation, cells of sterile branches fusing with the carpogonium, leading to the formation of a generative fusion cell cutting off multiple gonimoblast initials towards the thallus surface. Gonimoblast forming secondary fusions with gametophytic tissue in the floor of the cystocarp, sometimes also the overlying pericarp; outer gonimoblast cells transformed into chains or clusters of carposporangia. Cystocarps protruding, hemispherical, with a thick-walled ostiolate pericarp. Cruciately divided tetrasporangia or bisporangia scattered or in nemathecia. Life history triphasic, with isomorphic gametophytes and tetrasporophytes [after Fredericq & Hommersand (1989)].

Key References
Du, Q., Bi, G., Mao, Y. & Sui, Z. (2016). The complete chloroplast genome of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) gives new insight into the evolution of family Gracilariaceae. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 441-450.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abbott, I.A. (1985). New species of Gracilaria Grev.(Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from California and Hawaii. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds) Vol.I, pp. 115-121. California Sea Grant College Program.

Abbott, I.A., Chiang, Y.M., Fredericq, S., Norris, J.N., Tsuda, R.T., Xia, B.M., X. & Yamamoto, H. (1985). The red alga Gracilaria Greville (Gracilariaceae, Gigartinales): Introduction. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds) Vol.I, pp. 67-68. California Sea Grant College Program.

Abbott, I.A., Zhang, J. & Xia, B.M. (1991). Gracilaria mixta, sp. nov. and other western Pacific species of the genus (Rhodophyta: Gracilariaceae). Pacific Science 45: 12-27, 25 figs, 1 table.

Bellorin, A.M., Buriyo, A., Sohrabipour, J., Oliveira, M.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2008). Gracilariopsis mclachlanii sp. nov. and Gracilariopsis persica sp. nov. of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyceae) from the Indian Ocean. Journal of Phycology 44: 1022-1032.

Bellorin, A.M., Oliveira, M.C & Oliveira, E.C. (2004). Gracilaria vermiculophylla: A western Pacific species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta) first recorded from the eastern Pacific. Phycological Research 52: 69-79.

Bellorin, A.M., Oliveira, M.C. & Oliveira, E.C. (2002). Phylogeny and systematics of the marine algal family Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on small subunit rDNA and ITS sequences of Atlantic and Pacific species. Journal of Phycology 38: 551-563.

Bird, C. J. & Rice, E. L. (1990). Recent approaches to the taxonomy of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and the Gracilaria verrucosa problem. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 111-118.

Bird, C.J. & Kain (Jones), J.M. (1995). Recommended names of included species of Gracilariaceae. Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 335-338.

Bird, C.J. & Rice, E.L. (1990). Recent approaches to the taxonomy of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and the Gracilaria verrucosa problem. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 111-118.

Bird, C.J. (1995). A review of recent taxonomic concepts and developments in the Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 255-267.

Bird, C.J., Ragan, M.A., Critchley, A.T., Rice, E.L. & Gutell, R.R. (1994). Molecular relationships among the Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta): further observations on some undetermined species. European Journal of Phycology 29: 195-202, 5.

Byrne, K., Zuccarello, G.C., West, J., Liao, M.-L. & Kraft, G.T. (2002). Gracilaria species (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from southeastern Australia, including a new species, Gracilaria perplexa sp. nov.: Morphology, molecular relationships and agar content. Phycological Research 50(4): 295-312.

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Delivopoulos, S.G. & Tsekos, I. (1986). Ultrastructure of carposporogenesis in the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa (Gigartinales, Gracilariaceae). Botanica Marina 29: 27-35.

Dreckmann, K.M., Núñez-Resendiz, M.L. & Sentíes, A. (2018). Gracilaria microcarpa sp. nov. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Botanica Marina 61(2): 115-125.

Engel, C.R., Valeo, M., Lagadeuc, Y. & Destombe, C. (2002). Non-random mating in controlled multiple-donor crosses in Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 37: 179-190.

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1990). Diagnoses and key to the genera of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 172-178, 14 figs..

Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (1985). Morphological studies on some tropical species of Gracilaria Grev. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta): taxonomic concepts based on reproductive morphology. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds), pp. 137-155. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College Program. Report T-CSGCP-011.

Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M. H. (1990). Diagnoses and key to the genera of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 173-178.

Furneaux, R. H., Miller, I. J. & Stevenson, T. T. (1990). Agaroids from New Zealand members of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) - a novel dimethylated agar. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 645-654.

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Gerung, G.S., Terada, R., Yamamoto, H. & Ohno, M. (1999). An adelphoparasite growing on Gracilaria edulis (Gracilariaceae Rhodophyta) from Manado, Indonesia. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species Vol. VII. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.7, pp. 131-136. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College System.

Gonen, Y., Kimmel, E., Tel-Or, E. & Friedlander, M. (1996). Intercellular assimilate translocation in Gracilaria cornea (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 421-428.

Gurgel, C.F.D, Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2003). Gracilariopsis silvana sp. nov., G. hommersandii sp. nov., and G. cata-luziana sp. nov., three new species of Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the western Atlantic. Hidrobiologica 13: 57-68.

Gurgel, C.F.D, Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2004). Phylogeography of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta): a study of genetic discontinuity in a continuously distributed species based on molecular evidence . Journal of Phycology 40: 748-758.

Gurgel, C.F.D. & Fredericq, S. (2004). Systematics of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): a critical assessment based on rbcL sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 40: 138-159.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2004). Gracilaria flabelliformis and G. apiculata (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta): restoring old names for common tropical western Atlantic species, including the recognition of three new subspecies, and a replacement name for "G. lacinulata". Cryptogamie Algologie 25: 367-396.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Fredericq, S. & Norris, J.N. (2004). Molecular systematics and taxonomy of flattened species of Gracilaria Greville (Gracilariaceae, Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the Western Atlantic. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to the Pacific and other locations Volume IX. (Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. Eds) Vol. 9, pp. 159-200.

Hay, M.E. & Norris, J.N. (1984). Seasonal reproduction and abundance of six sympatric species of Gracilaria Grev. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) on a Caribbean subtidal sand plain. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 63-94.

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Lahaye, M. & Yapje, W. (1988). Effects of seasons on the chemical structure and gel strength of Gracilaria pseudoverrucosa agar (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta). Carbohydrate Polymers 8: 285-301.

Lahaye, M., Rochas, C. & Yaphe, W. (1986). A new procedure for determining the heterogeneity of agar polymers in the cell walls of Gracilaria spp. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta). Canadian J Botany 64: 579-585.

Le, N.H. & Lin, S.M. (2006). Gracilariopsis nhatrangensis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), a new marine red alga from Nhatrang, southern Vietnam. Botanical Studies, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica and Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica 47: 329-337.

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Lyra, G. de M., Gurgel, C.F.D., Costa, E. da Silva, Barreto de Jesus, P., Caires, T.A., Gama de Matos, J.C., Oliveira, M.C., Oliveira, E.C. & Nunes, J.M.C. (2015). A new tropical species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): Gracilaria silviae sp. nov. Phytotaxa 222(3): 199-210, 12 figs.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 November 2018.

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