155,248 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,864 images, 60,041 bibliographic items, 435,057 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Order Gonyaulacales

Gonyaulacales F.J.R.Taylor, 1980: 102, 103.

Source: Moestrup, Ø. & Calado, A.J. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Volume 6: Dinophyceae. pp. [i]-xii, [1]-560, 421 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Original publication: Taylor, F.J.R. (1980). On dinoflagellate evolution. Biosystems 13(1/2): 65-108.

Amphiesmal vesicles with thick plates, usually visible in living cells (cells thecate). The plane of cytokinesis oblique, extending from the mid-left side of the hypocone to the mid-right part of the epicone. Cell division semiconservative, i. e., each daughter cell inherits half of the mother cell amphiesmal plates and develops the missing part de novo. Young and old plates therefore often differently ornamented on the same cell. This mode of division, known as desmoschisis, has presently been observed in both the Ceratiaceae and the Gonyaulacaceae. Subsequent loss of the inherited half of the amphiesma was shown to occur in some species (Dürr & Netzel 1974).

Taxonomic notes:

Ignatiades (2012: table 1) includes the families Oxytoxaceae and Pyrocystaceae in this order.

Key References
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Igniatiades, L. (2012). Mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in eutrophic coastal waters of the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 55(1): 39-48.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Destombe, C. & Cembella, A. (1990). Mating-type determination, gametic recognition and reproductive success in Alexandrium excavatum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyta), a toxic red-tide dinoflagellate.. Phycologia 29: 316-325.

Destombe, C., Cembella, A.D., Murphy, C.A. & Ragan, M.A. (1992). Nucleotide seguence of the 18S ribosomal RNA genes from the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyta). Phycologia 31: 121-124, 1 fig.

Dodge, J.D. (1995). Thecal structure, taxonomy and distribution of the planktonic dinoflagellate Micracanthodinium setiferum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 34: 307-312, 9 figs.

Figueroa, R.I., Garcés, E. & Bravo, I. (2007). Comparative study of the life cycles of Alexandrium tamatum and Alexandrium minutum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1039-1053.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Gonzáles-Armas, R. & Okolodkov, Y.B. (2018). Occurrence of Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) from the Archipiélago de Revillagigedo, Mexican Pacific. Marine Pollution Bulletin 128: 390-395, 3 figs.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Muñetón-Gómez, M.S., Pérez-Cruz, B. & Díaz-Ortíz, J.A. (2014). Bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) in Ensenada de La Paz Lagoon, Gulf of California. CICIMAR Oceanides 29(1): 11-18.

Hoppenrath, M., Bolch, C.J.S., Yoshimatsu, S., Saldarriaga, J.F., Schweikert, M., Campbell, C.N., Toriumi, S., Dodge, J.D., Elbrachter, M. & Taylor, F.J.R. (2005). Nomenclatural note on a Thecadinium species (Dinophyceae, Gonyaulacales), which was described as new independently three times within two months (Note). Journal of Phycology 41: 1284-1286.

Kamikawa, R., Nishimura, H. & Sako, Y. (2009). Analysis of the mitochondrial genome, transcripts, and electron transport activity in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 57(1): 1-11.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Kretzschmar, A.L., Verma, A., Harwood, T., Hoppenrath, M. & Murray, S. (2017). Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Journal of Phycology 53(2): 283-297.

Kuno, S., Kamikawa, R., Yoshimatsu, S., Sagara, T., Nishio, S. & Sato, Y. (2010). Genetic diversity of Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) in Japanese coastal areas. Phycological Research 58(1): 44-52.

Lewis, J., Kennaway, G., Franca, S. & Alverca, E. (2001). Bacterium-dinoflagellate interactions: investigative microscopy of Alexandrium spp. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40: 280-285.

Lim, A.S., Jeong, H.J., Kwon, J.E., Lee, S.Y. & Kim, J.H. (2018). Gonyaulax whaseongensis sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae), a new phototrophic species from Korean coastal waters (Note). Journal of Phycology 54(6): 923-928.

Litaker, R.W., Vandersea, M.W., Faust, M.A., Kibler, S.R., Chinain, M., Holmes, M.J., Holland, W.C., & Tester, P.A. (2009). Taxonomy of Gambierdiscus including four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gambierdiscus carolinianus, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 48(5): 344-390.

Meave del Castillo, M.E., Zamudio Resendiz, M.E., Okolodkov, Y.B. & Salgado Ugarte, I.H. (2003). Ceratium balechii sp. nov. (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) from the Mexican Pacific. Hidrobiológica 13(1): 75-91, 18 figs.

Montresor, M. (1995). The life history of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 34: 444-448, 16 figs.

Nishimura, T., Sato, S., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Yamaguchi, H. & Adachi, M. (2014). Morphology of Gambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales): a new epiphytic toxic dinoflagellate from coastal areas of Japan. Journal of Phycology 50(3): 506-514.

Ratti, S., Giordano, M & Morse, D. (2007). CO2-concentrating mechanisms of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae, Gonyaulacales). Journal of Phycology 43: 693-701.

Salgado, P., Fraga, S., Rodríguez, F. & Riobó, P. (2017 '2018'). Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales), a new dinoflagellate species previously reported as Protoceratium reticulatum. Journal of Phycology 54(1): 126-137.

Salgado, P., Fragra, S., Rodríguez, F. & Bravo, I. (2018). Benthic flattened cells of the phylogenetically related marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum and Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum (Gonyaulacales): a new type of cyst?. Journal o Phycology 54(1): 138-149.

Shi, Y., Hu, H. & Cong, W. (2005). Positive effects of continuous low nitrate levels on growth and photosynthesis of Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 53(1): 43-48.

Shin, H.H., Yoon, Y.H., Kawami, H., Iwataki, M. & Matsuoka, K. (2008). The first appearance of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) responsible for the PSP contaminations in Gamak Bay, Korea. Algae 23(4): 251-255, 5 figs.

Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., Holland, W.C., Tester, P.A., Schultz, T.F., Faust, M.A., Holmes, M.J., Chinain, M. & Litaker, R.W. (2012). Development of semi-quantitative PCR assays for the detection and enumeration of Gambierdiscus species (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 902-915.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 May 2019.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:93911

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