152,938 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,947 images, 59,153 bibliographic items, 408,271 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Phylum Charophyta

Charophyta Migula, 1889: 94.

Source: Womersley, H.B.S. (1984). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part I. pp. 329, 102 figs, 16 plates. Adelaide: Government Printer, South Australia.

Original publication: Migula, [E.F.A.]W. (1889). Die Characeen Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Unter Berücksichtigung aller Arten Europas. Mit zahlreichen in den Text gedruckten, auf alle Species beziehenden Abbildungen. In: Dr. L. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. Zweite Auflage, Fünfter Band. Part 2. pp. 65-128. Leipzig: Verlag von Eduard Kummer.

Nomenclatural notes:

As "Charophyta" is a typified name based on the genus name Chara, Art. 10.7 applies: "Art. 10.7. The principle of typification does not apply to names of taxa above the rank of family, except for names that are automatically typified by being based on generic names (see Art. 16), the type of which is the same as that of the generic name." and Art. 11.10 state. "The principle of priority does not apply above the rank of family (but see Rec. 16A)" and Rec. 16A.1. "In choosing among typified names for a taxon above the rank of family, authors should generally follow the principle of priority." Accordingly, while Charophyta Migula included only taxa currently included in the Charophyceae, it is reasonable to credit the name Charophyta to Migula, despite the addition of four more classes in recent years.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Ahmadi, A., Sheidai, A.M., H. Riahi, H. & Van Raam, J.C. (2012). Some Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) from central and western of Iran including Chara kohrangiana species nova. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(4): 359-390. [in English]

Ahmed, Z.U., Khondker, M., Begum, Z.N.T., Hassan, M.A., Kabir, S.M.H., Ahmad, M., Ahmed, A.T.A.. & Rhaman, A.K.A. [eds] (2009). Vol. 4. Algae, Charophyta - Rhodophyta (Achnanthaceae - Vaucheriaceae). In: Encyclopedia of flora and fauna of Bangladesh. ( Eds), pp. [i]-xxxx, [1]-543. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.

Akatsuka, S., Tsuchikane, Y., Fukumoto, R.-H., Fujii, T. & Sekimoto, H. (2006). Physiological characterization of the sex pheromone protoplast-release-inducing protein from the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex (Charophyta). Phycological Research 54(2): 116-121.

Allen, G.O. (1950). British Stoneworts (Charophyta).. pp. 55. Surrey: The Haslemere Education Museum.

Allen,G.O. (1940). Charophyta. In : The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to LAke Titicaca in 1937". Trans. Linn. Soc. London, ser 3 1(2): , 4 fig.. [in 155-160]

Barbosa, O. (1955). Situação geológica das Charophyta de Machado de Melo, Estado de São Paulo. Bolm. Soc. bras. Geol. [São Paulo] 4(1): 73-74.

Barinova, S. & Romanov, R. (2015). The charophytes (Charophyta) locality in the Milkha Stream, Lower Jordan, Israel. Natural Resources and Conservation 3(2): 19-30.

Bhatagnar, S.K. (1989). Cytological perspectives of Charophyta I. Chara globularis complex. Phykos 28: 156-165.

Bhatnagar,S.K. & Johri,M. (1986). The Genus Tolypella (Div, Charophyta) from Indian Subcontinent - A Cytotaxonomic Approach. Cytologia 51: 413-419.

Boszke, P. & Bociag, K. (2010). Preliminary analysis of the morphology and morphometry of Chara globularis Thuillier (Charophyta) oospores from Poland. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 221-228.

Broady, P.A., Flint, E.A., Nelson, W.A., Cassie Cooper, V., De Winton, M.D. & Novis, P.M. (2012). Phylum Chlorophyta and Charophyta: green algae. In: New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume Three. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. (Gordon, D.P. Eds), pp. 347-381. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.

Caceras,E.J. & Garcia,A. (1989). Nitella hyalina (DC.)Ag. (Characeae, Charophyta) in Argentina. Nova Hedwigia 48 (3-4): 383-390.

Caisová, L. & Gabka, M. (2009). Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution. Fottea, Olomouc 9(1): 1-43.

Carter, C.F. & Williamson, D.B. (2018). A contribution to the desmid (Charophyta, Conjugatophyta) flora of Newfoundland. Algological Studies 154: 41-91, 24 figs.

Casanova M.T. & Karol K.G. (2008). Monoecious Nitella species (Characeae, Charophyta) from south-eastern mainland Australia, including Nitella paludigena sp. nov. Australian Systematic Botany 21: 201-216.

Casanova, M.T. (2007). Typification and circumscription of Nitella sonderi (Characeae, Charophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 20: 464-472.

Casanova, M.T. (2009). An overview of Nitella in Australia (Characeae, Charophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 22: 192-218.

Casanova, M.T. (1991). An SEM study of developmental variation in oospore wall ornamentation of three Nitella species (Charophyta) in Australia. Phycologia 30: 237-242, 22 figs, 1 table.

Chen,W.Q, Han,F.S. & Xie,B.G. (1990). Some new taxa of Charophyta from Guangxi. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 28(2): 168-175.

Choi, K.C., Kim, Y.H. & Choe, D. (1996). Morphotaxonomic studies on the Korean Charophyta. I. Four Taxa of Nitella Agardh new to Korea. Algae (The Korean Journal of Phycology) 11(1): 35-43, 6 figs.

Cimino, M.T. & Delwiche, C.F. (2002). Molecular and morphological data identify a cryptic species complex in endophytic members of genus Coleochaete Bréb. (Charophyta: Coleochaetaceae). Journal of Phycology 38: 1213-1221.

Cimino, M.T. & Delwiche, C.F. (2002). Molecular and morphological data identify a cryptic species complex in endophytic members of genus Coleochaete Bréb. (Charophyta: Coleochaetaceae). Journal of Phycology 38: 1213-1221.

Coesel, P.F.M. & S.Alfinito (2007). Remarkable desmids (Desmidiaceae, Charophyta) from Sardinia, Italy. Nordic Hydrology 25(3/4): 245-254, 43 fig.

Croy, C.D. (1982). Chara aspera (Charophyta): breeding pattern in the northern hemisphere. Phycologia 21: 243-246, 1 fig, 1 table.

Das, D. & Keshri, J.P. (2017). Sexual reproduction in Cylindrocystis brebissonii (Ralfs) De Bary (Charophyta: Conjugatophyceae: Desmidiaceae) in nature. Cryptogamie Algologie 38(1): 47-51.

Delwiche, C.F., Karol, K.G., Cimino, M.T. & Sytsma, K.J. (2002). Phylogeny of the genus Coleochaete (Coleochaetales, Charophyta) and related taxa inferred by analysis of the chloroplast gene rbcL. Journal of Phycology 38: 394-403.

Diba, N.J., Naz, S. & Schubert, H. (2014). Nitella zamanii sp. nov. (Charophyta) from Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxonomy 21(2): 181-185, 14 fig., 1 pl., 1 table.

Feist, M., Feist, R. & Warne, M. (2006). New Early Devonian Charophyta from Gondwana. Cryptogamie, Algologie 27(4): 381-389.

Feist, M., Génot, P. & Grambast-Fessard, N. (2003). Ancient Dasycladales and Charophyta: convergences and differences, with special attention to Munieria baconica. Phycologia 42(2): 123-132, 27 figs, 1 table.

Frame, P. & Sawa, T. (1975). Comparative anatomy of Charophyta: II. The axial nodal complex- an approach to the taxonomy of Lamprothamnium. Journal of Phycology 11: 202-205.

Frame, P. & Sawa, T. (1976). Comprative anatomy of Charophyta: III. Lateral gametangia of Tolypella. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 103: 206-211.

Fu,H.L. & Zhao,Q.F. (1991). Some new taxa of Charophyta from Xinjiang. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 29(1): 92-96. [in Chinese]

Garcia, A. (1993). Chara halina nov.sp. (Charophyta) de ambientes salinos de Argentina. Cryptogamie, Algologie 14: 65-75. [in Spanish]

García, A. (1998). Nitella ignescens sp. nov. and N. ungula sp. nov. (Charales, Charophyta) from Australia. Phycologia 37: 53-59, 26 figs, 2 tables.

García,A. & Casanova,M.T. (2003). Lamprothamnium heraldii sp. nov. (Charales, Charophyta) from Australia: the first dioecious representative of the genus. Phycologia 42: 622-628.

Garcia,A. (1993). Chara baltica Bruzelius (Charophyta) en Argentina. Candollea 48: 287-303. [in Spanish]

Garcia,A. (1993). Quaternary and recent Lamprothamnium Groves (Charophyta) from Argentina. Hydrobiologia 267: 143-154.

Garcia,A. (1994). Pleistocene Charophyta from Arroyo Perucho Verna, Province of Entre Rios, Argentina. J. Paleolimnology 10: 53-58.

Grant, M.C. & Proctor, V.W. (1980). Electrophoretic analysis of genetic variation in the Charophyta. I. Gene duplication via polyploidy. Journal of Phycology 16: 109-115, 2 figs, 2 tables.

Groves, J. & Allen, G.O. (1927). On some Indian Charophyta. Journal of Botany 65: 335-339.

Groves, J. & Allen, G.O. (1935). A review of the Queensland Charophyta. Jour. Bot. 46(4): 34-59.

Groves, J. & Bullock-Webster, G.R. (1920). The British Charophyta. I. Nitelleae. pp. 141. London: The Ray Society.

Groves, J. & Bullock-Webster, G.R. (1924). The British Charophyta. II. Chareae. pp. 1-129. London: The Ray Society.

Groves, J. & Bullock-Webster, G.R. (1924). Notes on British Charophyta. Journal of Botany (London) 62: 33-35; pl.570.

Groves, J. & Stephens, E.L. (1926). New and noteworthy South African Charophyta I . Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 13(2): 145-158, pls 12-15.

Groves, J. & Stephens, E.L. (1933). New and noteworthy South African Charophyta II. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 21: 271-289, pls 13-16.

Groves, J. (1922). Charophyta. J.Linn. Soc. London 46(305): 69-70.

Groves, J. (1923). Notes on Indian Charophyta. J. Linn. Soc. London 46(310): 359-376, Plate 35,36.

Groves, J. (1924). Notes on Indian Charophyta. Jour. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 46(310): 359-376.

Groves, J. (1928). On Charophyta collected by Mr. Thomas Bates Blow, F.L.S., in Madagascar. Jour. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 48(320): 125-137, pl. 4-7.

Han, F. & Chen, W. (1986). New taxa of Charophyta from South-Western China. I. Some new species of Nitella from Chengdu, Sichuan. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 17(3): 222-227.

Han, F.S. & Li, Y.Y. (1994). Flora algarum sinicarum aquae dulcis Tomus III Charophyta. pp. 1-267. Beijing: Science Press.

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Horn af Rantzien, H. (1951). On the fossil Charophyta of Latin America. Svensk. bot. Tidskr. 45(4): 658-677.

Hussain,M.I. & Khoja,T.M. (1999). Chara braunii (Charales, Charophyta) in an Arid Rainfed Waterbody, Saudi Arabia. Aust. J. Bot. 47: 427-436.

Imahori, K. (1949). Notes on Asiatic Charophyta (I.). Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 62: 1-4, 8 fig.

Imahori, K. (1950). Miscellaneous papers on the East Asiatic Charophyta 2. J. Japanese Bot. 25(5): 73-77.

Imahori, K. (1951). Studies on Charophyta in Formosa I.. Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. 1(2): 201-221.

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Imahori, K. (1953). Studies on the Asiatic Charophyta III.. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 66: 216-221.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 September 2018.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:97242

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