155,278 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,865 images, 60,056 bibliographic items, 436,069 distributional records.

Taxonomy Detail

Phylum Haptophyta

Haptophyta Cavalier-Smith, 1986: 342.

Original publication: Cavalier-Smith, T. (1986). The kingdom Chromista: origin and systematics. In: Progress in phycological research. Vol. 4. (Round, F.E. & Chapman, D.J. Eds), pp. 309-347. Bristol: Bipress Ltd.

Key References
Fujiwara, S., Tsuzuki, M., Kawachi, M., Minaka, N. & Inouye, I. (2001). Molecular phylogeny of the Haptophyta based on the rbcL gene and sequence variation in the spacer region of the RUBISCO operon. Journal of Phycology 37: 121-129.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Alcober, J. & Jordan, R.W. (1997). An interesting association between Neosphaera coccolithomorpha and Ceratolithus cristatus (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 32: 91-93, 4 figs, 1 table.

Baker, J.W., Grover, J.P., Brooks, B.W., Ureña-Boeck, F., Roelke, D.L., Errera, R. & Kiesling, R.L. (2007). Growth and toxicity of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) as a function of salinity, light and temperature. Journal of Phycology 43(2): 219-227, 2 figs, 2 tables.

Bendif, E.M. & Young, J. (2014). On the ultrastructure of Gephyrocapsa oceanica (Haptophyta) life stages. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(4): 379-388.

Bendif, E.M., Probert, I., Carmichael, M., Romac, S., Hagino, K. & de Vargas, C. (2014). Genetic delineation between and within the widespread coccolithophore morpho-species Emiliana huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 50(1): 140-148.

Bendif, E.M., Probert, I., Hervé, A., Billard, Ch., Goux, D., Lelong, Ch.. Cadoret, J.-P. & Véron, B. (2012). Correction: Integrative taxonomy of the Pavlovophyceae (Haptophyta): A reassessment. Protist 163: 324-325.

Bendif, El M., Probert, I., Hervé, A., Billard, C., Goux, D., Lelong, C., Cadoret, J.-P. & Véron, B. (2011). Integrative taxonomy of the Pavlovophyceae (Haptophyta): a reassessment. Protist 162: 738-761.

Bendif, El M., Probert, I., Schroeder, D.C. & Vargas, C de (2013). On the description of Tisochrysis lutea gen. nov. sp. nov. and Isochrysis nuda sp. nov. in the Isochrysidales, and the transfer of Dicrateria to the Prymnesiales (Haptophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 25: 1763-1776.

Bidle, K.D. & Kwityn, C.J. (2012). Assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1079-1089.

Cook, S.S., Jones, R.C., Vaillancourt, R.E. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2013). Genetic differentiation among Australian and Southern Ocean populations of the ubiquitous coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Phycologia 52(4): 368-374.

Cook, S.S., Whittock, L., Wright, S.W. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2011). Photosynthetic pigment and genetic differences between two Southern Ocean morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(3): 615-626.

Corstjens, P.L.A.M & Gonzalez, E.L. (2004). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the expression of the coccolith-vesicle V-ATPase (subunit c) of Pleurochrysis (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 82-87.

Couapel, M.J.J., Beaufort, L. & Young, J.R. (2009). A new Helicosphaera-Syracolithus combination coccosphere (Haptophyta) from the western Mediterranean Sea (Note). Journal of Phycology 45(4): 914-916.

Edvardsen, B. & Medlin, L. (1998). Genetic analyses of authentic and alternate forms of Chrysochromulina polylepis (Haptophyta). Phycologia 37: 275-283, 6 figs, 3 tables.

Edvardsen, B., Eikrem, W., Green, J.C., Andersen, R.A., van der Stayy, S.Y.M. & Medlin, L. (2000). Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Haptophyta inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences and available morphological data. Phycologia 39(1): 19-35.

Edvardsen, B., Eikrem, W., Throndsen, J., Sáez, A.G., Probert, I. & Medlin, L.K. (2011). Ribosomal DNA phylogenies and a morphological revision provide the basis for a revised taxonomy of the Prymnesiales (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 46(3): 202-228.

Eikrem, W. & Moestrup, Ø. (1998). Structual analysis of the flagellar apparatus and the scaly periplast in Chrysochromulina scutellum sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta) from the Skagerrak and the Baltic. Phycologia 37: 132-153, 79 figs, 2 tables.

Eikrem, W. & Throndsen, J. 1999 (1999). The morphology of Chrysochromulina rotalis sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta), isolated from the Skagerrak. Sarsia 84: 445-449.

Findlay, C.S., Young, J.R. & Scott, F.J. (2005). Haptophyta:Order Coccolithophorales. In: Antarctic marine protists. (Scott, F.J. & Marchant, H.J. Eds), pp. 276-294. Canberra & Hobart: Australian Biological Resources Study; Australian Antarctic Division.

Godet, S., Loiseau, C., Pencreac'h, G., Ergan,F. & Héault, J. (2010). Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding a novel putative esterase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(4): 679-684.

Green, J.C., Heimdal, B.R., Paasche, E. & Moate, R. (1998). Changes in calcification and the dimensions of coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) grown at reduced salinities. Phycologia 37: 121-131, 14 figs, 2 tables.

Guihéneuf, F., Ulmann, L., Tremblin, G. Mimouni, V. (2011). Light-dependent utilization of two radiolabelled carbon sources, sodium bicarbonate and sodium acetate, and relationships with long chain polyunsturated fatty acid synthesis in the microalga Pavlova lutheri (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 46(2): 143-152.

Guiry, M.D. & Cao Xupeng (2016). Isochrysis zhanjiangensis H.-J.Hu & H.-R.Liu (Isochrysidaceae, Haptophyta): clarification of the name of a commercially valuable alga. Notulae Algarum 9: 1-2.

Hawkins, E.K., Lee, J.J. & Fimiarz, D.K. (2011). Colony formation and sexual morphogenesis in the coccolithophore Pleurochrysis sp. (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1344-1349.

Holdway, P.A. & Watson, R.A. (1978). Growth and ichthyotoxicity in two strains of Prymnesium parvum Carter (Haptophyta) as affected by phosphorus concentration. British Phycological Journal 13: 201-202.

Holdway, P.A., Watson, R.A. & Moss, B. (1978). Aspects of the ecology of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) and water chemistry in the Norfolk Broads, England. Freshwater Biology 8: 295-311.

Houdan, A., Billard, C., Marie, D., Not, F. Sáez, A.G., Young, J.R. & Probert, I. 2004 (2004). Flow cytometric analysis of relative ploidy levels in holococcolithophore-heterococcolithophore (Haptophyta) life cycles. Systematics and Biodiversity 1: 453-465.

Jeffrey, S.W. & Anderson, J.M. (2000). Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) holds promising insights for photosynthesis. Journal of Phycology 36: 449-452.

Jordan, R.W. & Green, J.C. (1994). A check-list of the extant Haptophyta of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 74: 149-174.

Jordan, R.W. & Winter, A. 1998 (1998). An unusual coccolithophorid (Haptophyta) specimen from Puerto Rico. Journal of Nannoplankton Research 20: 81-83.

Kang, L.K., Hwang, S.P.L., Gong, G.C., Lin, H.J., Chen P.C. & Chang, J. (2007). Influences of nitrogen deficiency on the transcript levels of ammonium transporter, nitrate transporter and glutamine synthetase genes in Isochrysis galbana (Isochrysidales, Haptophyta). Phycologia 46: 521-533.

Kapustin, D.O. & Gerasimiuk, V.P. (2015 '2014'). Haptophyta. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 483-489. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Kawachi, M. & Inouye, I. (1994). Ca2+-mediated induction of the coiling of the haptonema in Chrysochromulina hirta (Prymnesiophyta = Haptophyta). Phycologia 33: 53-57, 13 figs.

Kawachi, M. & Inouye, I. (1995). Functional roles of the haptonema and the spine scales in the feeding process of Chrysochromulina spinifera (Fournier) Pienaar et Norris (Haptophyta = Prymnesiophyta). Phycologia 34: 193-200, 36 figs, 1 table.

Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Kim, H.-S. & Jung, M.M. (2004). Morphological characteristics of Prymnesium patelliferum Green, Hibberd and Pienaar (Haptophyta) from Korea. Algae 19(3): 277-282, 2 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]

Kleijne, A., Jordan, R.W., Heimdal, B.R., Samtleben, C., Chamberlain, A.H.L. & Cros, L. (2002). Five new species of the coccolithophorid genus Alisphaera (Haptophyta), with notes on their distribution, coccolith structure and taxonomy. Phycologia 40: 583-601.

Kropuenske, L.R., Mills, M.M., van Dijken, G.L, Alderkamp, A.-C., Berg, G.M., Robinso, D.H., Welschmeyer, N.A. & Arrigo, K.R. (2010). Stategies and rates of photoacclimation in two major Southern Ocean phytoplankton taxa: Phaeocystis antarctica (Haptophyta) and Fragilariopsis cylindricus (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1138-1151.

Larsen, A. & Edvardsen, B. (1999 '1998' ). Relative ploidy levels in Prymnesium parvum and P. patelliferum (Haptophyta) analyzed by flow cytometry. Phycologia 37: 412-424, 15 figs, 4 tables.

Larsen, A. (1999). Prymnesium parvum and P. patelliferum (Haptophyta) - one species. Phycologia 38: 541-543.

Lefebvre, S.C., Harris, G., Webster, R., Leonardos, N., Geider, R.J., Raines, C.A., Read, B.A. & Garrido, J.L. (2010). Characterization and expresson analysis of the Lhcf gene family in Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) reveals differntial responses to light and CO2. Journal of Phycology 46(1): 123-134.

Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2005). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases organic carbon fixation by Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. Journal of Phycology 41: 1196-1203.

Leonardos, N. & Harris, G.N. (2006). Comparative effects of light on pigments of two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 1217-1224.

Leonardos, N., Read, B., Thake, B. & Young, J.R. (2009). No mechanistic dependence of photosynthesis on calcification in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1046-1051.

LeRoi, J.-M. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2004). Scale-bearing nanoflagellates from southern Tasmanian coastal waters, Australia. I. Species of the genus Chrysochromulina (Haptophyta). Botanica Marina 47: 73-102.

LeRoi, J.-M. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2006). Scale-bearing nanoflagellates from Southern Tasmania coastal waters, Australia. II. Species of Chrysophyceae (Chrysophyta), Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyta, excluding Chrysochromulina) and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 49(3): 216-235, 28 figs, 2 tables.

López-Fuerte, F.O., Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Siqueiros-Beltrones, D.A. & Yabur, R. (2015). First record and geographic range extension of the coccolithophore Scyphosphaera apsteinii Lohman, 1902 (Haptophyta: Pontosphaeraceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico. Check List 11(5): 1-3.

Majaneva, M., Rintala, J.-M., Hajdu, S., Hallsfors, S., Hallfors, G., Skjevik, A.-T., Gromisz, S., Kownacka, J. Busch, S., Blomster, J. (2012). The extensive bloom of alternate-stage Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) in the Baltic Sea during autumn-spring 2007-2008. European Journal of Phycology 47(3): 310-320.

McCarthy, A., Rogers, S.P., Duffy, S.J. & Campbell,D.A. (2012). Elevated carbon dioxide differentially alters the photophysiology of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) and Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(3): 635-646.

Medlin, L.K., Barker, G.L.A., Campbell, L., Green, J.C., Hayes, P.K., Marie, D., Wrieden, S. & Vaulot, D. (1996). Genetic characterisation of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Marine Systems 9: 13-31.

Mella-Flores, D., Machon, J., Contreras-Porcia, L., Mesa-Campbell, S. & von Dassow, P. (2018). Differential responses of Emiliana huxleyi (Haptophyta) strains to copper excess. Cryptogamie Algologie 39(4): 481-509.

Nam, O., Shiraiwa, Y. & Jin, ES. (2018). Calcium-related genes associated with intracellular calcification of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) CCMP 371. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 33(2): 181-189.

Neisch, M.T., Roelke, D.L., Brooks, B.W., Grover, J.P. & Masser, M.P. (2012). Stimulating effect of Anabaena sp. (Cyanobacteria) exudate on Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 1045-1049.

Noël, M.-H., Kawachi, M. & Inouye, I. (2004). Induced dimorphic life cycle of a coccolithophorid, Calyptrosphaera sphaeroidea (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 112-129.

Nosenko, T., Boese, B. & Bhattacharya, D. (2007). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of genome size and structure in Palova gyrans and Diacronema sp. (Haptophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 43: 763-767.

Nozaki, H., Maruyama, S., Matsuzaku, M., Nakada, T., Kato, S. & Misawa, K. (2009). Phylogenetic positions of Glaucophyta, green plants (Archaeplastida) and Haptophyta (Chromalveolata) as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53(3): 872-880.

Okazaki, M., Fujii, M., Usuda, Y. & Furuya, K. (1984). Soluble Ca2+- activated ATPase and its possible role in calcification of the coccolithophorid Cricosphaera roscoffensis var. haptonemofera (Haptophyta) (Studies on the calcium carbonate deposition of algae V). Botanica Marina 27: 363-369.

Orlova, T.Y., Efimova, K.V., & Stonik, I.V. (2016). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Pseudohaptolina sorokinii sp. nov. (Prymnesiales, Haptophyta) from the Sea of Japan, Russia. Phycologia 55(5): 506-514.

Preisig, H.R. (2002). Phylum Haptophyta. In: The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 211-213. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Preisig, H.R. (2011). Phylum Haptophyta (Prymnesiophyta). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 277-279. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Puigserver, M., Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J. & Nezan, E. (2003). On some Prymnesiaceae (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea, with the description of two new species: Chrysochromulina lanceolata sp. nov. and c. pseudolanceolata sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 39: 762-774.

Qian, Z.-J., Jung, W.K., Kang, K.-H., Ryu, B., Kim, S.-K., Je, J.-Y., Heo, S.-J., Oh, C., Kang, D.-H., Park, W.S. & Choi, I.W. (2012). In vitro antioxidant activities of the fermented marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (Haptophyta) with the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Journal of Phycology 48(2): 475-482.

Quinn, P.S., Cortés, M.Y. & Bollmann, J. (2005). Morphological variation in the deep ocean-dwelling coccolithophore Florisphaera profunda (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 40: 123-133.

Ragni, M., Airs, R.L., Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2008). Photoinhibition of PSII in Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) under high light stress: the roles of photoacclimation, photoprotection, and photorepair. Journal of Phycology 44: 670-683.

Rhodes, L., Edwards, A.R., Bojo, O. & Chang, F.H. (2012). Phylum Haptophyta: haptophytes. In: New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume Three. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. (Gordon, D.P. Eds), pp. 313-321. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.

Rokitta, S.D., de Nooijer, L.J., Trimborn, S., de Vargas, C., Rost, B. & John, U. (2011). Transcriptome analyses reveal differential gene expression patterns between the life-cycle stages of Emiliana huxleyi (Haptophyta) and reflect specialization to different ecological niches. Journal of Phycology 47(4): 829-838.

Sáez, A.G., Probert, I., Young, J.R., Edvardsen, B., Eikrem, W. & Medlin, L.K. 2004 (2004). A review of the phylogeny of the Haptophyta. In: Coccolithophores - from molecular processes to global impact. ( Eds), pp. 251-270. Springer-Verlag.

Sánchez-Suárez, I.G. 1990 (1990). Three new coccolithophorids (Haptophyta) from the south-eastern Caribbean Sea: Cyclolithella ferrazae sp. nov., Syracosphaera florida sp. nov. and Syracosphaera tumularis sp. nov. . Biologia Marina, Acta Cientifica Venezolana 41: 152-158.

Simon, N., Brenner, J., Edvardsen, B. & Medlin, L.K. (1997). The identification of Chrysochromulina and Prymnesium species (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) using fluorescent or chemiluminescent oligonucleotide probes: a means for improving studies on toxic algae. European Journal of Phycology 32: 393-401, 17 figs, 3 tables.

Suggett, D.J., le Floc'H, E., Harris, G.N. Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2007). Different strategies of photoacclimation by two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 43: 1209-1222.

Sym, S. & Kawachi, M. (2000). Ultrastructure of Calyptrosphaera radiata, sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 35: 283-294.

Thomsen, H.A. & Egge, J.K. (2016). Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard. Acta Protozoologica 55: 27-32, 8 fig., 2 tables.

Thomsen, H.A., Østergaard, J.B. & Cros, L. (2015). Ventimolina stellata gen. et sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from warm water regions. Acta Protozoologica 54: 275-281, 11 fig.

Thomsen, H.A., Egge, J.K. & Heldal, M. (2016). Papposphaera obpyramidalis (Haptophyta, Papposphaerceae): new findings from both polar regions. Revue de Micropaléontologie 59: 267-273.

Tripodi, G. (1980). Eplastidial membrane relationships in Ochrosphaera neapolitana Shussing (Haptophyta). In: Ennocytobiology, Endosymbiosis and Cell Biology. (Schwemmler, W. & Schenk, H.E.A. Eds) Vol.1, pp. 617-622. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co.

Täuscher, L. (2013). Checklisten und Gefährdungsgrade der Algen des Landes Brandenburg III. Checklisten und Gefährdungsgrade der Raphidophyceae/ Chloromonadophyceae, Haptophyta (Haptophyceae/ Prymnesiophyceae), Cryptophyta (Cryptophyceae),Dinophyta (Dinophyceae) und Euglenophyta (Euglenophyceae). Verh. Bot. Ver. Berlin Brandenburg 146: 109-128.

Van Lenning, K., Latasa, M., Estrada, M., Sáez, A.G., Medlin, L., Probert, I., Véron, B. & Young, J. (2003). Pigment signatures and phylogenetic relationships of the Pavlovophyceae (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 379-389.

Váron, B., Dauguet, J.-C. & Billard, C. (1996). Sterolic biomarkers in marine phytoplankton. I. Free and conjugated sterols of Pavlova lutheri (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology 31: 211-215, 1 fig, 2 tables.

Yan Hu, X., Yan Yin, M. & Kui Tseng, C. (2005). Morphology of Chrysochromulina planisquama sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) isolated from Jiaozhou Bay, China. Botanica Marina 48: 52-57.

Yoshida, M. Noel, M.-H. Nakayama, T. Naganuma, T. & Inouye, I. (2006). A haptophyte bearing siliceous scales: ultrastructure and phylogenetic position of Hyalolithus neolepis gen. et sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta). Protist 157: 213-234.

Young, J.R., Andruleit, H. & Probert, I. (2009). Coccolith function and morphogenesis: insights from appendage-bearing coccolithophores of the family syracosphaeraceae (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 45: 213-226.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 May 2019.

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