Gymnogongrus C., 1833
Holotype species: Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Original publication and holotype designation: Martius, C.F.P. von (1833). Flora brasiliensis, seu, enumeratio plantarum in Brasilia: tam sua sponte quam accedente cultura provenientium, quas in itinere auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae Regis annis 1817-1820 peracto collegit, partim descripsit; alias a Maximiliano Seren. Principe Widensi, sellovio aliisque advectas addidit, communibus amicorum propriisque studiis secundum methodum naturalem dispositas et illustratas. Vol. I. Pars prior. Algae, lichenes, hepaticae exposuerunt Martius. Eschweilfr [sic]. Nees ab Esenbeck. pp. [i]-iv, -390. Stuttgartiae & Tubingae [Stuttgart & Tübingen]: sumptibus J.G. Cottae.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.
Description: Plants of the largest species reach 25 cm in length and occur singly or in dense aggregates from extensive (to 40 cm diam.) crustose bases. Gametophytes are erect, generally compressed, dichotomous, and either lack or have varying numbers of proliferous marginal laterals. The pseudoparenchymatous medulla is a mixture of densely compacted large and small cells. Carpogonial branches bear a 1-2-celled sterile branch and cystocarps have multiple ostioles in Japanese species (Masuda 1987). Gametophyte and carposporophyte anatomy has been studied by Schotter (1968). Tetrasporangia are either unknown altogether, occur as "tetrasporoblastic" nemathecia on gametophytes, or appear as Erythrodermis-type diminutive crusts. McCandless and Vollmer (1984) examined gametophytes of a Californian representative on which pustular nemathecia of catenate tetrasporangia are produced and found that the sporangial and spore walls contained different fractions of carrageenan (lambda and kappa, respectively), implying that the "carpotetrasporangia" are a result of meiosis.
Information contributed by: G.T. Kraft. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 23 Jan 2017 by M.D. Guiry.
Comments: Distribution: The type species is distributed on both sides of the Atlantic from Massachussetts to Uruguay in the west and from the British Isles to the Canary Isles and the Mediterranean in the east. The genus as a whole appeas centred in cool to cold-temperate waters of both hemispheres (Ricker 1987), although apparently valid species also occur in the decidedly tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea (Taylor 1971) and Viet Nam (Dawson 1954).
Numbers of names and species: There are 70 species names in the database at present, as well as 8 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 29 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.
Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 29 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 23 January 2017 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=15
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 April 2019.