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Sphaeranthera Heydrich, 1900

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Hapalidiaceae
Subfamily Melobesioideae

Holotype species: Sphaeranthera decussata (Foslie) Heydrich

Original publication and holotype designation: Heydrich, F. (1900). Weitere Ausbau des Corallineensystems. Berichte der deutsche botanischen Gesellschaft 18: 310-317.
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Taxonomic status: uncertain, requiring further investigation.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kylin, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. pp. i-xv, 1-673, 458 figs. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerups.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

The generic name Sphaeranthera (Heydrich 1900: 315) is accompanied by diagnosis (as part of a generic key) and thus is validly published (ICBN Art 41.2) even though the author did not describe any new species or effect any new species name combinations within the genus. Heydrich (1900: 315, footnote 5) included a single taxon identified as Lithophyllum decussatum Solms (see Solms-Laubach 1881: 14-15), also indicating that a manuscript on that taxon was in press. Subsequently Heydrich (1901a: 192) coined the binomial Sphaeranthera decussata and then (Heydrich 1901b) provided his account of the species.

In accordance with ICBN Art 13.3, the name Sphaeranthera is treated as pertaining to a non-fossil taxon because its type is based on a non-fossil specimen. No species based on fossil types have been assigned to the genus.

The generic name Sphaeranthera is typified (ICBN Art. 10.1) by the type of S. decussata the only species originally included in the genus. The correct authorship of the name of the type species is Sphaeranthera decussata (Foslie) Heydrich; see Woelkerling (1988: 219) and the online version of the Index Nominum Genericourm (http://botany.si.edu.ing). For further notes on the basionym (Lithothamnion decussatum Foslie, 1895: 205), see the Index Nominum Algarum (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/INA.html) and Woelkerling (1988: 219). - (20 Jul 2009) - M.D. Guiry

Description: No generic description is provided as the status of this genus in currently uncertain.

Information kindly contributed by Wm. J. Woelkerling but may now be outdated.

Comments: Woelkerling (1988: 219) provided background information on the name Sphaeranthera and concluded that the status and disposition of the genus required further evaluation. This has yet to be done.

Uncertainty surrounds the status and disposition of the genus because a lectotype specimen has yet to be designated for S. decussata (Foslie) Heydrich. Both Foslie (1895) and Heydrich (1900) based the name on the account of Solms-Laubach (1881), who used specimens from several localities in the Golf von Neapel. Those specimens need to be re-examined in a modern context and a lectotype selected in order to determine whether Sphaeranthera constitutes a distinct genus or is a heterotypic synonym of an earlier described genus. It is clear from the account of Solms-Laubach (1881), however, that his specimens had multiporate tetrasporangial conceptacles with roofs composed of cells, and this means that the name Sphaeranthera is associated with the Hapalidiaceae, subfamily Melobesioideae within the Order Corallinales (Rhodophyta).

Numbers of names and species: There are 3 species names in the database at present, of which 1 has been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Foslie, M. (1895). The Norwegian forms of Lithothamnion. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1894: 29-208, 23 pls.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Weitere Ausbau des Corallineensystems. Berichte der deutsche botanischen Gesellschaft 18: 310-317.

Foslie, M. (1901). Bieten die Heydrich'schen Melobesien-Arbeiten eine sichere Grundlage?. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1901(2): 1-28.

Heydrich, F. (1901). Die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Corallineen-genus Sphaeranthera Heydrich. Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel 14: 586-615, 1 plate.

Heydrich, F. (1907). Über Sphaeranthera lichenoides (Ell. et Sol.) Heydr. mscr. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 22(Abt. 2): 222-230, pls X, XI.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Solms-Laubach, H. (1881). Die Corallinenalgen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte (Monographie). Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeresabschnitte 4: 1-64, 3 pls. [in German]

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988). The Coralline Red Algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. pp. i-xi, 1-268, 259 figs, tables numbered by chapter. London & Oxford: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Lamy, D. (1998). Non-geniculate coralline red algae and the Paris Museum: Systematics and scientific history. pp. i-vii, 1-767. Paris: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum/ADAC.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 January 2001 by M.D. Guiry

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Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 November 2018.

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