Eremosphaera De Bary, 1858: 56
Holotype species: Eremosphaera viridis De Bary
Original publication and holotype designation:De Bary, A. (1858). Untersuchungen über die Familie der Conjugaten (Zygnemeen und Desmidieen) Ein Beitrag zur physiologischen und beschreibenden Botanik. pp. [i]-vi, 1-91. Leipzig: A. Förstnersche Buchhandlung (Arthur Felix).
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Darienko et al. (2010: fig. 1) place Eremosphaera viridis in the Oocystis-clade. Neustupa et al. (2011: fig. 22) include this in the Chlorellales. - (16 Mar 2011) - Wendy Guiry
Description: Thalli sometimes colonial in clusters of 2-4, mostly solitary with spherical to subspherical or ellipsoidal cells with or without conspicuous mucilaginous envelope. Cells 23-130 x 20-120 µm with cellulosic cell walls 0.5-1.0 µm thick; most species with polar thickenings; one species, E. oocystoides with numerous radial spicules. Cells with large central vacuole traversed by radial strands of cytoplasm which connect central nucleus to periphery. Cytoplasm often with numerous granules and oil droplets; calcium oxalate crystals in E<. viridis. Nuclei single and mostly central, 5-31 µm diameter, with up to five nucleoli; numerous chloroplasts parietal, discoid to elongate, occasionally radial in cytoplasmic strands; each chloroplast with 1-3 pyrenoids, often surrounded with starch grains. Asexual reproduction by autospores; 2-4 per sporangium and released by rupture of parental cell wall which often remains distinct in culture. Cytokinesis in E. viridis unusual in that plasmalemma formation associated with fusion of open membranes rather than vesicles. Open membranes may originate through bursting of heavily staining vesicles. Sexual reproduction oogamous and homothallic, known only in E. viridis. Eggs similar to autospores, producing fertilization papilla at maturity. Sperm biflagellate and spherical, without plastids or stigma, 16-64 per antheridium; produced by repeated bipartitions of protoplasts. After fertilization zygotes produce thickened walls. Chromosomes described only in E. viridis with n? = 80.
Comments: Species planktonic or benthic, associated with both acidic and alkaline freshwater in ponds, lakes and rivers in cool to tropical climates; reported from North America, Cuba, Europe and Australia. E. antillara, E. oocystoides and possibly E. minor endemic to North America and/or Cuba. Extracellular mucilage with fibrillar and slimy components; high polyuronic acid formation associated with increased phosphorus in medium. Fibrils ca 7 nm diameter with occasional branching or fusions. The large cells of E. viridis have been widely used as a model system in physiological studies, especially involving carbon transport and potassium channels. Species distinguished based on cell size and shape, presence of wall spicules (one species) and details of chloroplast morphology. Requires revision.
NCBI Nucleotide Sequences
Numbers of names and species: There are 14 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 6 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Eremosphaera angulosa (Corda) Klebs S
Eremosphaera antillana A.Comas C
Eremosphaera eremosphaeria (G.M.Smith) R.L.Smith & Bold C
Eremosphaera gigas (W.Archer) Fott & Kalina C
Eremosphaera minor R.L.Smith & Bold C
Eremosphaera oocystoides Prescott C
Eremosphaera tanganyikae Stoyneva, Gartner, Cocquyt & Vyverman C
Eremosphaera viridis var. tetraedrica Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis var. ovalis Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis var. nodosa Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis var. chodatii Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis var. doliformis Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis var. acuminata Playfair C
Eremosphaera viridis De Bary C - type
Darienko, T., Gustavs, L., Mudimu, O., Menendez, C.R., Schumann, R., Karsten, U., Friedl, T. Proschold, T. (2010). Chloroidium, a common terrestrial coccoid green alga previously assigned to Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 45(1): 79-95.
Neustupa, J., Eliás, M., Skaloud, P., Nemcová, Y. & Sejnohová, L. (2011). Xylochloris irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga. Phycologia 50(1): 57-66.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43432
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2014. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 11 March 2014.
Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:6959