155,542 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,916 images, 60,162 bibliographic items, 438,693 distributional records.

Bicosoeca H.J.Clark, 1866

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Bigyra
Class Bikosea
Order Bicosoecales
Family Bicosoecaceae

Lectotype species: Bicosoeca gracilipes H.J.Clark

Original publication:Clark, H.J. (1866). On the spongia ciliatae as infusoria flagellata [Preliminary abstract]. Memoirs of the Boston Natural History Society 1: 16.

Type designated in Grassé, P.P. & Deflandre, G. (1952). Ordre des Bicoecidea (Bikoecidae S. Kent, 1880). In: Traité de Zoologie Anatomie, Systematique, Biologie Vol. 1 Phylogenie. Protozoaires: Généralités. Flagellés. Premier fascicule. (Grassé, P.-P. Eds), pp. 599-601. Paris: Masson et Cie Éditeurs.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Nicholls, K.H. & Wujek, D.E. (2003). Chrysophycean Algae. In: Freshwater Algae of North America. (Wehr, J.D. & Sheath, R.G. Eds), pp. 471-510. San Diego: Academic Press.

Nomenclatural notes
Numerous problems with the spelling of the name with Lemmermann, Senn and others using the spelling "Bicoeca". - (11 Jun 2014) - M.D. Guiry

Description: Cells colorless, spherical to ellipsoidal, single-celled or united in colonies. Cells bearing 2 unequal blunt flagella, inserted antero-laterally next to a peristomal structure that resembles a protruding lip surrounded the cytostomal area. The shorter, smooth flagellum posteriorly directed, with a tip attached to a lorica. The longer, hairy flagellum is held in a slight curve in front of the cell, beating with low amplitude, and is active in swimming and feeding. When a cell is disturbed, the short flagellum contracts, and the cell is withdrawn to the bottom of the lorica, while the long flagellum is rolled up into a tight coil at the anterior end of the cell. This behavior is diagnostic. Lorica organic, amorphous or fibrous, of variable shape, size and thickness, providing most of the taxonomic characters for the genus. Some loricas are made of a thin, transparent, randomly woven matrix. Others are thicker, more regularly woven and sometimes patterned with stripes (Kristiansen 1972). The shape of the lorica is visible by light microscopy, but details of its structure can usually be resolved only by electron microscopy. Reproduction by cell division; one of the daughter cells escapes and forms a new lorica, starting with the base (or stalk). In species where daughter cells tend to remain stuck to the mother lorica, colonies may develop. Found mostly in fresh water (a few known from brackish and marine waters).Some species are very common and widely distributed, but often overlooked. The order Bicocoecales, including the genera Bicosoeca (family Bicosoecaceae, Cafeteria and Pseudobodo (Cafeteriaceae) has been accommodated in the class Chrysophyceae by several authors (e.g.by Moestrup 1995). Others assigned Bicosoeca and related genera to a separate class of heterokonts called Bicosoecophyceae (Loeblich and Loeblich 1978), Bicoecea (Cavalier-Smith 1997) or Bicosoecida (=Bicoecida; Margulis and Schwartz 1998). Most recently, additional genera have been accommodated in the Bicosoecales (Bicosoecida), such as Acronema (Teal & al.1998) and Siluania (family Siluaniaceae; Karpov et al.1998). Several genera of colorless flagellates, in which the anterior flagellum lacks flagellar hairs, have also been suggested to have bicosoecid affinities, e.g. Caecitellus Patterson, Nygaard, Steinberg and Turley, or genera included in the Pseudodendromonadida (Adriamonas Verhagen, Zölffel, Brugerolle and Patterson, Cyathobodo Petersen and Hansen, Pseudodendromonas Bourrelly) (see O'Kelly and Nerad 1998).

Information contributed by: H. R. Preisig. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 25 May 2018 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 58 species names in the database at present, as well as 6 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 46 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Kristiansen, J. & Preisig, H.R. (2001). Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Throndsen, J. (1996). The planktonic marine flagellates. In: Identifying marine phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 591-730. San Diego: Academic Press.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 19 April 2002 by Elizabeth Moran

Verified by: 25 May 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43857

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 June 2019.

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