Amphidinium Claperède & Lachmann, 1859
Holotype species: Amphidinium operculatum Claparède & Lachmann
Original publication and holotype designation: Claparède, É. & Lachmann, J. (1859). Études sur les infusoires et les rhizopodes. Mémoires de l'Institut National Genevois 6: 261-482.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Moestrup, Ø. & Calado, A.J. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Volume 6: Dinophyceae. pp. [i]-xii, -560, 421 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.
Description: Small to large (<10-100 µm) unarmored free-living cell, predominantly motile, sometimes enclosed in a hyaline cyst. Cells globular to fusiform, laterally or dorsoventrally compressed. Epicone small and hypocone large, as the cingulum is located in the anterior part of the cell. Some cells have larger epicones, intermediate between Amphidinium and Gymnodinium Stein. Cingulum circular or little displaced, but displaced considerably in a few species, which are intermediate between Amphidinium and Gyrodinium Kofoid and Swezy. Cingulum making one or a just over one turn. Sulcus extends from cingulum to antapex, in some species to apex. Typical dinokaryon located in the hypocone. Amphiesma delicate or rigid, smooth or with striae on hypocone or also epicone. Number of striae may differ on epicone and hypocone. Chloroplasts present or absent. Nutrition phototroph, phagotroph either by ingestion of whole particles or by myzocytosis. Chloroplasts of some species may be derived from cryptophycean endosymbionts. Cytoplasm hyaline or of various colors, dense granules may be present. Some species form temporary cysts. Vegetative reproduction by binary fission, sexual reproduction known but no resting cysts. Some species produce unusual sterols, others toxic substances. Cosmopolitan, marine, brackish or freshwater, planktonic or sand-dwelling. Some species produce unusual sterols, others toxins. Endosymbiotic species reported, but delimitation of these taxa from Endodinium Hovasse, which has been regarded as later synonym by some authors, must be justified. Emended by Jorgensen, Murray & Daugbjerg (2004: 361).
Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 27 Sep 2018 by M.D. Guiry.
Comments: Popovsky & Pfiester (1990: 89) place this genus in the Order Peridiniales.
Numbers of names and species: There are 188 species names in the database at present, as well as 12 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 101 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.
Popovsky, J. & Pfiester, L.A. (1990). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Vol. 6. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellida). pp. 1-272. Jena & Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 23 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 27 September 2018 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44134
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 July 2019.