155,120 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,785 images, 59,952 bibliographic items, 433,854 distributional records.

Amphisolenia Stein, 1883

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Dinophysiales
Family Amphisoleniaceae

Holotype species: Amphisolenia globifera F.Stein

Original publication:Stein, F. (1883). Die naturgeschichte der arthrodelen Flagellaten. In: Der Organismus der Infusionstiere. III. Pt. 2. ( Eds), pp. 1-30. Leipzig:

Type designated in Kofoid, C.A. & Skogsberg, T. (1928). Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross" from October 1904 to March 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garrett, U.S.N., Commanding. [No.] XXXV. The Dinoflagellata: the Dinophysoidae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 51: 1-766.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Description: Needle-like large (150-500 &m) flagellate divided in "head", that is the very reduced epicone, separated by a cingulum with narrow cingular lists, the "neck", that is the region of the sulcus with narrow lists and the "body", a swollen part of the hypocone which continues into the "tail", the distal part of the very large hypocone which may be bifurcated or multifurcated. In most species, the epicone is inclined in respect to the longitudinal axis of the hypocone, the cingulum is circular or only slightly displaced. The sulcus starts at the cingulum and extends only partly on the hypocone and ends before the hypocone forms the "body". The plate formula is identical to that of Dinophysis Stein but 2 sulcal plates are extremely elongated, forming the ventral side of the "neck". Chloroplast of various color have been described in several species but ultrastructural investigations showed that apparently these are not dinoflagellate chloroplasts but endosymbionts. At least 2 types of endosymbionts have been reported, a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic one. The exact nature and function of the symbionts is so far unknown. Sexual reproduction and cyst formation not known. Marine plankton, worldwide, mostly tropical and subtropical, a few species in temperate waters.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 46 species names in the database at present, as well as 4 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 42 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Gómez, F., López-García, P. & Moreira, D. (2011). Molecular phylogeny of dinophysoid dinoflagellates: the systematic position of Oxyphysis oxytoxoides and the Dinophysis hastata group (Dinophysales, Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47(2): 393-406.

Hastrup Jensen, M. & Daugbjerg, N. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of selected species of the order Dinophysiales (Dinophyceae) - testing the hypothesis of a dinophysioid radiation. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1136-1152.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44613

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 April 2019.

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