138,285 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 17,923 images, 51,658 bibliographic items, 260,372 distributional records.

Sphaerococcus Stackhouse, 1797

Sphaerococcus Stackhouse, 1797: xvi

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Sphaerococcaceae

Lectotype species: Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

Original publication:Stackhouse, J. (1797). Nereis britannica; continens species omnes fucorum in insulis britannicis crescentium: descriptione latine et anglico, necnon iconibus ad vivum depictis... Fasc. 2. pp. ix-xxiv, 31-70, pls IX-XIII. Bathoniae [Bath] & Londini [London]: S. Hazard; J. White.
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Type designated in Greville, R.K. (1830). Algae britannicae, or descriptions of the marine and other inarticulated plants of the British islands, belonging to the order Algae; with plates illustrative of the genera. pp. [i*-iii*], [i]-lxxxviii, [1]-218, pl. 1-19. Edinburgh & London: McLachlan & Stewart; Baldwin & Cradock.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Description: Plants reach 150 mm in length, are erect from a large discoid base, and consist of irregularly to secondly branched flattened axes. Gameotphytes are monoecious. The crustose ctetrasporophyte is characterized by intercellular oil droplets and chains of large cells among the horizontal filaments (Maggs and Guiry 1982). Plants of the family SPHAEROCOCCACEAE are uniaxial, each axial cell cutting off 4 periaxial cells bearing cortical fascicles. Procarps form near tips of lateral branches on one of the two lateral pericentral cells, the carpogonial branch consisting of 4 cells borne on an intercalary supporting cell. Although the auxiliary cell is easily identifiable by its staining properties, its position is difficult to interpret (Searles 1968: 7). It appears to be the basal cell of the carpogonial branch, as it bears no other lateral structures, a position unique in the red algae. Early postfertilization stages are not clearly known. The mature cystocarp consists of a large central fusion cell and radiating gonimoblast filaments, each of which terminates in a single or 2-celled chain of carposporangia. Spermatangia are borne in clusters on elongated outer cortical mother cells formed in surface depressions. Tetrasporophytes are heteromorphic with gametophytes, being in the form of Haematocelis fissurata-type crusts bearing zonate sporangia among sterile erect filaments (Maggs and Guiry, 1982). The family once contained a large number of genera, but is now considered to be monogeneric. Searles (1968) has made the most recent anatomical and taxonomic study of the gametophytes.

Information contributed by: G.T. Kraft. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 20 Jan 2011 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Distribution: The type species occurs in the eastern Atlantic from the British Isles to the Canary Islands, and in the Mediterranean and Black Seas (Dixon and Irvine 1977). In Britain it occurs on sublittoral rocks to 15 m depths. The Haematocelis fissurata stage is known from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France, Ireland and Scotland, where it occurs on bedrock and boulders from 3-24 m depth. A second species, S. rhizophvlloides Rodriguez, is infrequently collected from the Baleares Islands, Atlantic France and the western Mediterranean, sometimes at considerable depths (up to 110 m; Huve 1970).

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences
As of 2 June 2009, nucleotide sequence data are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank for 43 samples identified as Sphaerococcus.

Numbers of names and species: There are 205 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 6 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Sphaerococcus abscissus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus aculeatus Hering S 
Sphaerococcus aculeatus (Linnaeus) Stackhouse S 
Sphaerococcus aculeatus Kützing C 
Sphaerococcus aculeatus Zanardini ex Frauenfeld C 
Sphaerococcus alatus (Hudson) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus alcicornis (J.Agardh) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus alveatus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus angustifolius Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus appendiculatus Schousboe P 
Sphaerococcus armatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus articulatus (Hudson) Stackhouse S 
Sphaerococcus asper C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus attenuatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus australis var. constrictus Kützing C 
Sphaerococcus australis Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus australis Harvey S 
Sphaerococcus bangi (Hornemann) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus brodiei (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus brodiei var. concatenatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus brodiei var. angustissimus (C.Agardh) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus brodiei var. concatenatus Lyngbye S 
Sphaerococcus brodiei var. ligulatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus burmannii C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus canaliculatus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus canaliculatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus capillaris Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus cartilagineus var. setaceus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus caulescens Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus cervicornis (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus chamissoi C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus chauvinii Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus chondracanthus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus chondroides Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus ciliatus var. fuscus Lyngbye S 
Sphaerococcus cinnibarinus (J.Agardh) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus coccineus Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus compressus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus concinnus (R.Brown ex Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus concinnus var. immersus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus confervoides (F.H.Wiggers) Stackhouse S 
Sphaerococcus confervoides (Hudson) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus confervoides var. ramulosus C.Agardh P 
Sphaerococcus congestus (R.Brown ex Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus constrictus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus corallina Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus corallinus var. linearis C 
Sphaerococcus corallopsis Montagne S 
Sphaerococcus coriaceus (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus coriaceus Sonder S 
Sphaerococcus corneus var. pulvinatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus corneus (Hudson) Stackhouse S 
Sphaerococcus corneus var. spinulosus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus corniculatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus cornutus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus coronopifolius var. pennata J.Agardh C 
Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse C - type
Sphaerococcus corticatus (J.Agardh) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus crassifolius C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus crinitus (S.G.Gmelin) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus crispus f. aequalis (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus crispus var. ciliatus Suhr S 
Sphaerococcus crispus var. stellatus (Stackhouse) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus cristatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus cristatus var. fabricianus (Lyngbye) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus cristatus var. angustatus Lyngbye S 
Sphaerococcus dactyloides (Sonder) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus dendroides Kützing C 
Sphaerococcus densus var. fruticosus (J.Agardh) G.Martens C 
Sphaerococcus dentatus (Linnaeus) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus denticulatus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus difficilis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus dilatatus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus disciplinalis Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus distichus J.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus divaricatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus divaricatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus divergens C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus domingensis Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus dumosus (Harvey & Bailey) Kützing C 
Sphaerococcus dumosus Martius C 
Sphaerococcus durus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus erectus Greville S 
Sphaerococcus fabricianus (Lyngbye) Sprengel S 
Sphaerococcus fastigiatus (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus filiformis J.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus fimbriatus var. filiformis Suhr S 
Sphaerococcus fimbriatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus flabellifolius Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus flaccidus Suhr S 
Sphaerococcus fragilis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus furcellatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus gaditanus Montagne C 
Sphaerococcus gaudichaudii Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus gelatinus (Esper) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus gelidium J.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus gigartinus var. costatus Suhr S 
Sphaerococcus glandulosus Schousboe P 
Sphaerococcus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus helminthochorton (Schwendimann) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus heringii Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus hippuroides (Lyngbye) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus horridus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus interruptus Greville S 
Sphaerococcus intricatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus isiformis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus labillardieri (Mertens ex Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus laciniatus (Hudson) Lyngbye S 
Sphaerococcus laciniatus var. centrocarpus Montagne S 
Sphaerococcus lacinulatus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus lacinulatus (Vahl) Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus lactuca var. luxurians C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus lactuca C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus lambertii (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus lambertii var. gelatinosus Suhr S 
Sphaerococcus lemania Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus lessonii Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus lichenoides var. tenuis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus lichenoides C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus linearis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus mamillosus (Goodenough & Woodward) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus maximiliani Martius S 
Sphaerococcus membranifolius var. concatenatus (C.Agardh) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus membranifolius var. fibrillosus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus membranifolius var. angustissimus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus membranifolius (Goodenough & Woodward) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus membranifolius var. pinnatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus mexicanus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus microcarpus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus miniatus Sprengel S 
Sphaerococcus mirabilis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus multipartitus var. lichenoides (Turner) C.Agardh C 
Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus musciformis var. armatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus nanus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus nigrescens (C.Agardh) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus nodifer Hering S 
Sphaerococcus norvegicus (Gunnerus) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus obtusatus (Sonder) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus obtusus (Hudson) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus obtusus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus oppositifolius C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. prolifer S 
Sphaerococcus palmatus (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus palmetta var. bifidus Lyngbye S 
Sphaerococcus palmetta (Stackhouse) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus palmettus var. pinnatus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus papillatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus pedicellatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus pinastroides Stackhouse S 
Sphaerococcus platyphyllus Kützing C 
Sphaerococcus plicatus var. hippuroides (Lyngbye) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus plicatus var. tenuis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus plicatus var. simplicior (C.Agardh) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus plicatus var. elongatus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus plicatus (Hudson) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus plumosus (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus pristoides (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus purpurascens var. scorpioides (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus purpurascens var. rostratus (Lyngbye) Hornemann S 
Sphaerococcus purpurascens (Hudson) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus radicans Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Sphaerococcus radula var. stiriatus (Turner) Rudolphi S 
Sphaerococcus radula (Esper) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus radulus (Esper) S 
Sphaerococcus ramulosus Martius S 
Sphaerococcus rangiferinus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus repens C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus revolutus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus rhizophylloides J.J.Rodríguez y Femenías C 
Sphaerococcus rigens C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus rigidus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus salicornia C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus salicornia var. simplicior C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus sanguineus (Hudson) Wahlenberg S 
Sphaerococcus sarniensis (Roth) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus schousboei J.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus scutellatus Hering S 
Sphaerococcus secundus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus seminervis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus serra J.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus setaceus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus sinuosus (Goodenough & Woodward) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus soboliferus (M.Vahl) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus sonderii Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus spermophorus (Linnaeus) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus spinellus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus spinescens Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus spinosus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus spinulosus Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus sternbergii C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus stiriatus (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus subfuscus var. tenuior C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus subfuscus (Woodward) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus subulatus var. nigrescens C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus subulatus C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus textorii Suringar S 
Sphaerococcus torreyi C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus tripinnatus (Hering) Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus usneoides C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus vermicularis C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus verruculosus (Bertoloni) C.Agardh S 
Sphaerococcus vieillardii Kützing S 
Sphaerococcus volans C.Agardh S 

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

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Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=Na02d41635ed8b231

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2014. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 27 November 2014.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:8376

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