153,615 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,981 images, 59,407 bibliographic items, 412,628 distributional records.

Polytoma Ehrenberg, 1831

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Chlorophyceae
Order Chlamydomonadales
Family Chlamydomonadaceae

Holotype species: Polytoma uvella Ehrenberg

Original publication and holotype designation: Ehrenberg, C.G. (1831). Animalia evertebrata exclusis insectis Series Prima cum tabularum decase prima. In: Symbolae physicae. (Hemprich, P.C. & Ehrenberg, C.G. Eds), pp. [1-71]. Berolini [Berlin]: ex officina academica.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Massjuk, N.P., Lilitska, G.G. & Kapustin, D.O. (2011). Chlamydomonadales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 157-218. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Description: Unicellular thalli ovate, ellipsoidal, or spherical. Protoplast is colorless and contains a leucoplast. Two isokont, anterior flagella. Pyrenoids absent but starch granules present in abundance. Stigma present or absent. Two to four contractile vacuoles inserted at the apex near the flagella. Cell wall present, occasionally exhibiting longitudinal striae. Cell wall may be covered with a fine gelatinous coat. A papillum may absent or present. Asexual reproduction by zoosporogenesis. Four to eight daughter cells produced. Sporangium retains parental flagella and motility during cell division. Division plane may be longitudinal or transverse. Aplanospores have been reported. Palmella, akinete, and amoeboid stages have also been reported. Sexual reproduction isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous depending on the species. Gametes observed to possess cell wall. Fusion occurs through pairing at the apices with the formation of a protoplasmic bridge. Gamete walls ultimately lost, followed by the development of the zygote which often accumulates "haematochrome." Zygote germinates to produce four to eight products of reduction division. Cell wall in Polytoma uvella of the type II lattice similiar to Brachiomonas, Chlorogonium, Chloromonas, Carteria and some species of Chlamydomonas.

Information contributed by: M. Buchheim. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 7 Nov 2015 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Polytoma is often referred to as a "colorless Chlamydomonas" in that it resembles Chlamydomonas in many respects. Polytoma uvella has been found in rain water pools that contain decaying vegetation. Many species are known largely or exclusively from culture. Polytoma has been collected world-wide. Lang undertook an ultrastructural study of P. obtusum and was the first to demonstrate the stellate structure of the flagellar transition region. Gaffal, Gaffal and Kreutzer, and Gaffal and Schneider have also examined P. papillatum at the ultrastructural level. Molecular data suggest an alliance with Chlamydomonas (Vernon-Kipp and Birky)

Numbers of names and species: There are 21 species names in the database at present, of which 19 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 23 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 07 November 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44236

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 November 2018.

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