136,646 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 17,734 images, 51,357 bibliographic items, 254,524 distributional records.

Laminaria J.V.Lamouroux, 1813

Laminaria J.V.Lamouroux, 1813: 40

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Laminariaceae

Lectotype species: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

Original publication:Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type designated in Bachelot de la Pylaie, A.J.M. (1830 '1829'). Flora de l'Ile Terre-Neuve et des Iles Saint Pierre et Miclon. Livraison [Algae]. pp. 1-128. Paris: Typographie de A. Firmin Didot, rue Jacob, No. 24.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Silberfeld, T., Rousseau, F. & Reviers, B. de (2014). An updated classification of brown algae (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae). Cryptogamie Algologie 35(2): 117-156.

Description: Life cycle typical for the order Laminariales: diplohaplontic with alternation of large sporophyte bearing unilocular meiosporangia with paraphyses (sori) and microscopic dioecious and oogamous, heteromorphous gametophytes. Chromosome numbers of genus n = 22-31. The sporophytes large (> 1 m) and differentiated into an usually branched, seldom disc-like (L. solidungula, L. yezoensis) or rhizomatous holdfast (L. sinclairii, L. rodriguezii), a stipe and a blade. Stipe cylindrical or compressed, solid or sometimes hollow, always terminating into a single blade. Annual growth rings present in some species. Attachment of haptera by meristoderm-generated rhizoidal cells (Tovey & Moss 1978). Most species with perennial sporophytes (2-18 years old) with a blade that is regenerated from the meristematic region between blade and stipe. Blades entire without median fascia (section: Simplices) or with conspicious median fascia (section: Fasciatae), or blades incompletely or palmately divided into a number of segments (section: Digitatae). Blades without cryptostomata, usually smooth but sometimes ruffled or bullate, no longitudinal ribs or midrib. Unilocular sporangia as sori on both surfaces of blades. Each sporangium joined by an unicellular paraphysis; contains 32 haploid zoospores. Motile zoospores with single chloroplast, without eyespot and flagellar swelling. After settling, zoospores develop into dioecious heteromorphous microscopic gametophytes with oogamous reproduction. Females with large x-chromosome (Evans 1965). Gametogenesis induced by blue light, inhibited by too low or high temperatures, insufficient nutrient supply or lack of iron (e.g.: Lüning & Dring 1972, Motomura & Sakai 1981, tom Dieck 1992, Hsiao & Druehl 1971). Male and female gametophytes one to few-celled or filamentous. Males bear clusters of colorless one-celled antheridia at tips of branches each producing a single biflagellate spermatozoid. Each female gametophyte cell able to develop into a one-celled oogonium producing a single egg with remnants of flagellum (Motomura & Sakai 1988) which is extruded from oogonium, but remains attached to it. Release apparently controlled by a circadian rhythm, mostly during the first 30 minutes of darkness (Lüning 1981). At release of eggs sexual pheromone lamoxirene is secreted causing ejection of spermatozoids from antheridia and attraction to the eggs where fertilization takes place (Lüning and Müller 1978, Müller & others 1985). Zygote germinates to form young sporophyte. Centrioles are inherited paternally, mitochondria and chloroplasts maternally after fertilization. Abnormal development of parthenogenetic sporophytes probably due to lack of centrioles (Motomura 1990, 1991). Sporophyte consists of different tissues: the central medulla, the parenchymatous cortex and the outer meristoderm, which is both photosynthetic and meristematic. Haptera lacks medulla. Trumpet hyphae in the medulla are sieve elements containing sieve plates with pores thereby enabling active translocation of photosynthesis products (Schmitz & Srivastava 1974, Schmitz & Lobban 1976). Mucilage canals form an interconnected system in cortex of stipes and/or blades, in some species lined by secretory cells (Kasahara 1985).

Information contributed by: I. Bartsch. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 21 Jun 2014 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Life cycle in nature shows a strong seasonality in most species with rapid growth in spring and sorus formation in summer to autumn (review: Lüning 1982). There is experimental evidence that sorus formation in L. saccharina and L. setchellii and new blade formation in L. hyperborea is a photoperiodic shortday response (Lüning 1986, 1988, tom Dieck 1991). In L. setchellii acircannual growth rhythm became apparent in continuous longday conditions (tom Dieck 1991). Nutrients may modify growth, but are no trigger (Chapman & Craigie 1977). Temperature also has a direct effect on seasonal growth (Druehl & others 1987). Photosynthetic rates of L. longissima are generally highest during the colder season (Sakanishi 1991). Temperature tolerance (2 weeks exposure) of gametophytes ranges between 19 and 26_ sporophytes are normally 1-2_less tolerant and growth stops at even lower temperatures (tom Dieck 1992, 1993). Genus forms extensive sublittoral kelp beds mainly in cold-temperate waters of the N-Pacific, N and S Atlantic, but lacks in western South America, Australia and Antarctica (distribution maps: Lüning 1990). Hybridization experiments show interfertility between N Pacific and N Antlantic Simplices species but not Digitatae species (Bolton and others 1983, tom Dieck 1992). First molecular data suggest a divergence time of N Atlantic species at 15-19 Ma ago from a most recent ancestor in the N Pacific (Stam and others 1988). Genus of great economic importance as food and alginate source. Considerable harvest of natural stands in Europe and Japan. Aquaculture of Laminaria mainly in China and Japan. Total world-wide harvest is estimated at ca. 2 million wet metric tons per year (reviews: Brinkhuis and others 1987, Nisizawa and others 1987, Glicksman 1987).

Common names

(as Laminaria)
Chinese: Hai-tai (Hoppe & Levring 1982).

English: Tangle (Dickinson 1963), May weed, Cow's tail, Oarweed, Slack marrow, Sea club (Duddington 1966).

Japanese: Kombu (Kirby 1953), Konbu (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Portuguese: Fitas, Taborrão (Oliveira, 1990).

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences
As of 2 June 2009, nucleotide sequence data are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank for 295 samples identified as Laminaria.

Numbers of names and species: There are 265 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 24 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Laminaria abyssalis A.B.Joly & E.C.Oliveira C 
Laminaria agardhii f. vittata Setchell C 
Laminaria agardhii var. angustissima F.S.Collins S 
Laminaria agardhii Kjellman S 
Laminaria agarum (S.G.Gmelin) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria amakusaensis Yendo S 
Laminaria andersonii (Areschoug) Farlow S 
Laminaria andersonii Eaton ex Hervey S 
Laminaria angustata subsp. siberica Petrov & Sukhoveeva S 
Laminaria angustata var. longissima (Miyabe) Miyabe S 
Laminaria angustata Kjellman S 
Laminaria apoda Harvey S 
Laminaria apoda Postels & Ruprecht U 
Laminaria appressirhiza J.E.Petrov & V.B.Vozzhinskaya C 
Laminaria atrofulva J.Agardh S 
Laminaria belvisii C.Agardh C 
Laminaria bifida (S.G.Gmelin) Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria bifida (S.G.Gmelin) Steudel S 
Laminaria biruncinata Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria blossevillei Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria bongardiana f. subsimplex (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Petrov S 
Laminaria bongardiana Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria bongardiana f. bifurcata (Gunnerus) Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria bongardiana f. elliptica Kjellman C 
Laminaria bongardiana var. palmata Postels & Ruprecht C 
Laminaria bongardiana f. subsessilis (Areschoug) Kjellman S 
Laminaria bongardiana var. bifurcata (Gunnerus) Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria bongardiana f. taeniata (Postels & Ruprecht) Kjellman S 
Laminaria bracteata (S.G.Gmelin) Steudel S 
Laminaria brasiliensis A.B.Joly & E.C.Oliveira C 
Laminaria brevipes C.Agardh S 
Laminaria buccinalis (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux S 
Laminaria buccinalis var. macloviana Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria bulbosa var. linearis Despréaux C 
Laminaria bulbosa var. gymnopoda Despréaux C 
Laminaria bulbosa J.V.Lamouroux S 
Laminaria bulbosa var. brevipes Despréaux C 
Laminaria bulbosa var. turneri (Bory de St.-Vincent) Duby P 
Laminaria bulbosa var. punctata (Bory de St.-Vincent) Duby P 
Laminaria bulbosa var. nodipes Despréaux C 
Laminaria bullata Kjellman C 
Laminaria bullata f. subsimplex Setchell & N.L.Gardner S 
Laminaria caepaestipes Montagne S 
Laminaria caespitosa (J.Agardh) J.Agardh S 
Laminaria caperata var. oblonga J.Agardh S 
Laminaria caperata var. lanceolata J.Agardh S 
Laminaria caperata var. eliptica J.Agardh S 
Laminaria caperata var. obovata J.Agardh S 
Laminaria caperata Bachelot de la Pylaie S 
Laminaria cichorioides f. sikotanensis (Miyabe & Nagai) Petrov S 
Laminaria cichorioides var. sachalinensis Miyabe S 
Laminaria cichorioides Miyabe S 
Laminaria cichorioides f. sachalinensis (Miyabe) Petrov S 
Laminaria cichorioides f. sinuicola Petrov S 
Laminaria clathrus (S.G.Gmelin) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria cloustonii f. compressa (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria cloustonii Edmondston S 
Laminaria cloustonii f. longifolia (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria complanata (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Muenscher S 
Laminaria conica Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria cordata E.Y.Dawson C 
Laminaria coriacea Miyabe S 
Laminaria cornea Bory de Saint-Vincent C 
Laminaria costata C.Agardh S 
Laminaria crassifolia Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria cucullata f. apoda Postels & Ruprecht ex A.D.Zinova U 
Laminaria cucullata f. longipes (Foslie) A.D.Zinova S 
Laminaria cucullata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie S 
Laminaria cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie S 
Laminaria cuneifolia f. subsimplex (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Setchell & N.L.Gardner S 
Laminaria cuneifolia Kützing C 
Laminaria cuneifolia J.Agardh S 
Laminaria debilis C.Agardh S 
Laminaria debilis var. dictyotoides Duby C 
Laminaria dentigera Kjellman S 
Laminaria dermatodea Bachelot de la Pylaie S 
Laminaria diabolica f. longipes Miyabe & Tokida S 
Laminaria diabolica Miyabe S 
Laminaria digitata f. longipes (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata var. stenophylla (Harvey) Kleen S 
Laminaria digitata var. intermedia (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata var. latifolia (C.Agardh) Areschoug S 
Laminaria digitata f. latifolia (C.Agardh) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata var. integrifolia J.Agardh S 
Laminaria digitata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata var. longipes Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata var. elliptica Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata var. ligulata Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata var. lyrata Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata var. palmata (Bory de St.-Vincent) Duby P 
Laminaria digitata f. longifolia Foslie S 
Laminaria digitata var. pseudosaccharina Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata f. latilaciniata (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. grandifolia Foslie S 
Laminaria digitata f. ensifolia (Le Jolis) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. complanata Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. valida (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata var. cuneata Despréaux P 
Laminaria digitata var. integra Despréaux P 
Laminaria digitata var. latifrons Despréaux P 
Laminaria digitata var. bifida Despréaux C 
Laminaria digitata var. debilipes (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. debilipes Foslie S 
Laminaria digitata var. valida (Foslie) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Kjellman S 
Laminaria digitata f. stenophylla Harvey S 
Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux C - type
Laminaria digitata var. ensifolia (Kützing) J.Agardh S 
Laminaria digitata f. cuneata Kjellman S 
Laminaria discolor Strömfelt C 
Laminaria elliptica Montagne S 
Laminaria ensifolia Kützing S 
Laminaria ensiformis Delle Chiaje S 
Laminaria ephemera Setchell C 
Laminaria esculenta (Linnaeus) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria faeroensis f. sacchariniformis Børgesen S 
Laminaria faeroensis (Børgesen) Børgesen S 
Laminaria farlowii Setchell C 
Laminaria fascia (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria fissilis J.Agardh C 
Laminaria flabelliformis A.Richard S 
Laminaria flabellum Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria flagellum (S.G.Gmelin) Steudel U 
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ensifolia Le Jolis S 
Laminaria flexicaulis f. latilaciniata Foslie S 
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ovata Le Jolis S 
Laminaria flexicaulis var. cucullata Le Jolis S 
Laminaria flexicaulis var. australis Areschoug S 
Laminaria flexicaulis f. valida Foslie S 
Laminaria flexicaulis Le Jolis S 
Laminaria fragilis Miyabe S 
Laminaria groenlandica Rosenvinge S 
Laminaria gunneri Foslie C 
Laminaria gurjanovae A.D.Zinova S 
Laminaria gurjanovae f. lanciformis Petrov S 
Laminaria gyrata Kjellman S 
Laminaria herbacea (Turner) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria hieroglyphica J.Agardh S 
Laminaria himanthophylla Postels & Ruprecht C 
Laminaria hyperborea f. compressa Foslie S 
Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie C 
Laminaria hyperborea f. cucullata P.Svensden & J.M.Kain C 
Laminaria iberica (G.Hamel) Lami S 
Laminaria inclinatorhiza J.E.Petrov & V.B.Vozzhinskaya C 
Laminaria intermedia f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie S 
Laminaria intermedia f. longipes Foslie S 
Laminaria intermedia f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie S 
Laminaria intermedia Foslie S 
Laminaria japonica Areschoug S 
Laminaria japonica f. membranacea Miyabe & Magai C 
Laminaria japonica f. typica Okamura S 
Laminaria japonica var. ochotensis (Miyabe) Okamura S 
Laminaria japonica f. longipes (Miyabe & Tokida) Petrov S 
Laminaria kuroshioense (Segawa) Widdowson S 
Laminaria lamourouxii Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria latifolia C.Agardh S 
Laminaria lejolisii Sauvageau S 
Laminaria leptopoda Bonnemaison ex Despréaux C 
Laminaria leptopoda De la Pylaie C 
Laminaria ligulata (Lightfoot) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria longicruris var. faeroensis Børgesen S 
Laminaria longicruris Bachelot de la Pylaie S 
Laminaria longipedalis var. diabolica (Miyabe) Miyabe S 
Laminaria longipedalis Okamura S 
Laminaria longipes Bory de Saint-Vincent C 
Laminaria longipes var. latifolia Yamada C 
Laminaria longissima Miyabe S 
Laminaria lorea Bory de Saint-Vincent ex J.Agardh S 
Laminaria lyrata Delise ex Despréaux C 
Laminaria maxima (Gunnerus) Kjellman S 
Laminaria membranacea S.F.Gray S 
Laminaria multiplicata J.E.Petrov & M.V.Suchovejeva S 
Laminaria musaefolia Bachelot de la Pylaie S 
Laminaria musaefolia var. ß remotifolia Bachelot de la Pylaie S 
Laminaria nigripes f. oblonga Kjellman S 
Laminaria nigripes J.Agardh U 
Laminaria nigripes var. fissilis (J.Agardh) Rosenvinge S 
Laminaria nigripes var. atrofulva (J.Agardh) Rosenvinge S 
Laminaria nigripes var. longipes (Kjellman) Rosenvinge S 
Laminaria nigripes f. reniformis Kjellman S 
Laminaria ochotensis Miyabe S 
Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie C 
Laminaria olorhiza Schousboe P 
Laminaria ophiura Bory de Saint-Vincent C 
Laminaria pallida var. iberica G.Hamel S 
Laminaria pallida Greville C 
Laminaria palmata Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria papyrina Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria personata Setchell & N.L.Gardner S 
Laminaria peterseniana Kjellman S 
Laminaria phycodendron De la Pylaie S 
Laminaria phyllitis (Stackhouse) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria phyllopus Kjellman S 
Laminaria plantaginea (Roth) C.Agardh S 
Laminaria platymeris Bachelot de la Pylaie C 
Laminaria polyphylla (S.G.Gmelin) Steudel S 
Laminaria porra Léman S 
Laminaria pseudodigitata Lamouroux ex Despréaux C 
Laminaria punctata Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria purpurascens C.Agardh S 
Laminaria pylaiei (Bory de Saint-Vincent) De la Pylaie S 
Laminaria pyrifera (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux S 
Laminaria radiata C.Agardh S 
Laminaria radicosa Kjellman S 
Laminaria religiosa Miyabe S 
Laminaria remotifolia De La Pylaie C 
Laminaria reniformis J.V.Lamouroux S 
Laminaria repens Ruprecht U 
Laminaria rodriguezii Bornet C 
Laminaria ruprechtiana Le Jolis C 
Laminaria ruprechtii (Areschoug) Setchell C 
Laminaria saccharina f. complanata Setchell & N.L.Gardner S 
Laminaria saccharina f. borealis Aresch. C 
Laminaria saccharina var. longipes (Bory de St.-Vincent) Chauvin ex Duby S 
Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux S 
Laminaria saccharina var. angustifolia (Postels & Ruprecht) Kützing P 
Laminaria saccharina f. angustifolia Postels & Ruprecht P 
Laminaria saccharina f. australis Aresch. C 
Laminaria saccharina f. linearis (J.Agardh) Foslie S 
Laminaria saccharina var. cornea (Bory de St.-Vincent) Duby P 
Laminaria saccharina f. borealis Foslie S 
Laminaria saccharina f. membranacea J.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina var. oblonga J.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina f. prima J.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina var. caperata (De la Pylaie) Farlow S 
Laminaria saccharina var. grandis Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. longissima (Gunnerus) Foslie S 
Laminaria saccharina var. latissima C.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina f. latissima Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. latifolia (Kjellman) Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. oblonga (J.Agardh) Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. linearis (J.Agardh) Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. ß phyllitis (Stackhouse) J.P.Jones & J.F.Kingston S 
Laminaria saccharina f. linearis J.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina var. viridissima Chauvin ex Duby C 
Laminaria saccharina var. bullata C.Agardh S 
Laminaria saccharina f. bullata (C.Agardh) Kylin S 
Laminaria saccharina f. caperata (De la Pylaie) Setchell S 
Laminaria saccharina var. phyllitis (Stackhouse) Le Jolis S 
Laminaria saccharina var. membranacea (J.Agardh) Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. sublaevis (Kjellman) Kylin S 
Laminaria saccharina var. sublaevis Kjellman S 
Laminaria saccharina f. agardhi (Kjellman) Foslie C 
Laminaria saccharina var. angusta Reinsch S 
Laminaria saccharina var. vittata Despréaux C 
Laminaria saccharina var. viridissima Despréaux C 
Laminaria sachalinensis (Miyabe) Miyabe S 
Laminaria sarniensis Bory de Saint-Vincent C 
Laminaria schinzii Foslie S 
Laminaria scissa Suhr S 
Laminaria sessilis C.Agardh S 
Laminaria setchellii P.C.Silva C 
Laminaria sikotanensis Miyabe & Nagai S 
Laminaria sinclairii (Harvey ex J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Farlow, Anderson & Eaton C 
Laminaria solidungula J.Agardh C 
Laminaria stackhousei Bory de Saint-Vincent S 
Laminaria stenophylla (Harvey) J.Agardh S 
Laminaria subsimplex (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Miyabe & Nagai S 
Laminaria taeniata Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria triplicata Postels & Ruprecht S 
Laminaria turneri Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria viridissima Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria vittata Bory de St.-Vincent C 
Laminaria yendoana Miyabe S 
Laminaria yezoensis Miyabe C 

References
Bartsch, I., Wiencke, C., Bischof, K., Buchholz, C.M., Buck, B.H., Eggert, A., Feuerpfeill, P., Hanelt, D., Jacobsen, S., Karez, R., Karsten, U., Molis, M., Roleda, M.Y., Schubert, H., Schumann, R., Valentin, K., Weinberger, F. & Wiese, J. (2008). The genus Laminaria sensu lato: recent insights and developments. European Journal of Phycology 43: 1-86.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 21 June 2014 by M.D. Guiry

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Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2014. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 October 2014.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:8437

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