136,031 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 17,639 images, 51,100 bibliographic items, 253,613 distributional records.

Rhodymenia Greville, 1830: xlviii

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Rhodymeniales
Family Rhodymeniaceae

Holotype species: Rhodymenia palmetta (Stackhouse) Greville

Currently accepted name for the type species: Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (J.V.Lamouroux) P.C.Silva

Original publication and holotype designation:Greville, R.K. (1830). Algae britannicae, or descriptions of the marine and other inarticulated plants of the British islands, belonging to the order Algae; with plates illustrative of the genera. pp. [i*-iii*], [i]-lxxxviii, [1]-218, pl. 1-19. Edinburgh & London: McLachlan & Stewart; Baldwin & Cradock.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Description: Thallus with erect or prostrate, usually stipitate fronds, arising from a basal disc or stolons, blades flattened, cartilaginous, simple or divided dichotomously, palmately or irregularly, sometimes with marginal or apical proliferations, occasionally perforate. Construction multiaxial, cortex of 2-5 layers of small pigmented axially elongated cells. Medulla compact, pseudoparencymatous, with large axially elongated almost colourless cells. Gametangial plants dioecious. Spermatangia in small subapical sori or large irregular patches scattered over blade, produced superficially from outer cortical cells. Procarpic, carpogonial branches 3- or 4-celled borne on a large multinucleate supporting cell also bearing a 2-celled auxiliary cell branch, gonimoblast developing outwards often with 2-3 lobes, almost all cells forming carposporangia. Cystocarps hemispherical, large and protruding, ostiolate, formed apically or scattered, tela arachnoidea absent. Tetrasporangia in subapical sori, scattered throughout the blade, or formed in special proliferations, formed in an intercalary position in unmodified cortex. Spores regularly cruciately arranged.

Information contributed by: M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 30 Aug 2011 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Culture studies of Rhodymenia pseudopalmata and R. holmesii Ardissone from Ireland and R. natalensis Kylin from South Africa (Guiry unpubl. obs.) were inconclusive. Although the plants grew rapidly at 20°C, no reproduction was observed under a range of temperature and daylength conditions. It is likely, however, that all species of Rhodymenia have a 'Polysiphonia-type' life history. Guiry (1977) described what may be vegetative reproductive structures occurring on the fronds of R. delicatula P.J.L. Dangeard from the British Isles. Chromosome numbers of n = 28 and 2n = 30-40 have been reported in R. pertusa from Japan (Yabu 1976) and n = 10 and 2n = 20 in R. pseudopalmata (Cole 1990).

Several morphological forms are apparent within the genus: species growing from discs vs stolons; erect vs prostrate species; species in which the tetrasporangia are localised in apical sori vs scattered throughout the thallus; species in which growth is monopodial vs ramisympodial (the latter were previously included in Dendrymenia). A range of sizes is also apparent within the genus: some species become reproductively mature at 15-20 mm (e.g., Rhodymenia delicatula), some at 50-100 (e.g., R. pseudopalmata, R. pacifica), and some at 120-1000 mm (e.g., R. pertusa).

Epymenia, regarded by some as a genus of about 14 species restricted to the colder seas of the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa, Tristan da Cunha, the Falkland I., Chile, Australasia and Kerguelen I.; see Sparling 1957: 348), and occurring mainly in the subtidal at depths of 2-60 m. Formerly separated from Rhodymenia on the basis of forming reproductive structures in specially formed leaflets, the genus is now considered synonymous with Rhodymenia (Womersley, 1996; Saunders et al., 1999).

Rhodymenia is thus a world-wide genus of some 54 species, mainly occurring in warmer waters from the lower intertidal to depths of about 100 m. In his revision of the genus, Dawson (1941) recognized many species on what appeared at first sight to be somewhat tenuous grounds; with experience, however, it becomes clear that many of the entities recognized by Dawson are indeed good species, but are difficult to distinguish without extensive material.

The spelling Rhodymenia, used by Montagne (1839), has been conserved against the original spelling Rhodomenia, used by Greville (1830). The name is to be cited as Rhodymenia Greville (1830).

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences
As of 2 June 2009, nucleotide sequence data are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank for 234 samples identified as Rhodymenia.

Numbers of names and species: There are 178 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 59 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Rhodymenia acanthophora Greville P 
Rhodymenia adnata Okamura S 
Rhodymenia alcicornis J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia anastomosans Weber-van Bosse S 
Rhodymenia angustifolia Sonder S 
Rhodymenia antarctica Skottsberg S 
Rhodymenia arborescens E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia ardissonei (Kuntze) Feldmann C 
Rhodymenia attenuata E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia australis var. constricta (Turner) Sonder P 
Rhodymenia australis Sonder S 
Rhodymenia baerii Postels & Ruprecht C 
Rhodymenia bangii (Hornemann) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia bifida Greville S 
Rhodymenia caespitosa P.J.L.Dangeard C 
Rhodymenia californica Kylin C 
Rhodymenia californica var. attenuata (E.Y.Dawson) E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia callophyllidoides Hollenberg & I.A.Abbott C 
Rhodymenia capensis J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia caulescens (Kützing) A.J.K.Millar C 
Rhodymenia centrocarpa (Montagne) Montagne S 
Rhodymenia cervicornis (Turner) Montagne S 
Rhodymenia chauvinii (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Greville S 
Rhodymenia chiloensis Montagne C 
Rhodymenia ciliata (Hudson) Areschoug S 
Rhodymenia ciliata var. ligulata Reinsch C 
Rhodymenia ciliata var. microphylla Harvey S 
Rhodymenia cinnabarina J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia coacta Okamura & Segawa C 
Rhodymenia coccinia Harvey S 
Rhodymenia coccocarpa (Montagne) M.J.Wynne C 
Rhodymenia coespitosella L'Hardy-Halos C 
Rhodymenia corallicola Ardissone C 
Rhodymenia corallicola (Zanardini) Ardissone S 
Rhodymenia corallina (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Greville C 
Rhodymenia coriacea J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia corticata J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia crozetii Levring C 
Rhodymenia cuneata Harvey S 
Rhodymenia cuneifolia Okamura S 
Rhodymenia cuneifolia (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) W.R.Taylor S 
Rhodymenia dawsonii Taylor C 
Rhodymenia decipiens Reinsch S 
Rhodymenia decumbens W.R.Taylor C 
Rhodymenia delicatula P.J.L.Dangeard C 
Rhodymenia dichotoma J.D.Hooker & Harvey C 
Rhodymenia discigera J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia dissecta Børgesen C 
Rhodymenia divaricata E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia elata Harvey S 
Rhodymenia erythraea Zanardini C 
Rhodymenia eyreana Papenfuss C 
Rhodymenia fabriciana (Lyngbye) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia falklandica (W.R.Taylor) A.L.Boraso de Zaixso C 
Rhodymenia fimbriata J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia fimbriata Greville S 
Rhodymenia flabellifolia (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Montagne C 
Rhodymenia foliifera Harvey S 
Rhodymenia gardneri (Setchell) Kylin S 
Rhodymenia georgica Reinsch S 
Rhodymenia hainanensis B.-M.Xia & Y.-Q.Zhang C 
Rhodymenia halymenioides (J.Agardh) Womersley S 
Rhodymenia hancockii E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone C 
Rhodymenia hombroniana Montagne S 
Rhodymenia hookeri var. atrosanguinea J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia hookeri Harvey S 
Rhodymenia howeana E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia indica Web.v.Bosse C 
Rhodymenia intricata (Okamura) Okamura C 
Rhodymenia javanica Sonder C 
Rhodymenia jubata (Goodenough & Woodward) Greville S 
Rhodymenia laciniata (Hudson) Greville S 
Rhodymenia lambertii (Turner) Greville ex J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia lambertii (Turner) Greville S 
Rhodymenia lanceolata Harvey S 
Rhodymenia leptofaucheoides P.Huvé & H.Huvé C 
Rhodymenia leptophylla J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia leptophylla f. minima Weber-van Bosse C 
Rhodymenia leptophylloides E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia ligulata Zanardini C 
Rhodymenia linearis J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia liniformis Okamura C 
Rhodymenia lobata E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia lobulifera E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia lusoria Greville S 
Rhodymenia mamillosa (Goodenough & Woodward) Areschoug S 
Rhodymenia mammillaris Montagne S 
Rhodymenia membranacea (Harvey) Harvey ex Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia millardetii Montagne S 
Rhodymenia moniliformis E.Blinova & A.D.Zinova S 
Rhodymenia montagneana J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Rhodymenia multidigitata E.Y.Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik C 
Rhodymenia natalensis Kylin C 
Rhodymenia nicaeensis (J.V.Lamouroux ex Duby) Montagne S 
Rhodymenia nigricans Harvey S 
Rhodymenia novaehollandica G.W.Saunders C 
Rhodymenia novazelandica E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia obtusa (Greville) Womersley C 
Rhodymenia obtusata (Sonder) Sonder S 
Rhodymenia occidentalis Børgesen S 
Rhodymenia ornata Montagne S 
Rhodymenia pacifica Kylin C 
Rhodymenia palmata var. [latifolia] f. quercifolia Rosenvinge S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. marginifera (Turner) A.D.Zinova S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. prolifera (Kützing) Kjellman S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. angustifolia Kjellman S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. sobolifera (M.Vahl) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. flabellata Rosenvinge S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. murmanica A.D.Zinova S 
Rhodymenia palmata f. quercifolia (Rosenvinge) Rosenvinge S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. latifolia Rosenvinge S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. simplex (C.Agardh) Kleen S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. mollis Setchell & N.L.Gardner S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. sobolifera (M.Vahl) Harvey S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. marginifera Harvey S 
Rhodymenia palmata var. sarniensis (Roth) Greville S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis f. austrogeorgica Skottsberg S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis f. multiloba S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis Skottsberg S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis f. basiramosa S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis f. linearis Skottsberg S 
Rhodymenia palmatiformis f. sublittoralis Skottsberg S 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. bifida C 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. acutifolia Kützing C 
Rhodymenia palmetta (Stackhouse) Greville S - type
Rhodymenia palmetta var. ellisiae S 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. flabelliformis C 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. crassiuscula C 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. fuscopurpurea P.J.L.Dangeard S 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. nicaeënsis (Lamouroux ex Duby) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. divaricata C 
Rhodymenia palmetta var. multiloba Reinsch S 
Rhodymenia palmetta f. filiformis Kützing C 
Rhodymenia palmetta f. bahusiensis Areschoug S 
Rhodymenia palmettiformis E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia palmipedata Dawson & Neushel C 
Rhodymenia parva Yamada C 
Rhodymenia pertusa (Postels & Ruprecht) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia peruviana J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia phylloïdes L'Hardy-Halos C 
Rhodymenia phyllophora Harvey S 
Rhodymenia pinnulata Zanardini S 
Rhodymenia polymorpha Harvey S 
Rhodymenia preissiana Sonder S 
Rhodymenia prolifera Harvey S 
Rhodymenia prolificans Zanardini C 
Rhodymenia prostrata T.Tanaka C 
Rhodymenia pseudopalmata var. ellisiae (Duby) Guiry S 
Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (J.V.Lamouroux) P.C.Silva C 
Rhodymenia pseudopalmata var. caroliniana W.R.Taylor S 
Rhodymenia pseudopalmata var. fuscopurpurea (P.J.L.Dangeard) S.Benhissoune, C.-F.Boudouresque, M.Perret-Boudouresque, & M.Verlaque C 
Rhodymenia punctata Okamura S 
Rhodymenia reniformis (Turner) W.J.Hooker S 
Rhodymenia requienii J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia rhizoides E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia rhizoidifera Weber-van Bosse C 
Rhodymenia rosea Harvey S 
Rhodymenia rostrata (Lyngbye) J.Agardh S 
Rhodymenia sanguinea Harvey S 
Rhodymenia schmittii W.R.Taylor C 
Rhodymenia setchellii Weber-van Bosse C 
Rhodymenia skottsbergii E.Y.Dawson C 
Rhodymenia sobolifera (M.Vahl) Greville S 
Rhodymenia sonderi P.C.Silva S 
Rhodymenia spinulosa Okamura S 
Rhodymenia stenoglossa J.Agardh C 
Rhodymenia stipitata Kylin S 
Rhodymenia subantarctica R.W.Ricker S 
Rhodymenia sympodiophyllum E.Y.Dawson & Neushul C 
Rhodymenia tepocensis E.Y.Dawson S 
Rhodymenia tripinnata Hering S 
Rhodymenia variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Montagne S 
Rhodymenia variegata var. atrosanguinea (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) J.D.Hooker S 
Rhodymenia variolosa J.D.Hooker & Harvey C 
Rhodymenia verrucosa Womersley S 
Rhodymenia wilsonis (Sonder) G.W.Saunders C 

References
Guiry, M.D. (1977). Studies on marine algae of the British Isles. 10. The genus Rhodymenia. British Phycological Journal 12: 385-425, 62 figs, 2 tables.

Sparling, S.R. (1957). The structure and reproduction of some members of the Rhodymeniaceae. University of California Publications in Botany 29(3): (i-iv +) 319-396, 15 figs, 1 table, plates 48-59.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 01 January 2001 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 30 August 2011 by M.D. Guiry

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2014. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 02 September 2014.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:8364

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