155,805 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,968 images, 60,221 bibliographic items, 439,336 distributional records.

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Nemaliophycidae
Order Palmariales
Family Palmariaceae
Genus Palmaria

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Dulse harvester Wanda Vantassel (Fundy Dulse) on the shore on Digby Neck, Nova Scotia (with permission).. 02 Jun 2012. David J. Garbary. © David J. Garbary.

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; spermatangial sori. 05 Apr 2012. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; spermatangial sori. 05 Apr 2012. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; spermatangial plant. 05 Apr 2012. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; spermatangial plant. 05 Apr 2012. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; small plants starting to form tetrasporangial sori . 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; regenerating and starting to form tetrasporangial sori . 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Digby Neck, Nova Scotia; dulse harvesting site being monitored. 21 Feb 2012. Andrea Flynn. © Andrea Flynn.

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
tetrasporophytic plant TS, Brittany, France, 2011. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; lower-shore rocks on Fucus serratus; ecotype known as var. sobolifera
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr 1805: 256, 259, 299, 300

Published in: [Weber, F. & Mohr, D.M.H.] (1805). Einige Worte über unsre bisherigen, hauptsächlich carpologischen Zergliederungen von kryptogamischen Seegewächsen. Beiträge zur Naturkunde 1: 204-329.
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Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Palmaria is Ceramium palmatum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus palmatus Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: ""Ad oras atlantica"" (Linnaeus 1753: 1162). Lectotype: L 910.184.2889 (Irvine & Guiry 1983: 68). Notes: Linnaeus's description was taken from Van Royen (1740) and a lectotype has been selected from his herbarium (which Linnaeus examined).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), lobed or divided in the manner of an outspread hand with the sinuses between the lobes pointing to the place of attachment (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus palmatus Linnaeus 1753
Ulva palmata (Linnaeus) Withering 1796
Ceramium palmatum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1797
Delesseria palmata (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Sarcophylla palmata (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1816
Halymenia palmata (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1817
Sphaerococcus palmatus (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg 1826
Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville 1830
Isomenia palmata (Linnaeus) Pylaie 1830

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus ovinus Gunnerus 1766
Fucus dulcis S.G.Gmelin 1768
Ulva delicatula Gunnerus 1772
Ulva caprina Gunnerus 1772
Fucus bullatus O.F.Müller 1777
Fucus foliaceus Strøm 1788
Fucus soboliferus M.Vahl 1792
Fucus caprinus Vahl 1794
Fucus delicatulus (Gunnerus) Vahl 1797
Fucus rubens Esper 1799
Fucus sarniensis Mertens 1806
Fucus sarniensis var. tenuissimus Turner 1808
Palmaria expansa Stackhouse 1809
Palmaria lanceolata Stackhouse 1809
Fucus palmatus var. marginifer Turner 1809
Palmaria olivacea Stackhouse 1809
Fucus palmatus var. laciniatus Wahlenberg 1812
Delesseria sobolifera (M.Vahl) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Delesseria lacera J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Fucus lacerus J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Sarcophylla marginifera (Turner) Stackhouse 1816
Sarcophylla olivacea (Stackhouse) Stackhouse 1816
Hymenophylla sobolifera (M.Vahl) Stackhouse 1816
Halymenia palmata var. marginifera (Turner) C.Agardh 1817
Halymenia palmata var. laciniata (Wahlenberg) C.Agardh 1817
Halymenia sobolifera (M.Vahl) C.Agardh 1817
Halymenia palmata var. simplex C.Agardh 1817
Sphaerococcus sarniensis (Mertens) C.Agardh 1817
Ulva sobolifera (M.Vahl) Lyngbye 1819
Ulva palmata var. laciniata (Wahlenberg) Lyngbye 1819
Ulva palmata var. marginifera (Turner) Lyngbye 1819
Ulva palmata var. simplex (C.Agardh) Lyngbye 1819
Halymenia palmata var. concatenata C.Agardh 1822
Halymenia palmata var. sarniensis (Mertens) C.Agardh 1822
Halymenia palmata var. delicatula (Gunnerus) C.Agardh 1822
Halymenia lacera (J.V.Lamouroux) J.V.Lamouroux 1824
Fucus rubescens Sommerfelt 1826
Rhodymenia palmata var. sarniensis (Mertens) Greville 1830
Rhodymenia sobolifera (M.Vahl) Greville 1830
Halymenia sarniensis (Mertens) Duby 1830
Rhodymenia palmata var. concatenata (C.Agardh) Liebmann 1839
Sphaerococcus soboliferus (M.Vahl) Kützing 1843
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. prolifer Kützing 1843
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. marginifer (Turner) Kützing 1845
Rhodymenia palmata var. simplex (C.Agardh) Harvey 1849
Rhodymenia palmata var. marginifera (Turner) Harvey 1849
Rhodymenia palmata var. sobolifera (M.Vahl) Harvey 1849
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. concatenatus (C.Agardh) Kützing 1849
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. pinnatus Kützing 1849
Sphaerococcus palmatus var. celicatulus Kützing 1849
Callophyllis soboliferus (M.Vahl) Kützing 1849
Palmaria expansa var. marginifera (Turner) Ruprecht 1850
Rhodymenia palmata f. sobolifera (M.Vahl) J.Agardh 1851
Rhodymenia palmata f. prolifera (Kützing) Kjellman 1883
Rhodymenia palmata f. angustifolia Kjellman 1883
Rhodymenia palmata f. typica Kjellman 1883
Rhodymenia palmata f. microphylla J.Agardh 1883
Rhodymenia palmata f. sarniensis (Mertens) Kjellman 1883
Rhodymenia palmata var. laciniata Holmes & Batters 1890
Rhodymenia palmata f. flabellata Rosenvinge 1893
Rhodymenia palmata var. latifolia Rosenvinge 1893
Rhodymenia palmata f. quercifolia Rosenvinge 1893
Rhodymenia palmata f. caespitosa Simmons 1897
Rhodymenia palmata f. marginifera (Turner) Batters 1902
Rhodymenia palmata f. simplex (C.Agardh) Batters 1902
Rhodymenia palmata var. murmanica A.D.Zinova 1950

Nomenclatural notes
Initially this binomial was ascribed to Stackhouse (1801) and later to Kuntze (1891), but the earliest valid use of the name is that of Weber & Mohr (1805) (fide Athanasiadis 22 March 2010, e-mail). - (15 Jul 2010) - M.D. Guiry

Taxonomic notes
Morton (1994) includes "Palmaria palmata var. sobolifera" from Northern Ireland, a combination that has not been validated; this entity (formerly Rhodymenia palmata var. sobolifera) is currently considered to be included in the type variety.

Distributional notes
Probably confined to the North Atlantic. Reports from India and the Philippines and elsewhere are incorrect. Reports from the Pacific, particularly Japan, probably refer to other species of the genus. The occurrence of this cold water species in the Gulf of Guinea is also unlikely (John et al., 2004).

Usage notes
This is a common red seaweed found between the tides on rocky shores and is named for its resemblance to the palm of the human hand (Latin, palma). In Ireland, Scotland and England, it is known as Dillisk or Dulse. In Irish, two names are used: Creathnach (feminine) and Duileasc (masculine). These names actually express different forms of what appears to be a single biological entity. Creathnach is a smaller, narrower form that generally grows on small mussels on wave-swept shores, and is sometimes known as "Shell-dulse" in English; this form is more popular in many places. Duilleasc, on the other hand, is used for a larger, broader form that grows directly on rocks or on kelp.

The use of dulse is known in Ireland since at least the twelfth century when it was mentioned in a poem describing the duties of monks:

Seal ag buain duilisg do charraig,
seal ag aclaidh,
seal ag tabhairt bhídh do bhoctaibh,
seal i gcaracair.

A while gathering dillisk from the rock,
a while fishing,
a while giving food to the poor,
a while in a cell.

Regulations governing the collection of dulse were introduced in Iceland in the thirteenth century, and the Icelandic sagas (eleventh century onwards) describe one of the heroes being given dulse in milk to lull him into sleep prior to being killed.

Dulse is good to eat, but generally only after being dried. In a fresh state it is leathery and unpalatable. After sun-drying and proper storage, it is a very pleasant plant to chew. It has very little fat and only a small amount of proteins and cellulose, but is very rich in trace elements and vitamins, particularly vitamin A. Dulse contains large amount of several unusual carbohydrates including an unusual short-chained one, floridoside, and this can form up to 30% of the dry weight. This may account for its palatability.

Scotland, Norway, Iceland and eastern Canada all produce small amounts of dulse for human consumption. In Ireland about 20 dry tonnes are sold each year, mainly in the west and north-east. It is particularly popular in the working class areas on north Belfast where its use is likely to have come, along with the name 'dulse' from Scotland. At present natural dulse is in short supply.

All sorts of claims are made for dulse. According to a herbal published in Dublin in 1726 (Threlkeld's Synopsis stirpium hibernicarum…, as Fucus palmam humanam referens):

"But in Dublin men chew it like Tobacco when dry, carrying it in their Pockets for that end, which destroys worms, and gives a Relish to Beer, as Anchoves and Olives to Wine; it is commended against Women's longing."

The matter of it being a vermifuge may be due to the kainic acid content. Dulse used to be sold in the Galway Egg and Butter Market and was reputed to be an good remedy for a hangover; it is still occasionally sold in vegetable and fishmonger shops in Galway. Nowadays, dulse is often used in chowders and fish dishes, as a condiment, and even in desserts and bread.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr)
Breton: Tellesk (Madlener 1977).

English: Dillisk, Dillesk, Crannogh, Water Leaf, Sheep Dulse (Madlener 1977), Dried dulse (McConnaughey 1985), Dulse (Lembi & Waaland 1988), Shelldulse (Anon. 2000).

French: Goéman à Vache (Madlener 1977).

Gaeilge: Duileasc, Creathnach (Anon. 2000).

Icelandic: Saccha, Sol (Madlener 1977).

Japanese: Darusu (Madlener 1977).

Norwegian: Sou Sol (Madlener 1977).

Portuguese: Botelho-comprido (Oliveira, 1990).

(as Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville)
English: Sea grass (Brennan 1950), American dulse (Kirby 1953), Dillisc, Sheep's weed (Duddington 1966), Horse seaweed, Sea devil (Ohmi 1968), Dulse (Anonymous 1978), Dillisk (Rhoads & Zunic 1978).

French: Goémon à vaches (Boisvert 1984).

Gaeilge: Creannach (Brennan 1950), Duileasc, Creathnach (Anonymous 1978).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
grannogh; dillisk; main de mer {Fr}; handed fucus {Eng}; "fucus, handed"

Description
Reddish brown, membranous or leathery, flattened fronds, 50-300 (-1000) mm long, arising from a discoid base, usually with a small stipe expanding gradually to form simple or dichotomously and palmately divided fronds, often with characteristic marginal leaflets. Blade very variable in shape, having broadly ovate to narrowly linear segments.

Habitat
Marine. On rock, mussels and epiphytic on several algae, intertidal (at all levels but particularly near low water) and shallow subtidal , especially on upper part of Laminaria hyperborea stipes (to a depth of 5 m), widely distributed, abundant. Undivided or sparingly divided forms occur on mussels on exposed shores and sometimes in the subtidal (to 20 m in exceptionally clear water); plants growing on exposed shores, known in Ireland as Creathnach, are considered to be more palatable than the leathery plants of the lower intertidal of semi-exposed shores, which are usually dried and sold as Dillisk or Dilleasc; these forms may ultimately prove to be a separate entity. A very finely dissected form grows epiphytically on rocks, pedbbles and Fucus serrratus in the sheltered parts of semi-exposed shores where silt or fine sand accumulates; this is sometimes known as the "var. sobolifera" or "var. sarniensis" and is much less common than the other forms.

Key characteristics
The palmate branching with its finger-like extensions is very characterstic; most plants have marginal proliferations at the base. Young plants can be less leathery and may be thin and slippery.

Similar species
The finely-divided forms are sometimes misidentified as Gracilaria multipartita, the latter is, however, much thicker, and recognisably fleshy.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Bringloe, T.T., Bartlett, C.A.B., Bergeron, E.S., Cripps, K.S.A., Daigle, N.J., Gallagher, P.O., Gallant, A.D., Giberson, R.O.J., Greenough, S.J., Lamb, J.M., Leonard, T.W., Mackay, J.A., McKenzie, A.D., Persaud, S.M., Sheng, T., Mills, A.M.E.S., Moore, T.E. & Saunder, G.W. (2018). Detecting Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes in red algae, with consideration of distribution patterns in the intertidal zone. Phycologia 57(1): 1-8.

Irvine, L.M. & Guiry, M.D. (1983). Palmariales. In: Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta, Part 2A Cryptonemiales (sensu stricto), Palmariales, Rhodymeniales. (Irvine, L.M. Eds) Vol. 1 (2A), pp. 65-98. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 February 2018 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 81775 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Corey, P., Kim, J.K., Duston, J. & Garbary, D.J. (2014). Growth and nutrient uptake by Palmaria palmata integrated with Atlantic halibut in a land-based aquaculture system. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 29(1): 35-45.
Deniaud, E., Fleurence, J. & Lahaye, M. (2003). Interactions of the mix-linked b-(1,3)/b-(1,4)-D-xylans in the cell walls of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 74-82.
Deniaud, E., Fleurence, J. & Lahaye, M. (2003). Preparation and chemical characterization of cell wall fractions enriched in structural proteins from Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 46: 366-377.
Deniaud, E., Le Gall, L., Rusig, A.-M. & Lahaye, M. (2006). Initial observations on glycoside deposition in cell walls of Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze (Rhodophyta) during spore germination. Botanica Marina 49: 266-269.
Deshmukhe, G.V. & Tatewaki, M. (1990). The life history of the macroscopic male gametophyte in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) from Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan. Japanese Journal of Phycology 38: 215-221.
Dion, P. & Delépine, R. (1981). Studies on the development of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyceae) using in situ controlled cultures. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 265 - 270.
Dion, P. & Delépine, R. (1981). Studies on the development of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyceae) using in situ controlled cultures. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 265-270.
Faes, V.A. & Viejo, R.M. (2003). Structure and dynamics of a population of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) in northern Spain. Journal of Phycology 39: 1038-1049.
Fish, B.C., Barwell, C.J. & Rogers, D.J. (1988). Separation of lectins and phycobiliproteins in extracts of Palmaria palmata and Plumaria elegans. British Phycological Journal 23: 286.
García-Bueno, N., Turpin, V., Cognie, B., Dumay, J., Morançais, M., Amat, M., Pédron, J.M., Marín, A., Fleurence, J. & Decottignies, P (2016). Can the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata survive on an invasive algae? A comparison of the nutritional value of the introduced Grateloupia turuturu and the native Palmaria palmata , for the comercial European abalone industry. Journal of Applied Phycology 28(4): 2427-2433.
Guiry, M.D. (1974). A preliminary consideration of the taxonomic position of Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Stackhouse = Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 54: 509-528.
Guiry, M.D. (1976 '1975'). Halosacciocolax kjellmanii Lund parasitic on Palmaria palmata forma mollis (S. et G.) Guiry in the eastern North Pacific. Syesis 8: 113-117.
Guiry, M.D. (1976 '1975'). An assessment of Palmaria palmata forma mollis (S. et G.) comb. nov. (= Rhodymenia palmata forma mollis S. et G.) in the eastern North Pacific. Syesis 8: 245-261.
Guptill, F. (1992). A market study for dulse (Palmaria palmata). pp. 70. Armdale: Guptill Consulting Services.
Hagen Rodde, R.S., Varum, K.M., Larsen, B.A. & Myklestad, S.M. (2004). Seasonal and geographical variation in the chemical composition of the red alga Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze. Botanica Marina 47: 125-133.
Hanelt, D. & Nultsch, W. (1995). Field studies of photoinhibition show non-correlations between Oxygen and fluorescence measurements in the Arctic red alga Palmaria palmata. Journal of Plant Physiology 145: 31-38.
Harnedy, P.A. & Fitzgerald, R.J. (2011). Extraction of protein from the macroalga Palmaria palmata. LWT - Food Science and Technology 51: 375-382.
Kamiya, H., Ogata, K. & Hori, K. (1982). Isolation and characterization of a new agglutinin in the red alga Palmaria palmata (L.) O. Kuntze. Botanica Marina 25: 537-540.
Kraan, S. & Guiry, M.D. (2006). A genetic investigation of two morphotypes of Palmaria palmata (Palmariales, Rhodophyta) using Rubisco spacer and ITS 1 and ITS 2 sequences. Cryptogamie Algologie 27: 17-30.
Kübler, J.E. & Raven, J.A. (1995). The interaction between inorganic carbon acquisition and light supply in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 31: 369-375, 6 figs, 1 table.
Lahaye, M. & Vigouroux, J. (1992). Liquefaction of dulse (Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze) by a commercial enzyme preparation and a purified endo-b-1,4-D-xylanase. Journal of Applied Phycology 4: 329-337, 5 tables.
Lahaye, M., Michel, C. & Barry, J.L. (1993). Chemical, physicochemical and in-vitro fermentation characteristics of dietary fibres from Palmaria palmata (L.) Küntze. Food Chem. 47: 29-36, 3 figs, 4 tables.
Le Gall, L., Rusig, A-M. & Cosson, J. (2004). Organisation of the microtubular cytoskeleton in protoplasts from Palmaria palmata (Palmariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 47: 231-237.
Li, J.-J., Hu, Z.-M., Duan, D.-L. (2015). Genetic data from the red alga Palmaria palmata reveal a mid-Pleistocene deep genetic split in the North Atlantic. Journal of Biogeography 42(5): 902-913.
Liu, Q.Y., Chen, L.C.-M. & Taylor, A.R.A. (1992). Ultrastructure of cell wall regeneration by isolated protoplasts of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 35: 21-33, 31 figs.
Ma, Y.-C., Blunden, G., Barwell, C.J. & Yang, M.-H. (1995). 7-oxo-desmosterol from Palmaria palmata. Botanica Marina 38: 133-134.
Martínez, B. & Rico, J.M. (2002). Seasonal variations of P content and major N pools in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 38: 1082-1089.
Martinez, B. & Rico, J.M. (2004). Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous uptake kinetics in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 642-650.
Martínez, B. & Rico, J.M. (2004). Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake kinetics in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 642-650.
Martinez, B. & Rico, J.M. (2008). Changes in nutrient content of Palmaria palmata in response to variable light and upwelling in northern Spain. Journal of Phycology 44(1): 50-59.
Martínez, B., Vejo, R.M., Rico, J.M., Rødde, R.H., Faes, V.A., Oliveros, J. & Alvarez, D. (2007). Open sea cultivation of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) on the northern Spanish coast. Aquaculture 254: 376-387.
Mishra, V.K., Temelli, F., Ooraikul, B., Shacklock, P.F. & Craigie, J.S. (1993). Lipids of the red alga, Palmaria palmata. Botanica Marina 36: 169-174.
Morgan, K.C. & Simpson, F.J. (1981). Cultivation of Palmaria (Rhodymenia) palmata: effect of high concentrations of nitrate and ammonium on growth and nitrogen uptake. Aquatic Botany 11: 167-171.
Morgan, K.C. & Simpson, F.J. (1981). The cultivation of Palmaria palmata. Effect of light intensity and nitrate supply on growth and chemical composition. Botanica Marina 24: 272-277.
Morgan, K.C. & Simpson, F.J. (1981). The cultivation of Palmaria palmata. Effect of light intensity on growth and chemical composition. Botanica Marina 24: 547-552.
Morgan, K.C., Shacklock, P.F. & Simpson, F.J. (1980). Some aspects of the culture of Palmaria palmata in greenhouse tanks. Botanica Marina 23: 765-770.
Morgan, K.C., Wright, J.L.C. & Simpson, F.J. (1980). Review of chemical constituents of the red alga Palmaria palmata (dulse). Economic Botany 34: 27-50.
Mouritsen, O.G., Dawczynski, C., Duelund, L., Jahreis, G., Vetter, W. & Schröder, M. (2013). On the human consumption of the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata (L.) Weber & Mohr). Journal of Applied Phycology 25: 1777-1791.
Pakker, H., Martins, R.S.T., Boelen, P., Buma, A.G.J., Nikaido, O. & Breeman, A.M. (2000). Effects of temperature on the photoreactivation of ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 36: 334-341.
Pérez-Ruzafa, I., Lazzo, G. & Conde Poyales, F. (2005). Mapas de distribución de algas marinas de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. XIX. Palmaria palmata y Rhodothamniella floridula (Palmariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Complutensis 29: 71-75.
Provan, J., Wattier, R.A. & Maggs, C.A. (2005). Phylogeographic analysis of the red seaweed Palmaria palmata reveals a Pleistocene marine glacial refugium in English Channel. Molecular Ecology 14: 793-803.
Pueschel, C.M. & van der Meer, J.P. (1984). Ultrastructural characterization of a pigment mutant of the red alga Palmaria palmata. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 1101-1107.
Pueschel, C.M. (1977). Unusual lipid bodies in the red alga Palmaria palmata (= Rhodymenia palmata). J. Ultrastruc. Res. 60: 328-334.
Pueschel, C.M. (1979). Ultrastructure of tetrasporogenesis in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 15: 409-424.
Pueschel, C.M. (1980). Evidence for two classes of microbodies in meiocytes of the red alga Palmaria palmata. Protoplasma 104: 273-282.
Rico Ordás, J.M. (2003). Cultivo y comercialización de Palmaria palmata. Algas. Boletín Informativo de la SEF Especial 2003: 33-34.
Rico, J.M. (2003). Cultivo y comercialización de Palmaria palmata. Algas, Número Especial 33-34: .
Robbins, J. V. (1979). Effects of physical and chemical factors on photosynthetic and respiratory rates of Palmaria palmata (Florideophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 273-283.
Sagert, S. & Schubert, H. (1995). Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) to light qualities that preferentially excite photosystem I or photosystem II. Journal of Phycology 31: 547-554, 5 figs, 4 tables.
Sagert, S. & Schubert, H. (2000). Acclimation of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) to light intensity: comparison between artificial and natural light fields. Journal of Phycology 36: 1119-1128.
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Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 July 2019.

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