153,226 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,952 images, 59,248 bibliographic items, 409,098 distributional records.

Porphyra yezoensis Ueda

Publication details
Porphyra yezoensis Ueda 1932: 12 (key), 23, pl. I: 9, 14; pl. IV: 11-17, pl. XVI: 3-4

Published in: Ueda, S. (1932). Systematic study of the genus Porphyra in Japan. Suiko-Kenkyu-Kokoku 28: 1-45, 24 tables.

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Porphyra is Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M.S.Hwang & H.G.Choi

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Porphyra palleola M.Noda 1964

Nomenclatural notes
An important marine aquaculture crop (Lin et al. 2010). - (8 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
Juliet Brodie (pers. comm.) has examined the DNA of a culture identified as P. yezoensis by Kornmann and has found that it agrees with that of P. insolita. It is therefore unlikely that this species occurs in the North Atlantic. Guiry (1997) notes this species was recorded in Helgoland, (Kornmann, 1986) and speculates it is a probable introduction, he recommends further investigation.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Porphyra yezoensis Ueda)
Chinese: Zicai (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

English: Open Sea Nori (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Japanese: Susab-nori (Chapman & Chapman 1980), Susabi-nori (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Amanori (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

Korean: Kim (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

Type information
Holotype locality: Muroran? Hokkaido, Japan (Sutherland et al. 2011: 1145). Holotype: I. Ohno; Tokyo Univ. of Marine Science & Technology (Sutherland et al. 2011: 1145). Notes: Miyagi Pref. northward, SW Hokkaido, N Honshu, Japan. Korea (Neefus et al., 2008).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Endo, H., Ootsuka, S., Fukuda, S., Kitade, Y. & Saga, N. (2006). Functional complementation of an arginine auxotrophic yeast mutant by an argininosuccinate synthetase from Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1066-1071.

Kim, H.-S. & Kim, S.-M. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 1. Rhodophyta: Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, Bangiophyceae. Primitive red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-138, figs 1-101. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Klein, A.S, Mathieson, A.C., Neefus, C.D., Cain, D.C., Taylor, H.A., Teasdale, B.W., West, A.L., Hehre, E.J., Brodie, J., Yarish, C. & Wallace, A.L. (2003). Identification of north-western Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiaceae, Bangiales) based on sequence variation in nuclear SSU and plastid rbcL genes. Phycologia 42: 109-122, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Kloczcova, N.G. (1996). Flora vodoroslei makrofitov Tatarskogo Proliva i osobennosti ee formirovanija [Macrophyte algal flora of Tatars Gulf (Sea of Japan) and peculiarities of its formation]. pp. 1-289. Vladivostock: Dalnauka. [in Russian]

Mathieson, A.C., Pederson, J.R., Neefus, C.D., Dawes, C.J. & Bray, T.L. (2008). Multiple assessments of introduced seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 730–741.. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65: 730-741, 5 figs.

Müller, K.M., Cannone, J.J. & Sheath, R.G. (2005). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta) and description of a new genus and species, Pseudobangia kaycoleia. Phycologia 44: 146-155.

Neefus, C.D., Mathieson, A.C. Bray, T.L. & Yarish, C. (2008). The distribution, morphology and ecology of three introduced asiatic species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the northwestern Atlantic. Journal of Phycology 44(6): 1399-1414.

Niwa, K. & Sakamoto, T. (2010). Allopolyploidy in natural and cultivated populations of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1097-1105.

Niwa, K., Iida, S., Kato, A., Kawai, H., Kikuchi, N., Kobiyama, A. & Aruga, Y. (2009). Genetic diversity and introgression in two cultivated species (Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra tenera) and closely related wild species. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 493-502, 6 figs, 3 tables.

Niwa, K., Kato, A., Kobiyama, A., Kawai, H. & Ayruga, Y. (2008). Comparative study of wild and cultivated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and morphological data. Journal of Applied Phycology 20: 261-270.

Niwa, K., Kikuchi, N., Hwang, M.S, Choi, H.-G. & Aruga, Y. (2014). Cryptic species in the Pyropia yezoensis complex (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): Sympatric occurrence of two cryptic species even on same rocks. Phycological Research 62: 36-43.

Park, E.-J., Fukuda, S., Endo, H., Kitade, Y. & Saga, N. (2007). Genetic polymorphism within Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and related species from Japan and Korea detected by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis. European Journal of Phycology 42: 29-40.

Qiao, L., Liu, H., Sun, J., Zhao, F., Guo, B., Weng, M., Liu, T., Dai, J. & Wang, B. (2007). Application of target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) technique to Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) fingerprinting. Phycologia 46(4): 450-455, 3 figs, 3 tables.

Roberts, E. & Roberts, A.W. (2009). A cellulose synthase (Cesa) gene from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 45: 203-212.

Shen, S., He, L., Xu, P. & Jianyi, Z. (2006). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the development and differentiation of vegetative cells of Porphyra yezoensis on solid agar medium. Botanica Marina 49: 372-378.

Sutherland, J.E., Lindstrom, S.C., Nelson, W.A., Brodie, J., Lynch, M.D., Hwang, M.S., Choi, H.-G., Miyata, M., Kikuchi, N., Oliveira, M.C., Farr, T., Neefus, C., Mols-Mortensen, A. Milstein, D. & Müller, K.M. (2011). A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1131-1151.

Tanaka, T. (1952). The systematic study of the Japanese Protoflorideae. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University 2(2): 1-92, 41 figs, 23 pls.

Teasdale, B.W., West, A., Klein, A.S. & Mathieson, A.C. (2009). Distribution and evolution of variable group-I introns in the small ribosomal subunit of North Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 171-182, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Zheng Baofu & Li Jun [Zheng, B.F. & Li, J.] (2009). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus II Rhodophyta No. I. Porphyridiales Erythropeltidales Goniotrichiales Bangiales. pp. [1-8], i-xix, 1-[134], pls I-XIII. Beijing: Science Press.

Created: 20 October 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 July 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8070 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amano, H. & Noda, H. (1987). Effect of nitrogenous fertilizers on the recovery of discoloured fronds of Porphyra yezoensis. Botanica Marina 30: 467-473.
Amano, H. & Noda, H. (1990). Proteins of protoplasts from red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 56(11): 1859-1864.
Aoki, Y. & Kamei, Y. (2006). Preparation of recombinant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from the marine bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. ND137 for the production of protoplasts of Porphyra yezoensis. European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 321-328.
Araki, S., Ogawa, H., Oohusa, T., Kayama, M. & Murata, N. (1984). A simple and practical method for separation and determination of chlorophyll a and its derivatives in dried laver, "Nori", Porphyra yezoensis. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 50: 1925-1928.
Araki, S., Sakurai, T., Kawaguchiu, A. & Murata, N. (1987). Positional distribution of fatty acids in glycerolipids of the marine red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Plant Cell Physiology 28: 761-766.
Araki, S., Sakurai, T., Omata, T., Kawaguchi, A. & Murata, N. (1986). Lipid and fatty acid composition in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Japanese Journal of Phycology 34: 94-100.
Araki, T. & Morishita, T. (1990). Fusion of protoplasta from wild type Porphyra yezoensis and green type P. tenera thalli (Rhodophyta).. : .
Araki, T. & Morishita, T. (1990). Fusion of protoplasts from wild type Porphyra yezoensis and green type P. tenera thalli (Rhodophyta). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 56: 1161.
Asamizu, E., Nakajima, M., Kitade, Y., Saga, N., Nakamura, Y. & Tabata, S. (2003). Comparison of RNA expression profiles between the two generations of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta), based on expressed sequence tag frequency analysis. Journal of Phycology 39: 923-930.
Chao-yuan, W., Yan-xia, Z., Ren-zhi, L., Zuo-sheng, P., Ying-fang, Z., Qing-chen, L., Jing-pu, Z. & Xiao, F. (1984). Utilization of ammonium-nitrogen by Porphyra yezoensis and Gracilaria verrucosa. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 475-477.
Endo, H., Ootsuka, S., Fukuda, S., Kitade, Y. & Saga, N. (2006). Functional complementation of an arginine auxotrophic yeast mutant by an argininosuccinate synthetase from Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1066-1071.
Fukuda, S., Ootsuka, S., Kitade, Y., Watanabe, T. & Saga, N. (2002). Isolation, characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding an elongation factor-1a fro m Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 50(1): 11-16.
Gao, S., Wang, G., Yang, R., Xie, X, Pan, G., Xu, P. & Zhu, J. (2011). Variations in the cell walls and photosynthetic properties of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) during archeospore formation. Journal of Phycology 47(4): 839-845.
Garbary, D.J. & Magne, F. (1991). Diffuse cell elongation in two bangiophyte red algae: Rhodochaete parvula and Porphyra yezoensis. Japanese Journal of Phycology 39: 223-226.
Hafting, J.T. (1999). Effect of tissue nitrogen and phosphorus quota on growth of Porphyra yezoensis blades in suspension cultures. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 305-314.
Hwang, M.S., Chung, I.K. & Oh, Y.S. (1997). Temperature responses of Porphyra tenera Kjellman and P. yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from Korea. Algae 12(3): 207-213, 4 figs, 4 tables. [in Korean]
IOEP (1976). All artificial spore-collecting cultivation of Tiaoban-zicai (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda). Scientia Sin 19: 253-259.
Ji, M. H., Pu, S. Z. & Niu, Z. Q. (1981). The variation in contents of various states of amino acids in Porphyra yezoensis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 431-435.
Kakinuma, M., Kaneko, I., Coury, D.A., Suzuki, T. & Amano, H. (2007). Isolation and identification of gametogenesis-related genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) using subtracted cDNA libraries. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 263-270.
Kang, S.-E., Jin, L.-G., Choi, J.-S., Cho, J.-Y., Shin, H.-W. & Hong, Y.-K. (2007). Isolation and identification of gametogenesis-related genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) using subtracted cDNA libraries. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 257-261.
Kanno, N., Sato, M. & Sato, Y. (1990). Purification and properties of Adenosine-5'-Phosphosulfate Kinase from the marine red macroalga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Botanica Marina 33: 369-374.
Kitade, Y., Asamizu, E., Fukuda, S., Nakajima, M., Ootsuka, S., Endo, H., Tabata, S. & Saga, N. (2008). Identification of genes preferentially expressed during asexual sporulation in Porphyra yezoensis gametophytes (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 44(1): 113-123.
Kitade, Y., Yamazaki, S. & Saga, N. (1996). A method for extraction of high molecular weight DNA from the macroalga Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) (NOTE). Journal of Phycology 32: 496-498.
Kito, H. (1967). Cytological studies of several species of Porphyra II. Mitosis in carpospore-germlings of Porphyra yezoensis. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 18: 201-202.
Kobara, T., Miura, A. & Aruga, Y. (1976). In vitro studies on the green type mutant of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. La Mer 14: 8-13.
Kornmann, P. (1986). Porphyra yezoensis bei Helgoland - eine entwicklungsgeschtliche Studie. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 40: 327-342.
Lin, A.P., Wang, G.C., Shen, S.D., Yang, F. Pan, G.H. (2010). Two specific causes of cell mortality in freeze-thaw cycle of young thalli of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Journal 0f Phycology 46(4): 773-779.
Ma, J.H. & Miura, A. (1984). Observations of the nuclear division in the conchospores and their germlings in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Japanese Journal of Phycology 32: 373-378.
Maruyama, T., Miura, A. & Yoshida, T. (1985). The effects of effluent of municipal wastewater on the growth of Porphyra yezoensis in the case of static culture. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 51: 315-320.
Miura, A. & Shin, J.-A (1989). Crossbreeding in cultivars of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) - preliminary report. Korean Journal of Phycology 4(2): 207-211, 1 fig, 1 table.
Miura, A. (1984). A new variety and a new form of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from Japan: Porphyra tenera Kjellman var. tamatsuensis Miura, var. nov. and P. yezoensis Ueda form. narawaensis Miura, form. nov.. Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries 71: 1-37.
Mizuta, H., Shirakura, Y. & Yasui, H. (2002). Relationship between phycoerythrin and nitrogen content in Gloiopeltis furcata and Porphyra yezoensis. Algae 17(2): 89-93, 5 figs, 1 table.
Nakajima, M., Kitade, Y., Litsuka, O., Fukuda, S. & Saga, N. (2000). Rapid extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 48: 15-18.
Niwa, K. & Kobiyama, A. (2009). Simple molecular discrimination of cultivated Porphyra species (Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra tenera) and related wild species (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 57(4): 299-303.
Niwa, K., Furuita, H. & Yamamoto, T. (2009). Changes of growth characteristics and free amino acid content of cultivated Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales Rhodophyta) blades with the progression of the number of harvets in a nori farm . Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 237-243, 10 fiugs, 1 table.
Niwa, K., Hayashi, Y., Abe, T. & Aruga, Y. (2009). Induction and isolation of pigmentation mutants of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) by heavy-ion beam irradiation. Phycological Research 57(3): 194-202.
Niwa, K., Iida, S., Kato, A., Kawai, H., Kikuchi, N., Kobiyama, A. & Aruga, Y. (2009). Genetic diversity and introgression in two cultivated species (Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra tenera) and closely related wild species. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 493-502, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Niwa, K., Kato, A., Kobiyama, A., Kawai, H. & Ayruga, Y. (2008). Comparative study of wild and cultivated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and morphological data. Journal of Applied Phycology 20: 261-270.
Niwa, K., Kikuchi, N., Iwabuchi, M. & Aruga, Y. (2004). Morphological and AFLP variation of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda form. narawaensis Miura (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 52(2): 180-190.
Niwa, K., Miura, A., Shin, J.-A. & Aruga, Y. (1993). Characterization and genetic analysis of the violet type pigmentation mutant of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Korean Journal of Phycology 8(2): 217-230, 4 figs, 7 tables.
Oh, M.-H., Kang, Y.H., Lee, C.-H. & Chung, I.K. (2005). Effects of six antibiotics on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ammonium uptake of thallus of Porphyra yezoensis. Algae 20(2): 121-125, 3 figs.
Ohme, M. & Miura, A. (1988). Tetrad analysis in conchospore germlings of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales). Plant Science 57: 135-140.
Ohme, M., Kunifuji, Y. & Miura, A. (1986). Cross experiments of the color mutants in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Japanese Journal of Phycology 34: 101-106.
Ohmori, T. & Suemura, E. (1978). RNA and protein syntheses for the germination of carpospores in Porphyra yezoensis. Bulletin of Sanyo Gakuen Women's Junior college 9: 65-69. [in Japanese; English summary]
Park, C.S., Kakinuma, M. & Amano, H. (2007). Forecasting infections of the red rot disease on Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Rhodophyta) cultivation farms. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 69-73.
Park, E.-J., Fukuda, S., Endo, H., Kitade, Y. & Saga, N. (2007). Genetic polymorphism within Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and related species from Japan and Korea detected by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis. European Journal of Phycology 42: 29-40.
Park, E.-J., Fukuda, S., Endo, H., Kitade, Y. & Saga, N. (2008). Identification of cross-fertilized conchocelis using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers in cross-experiments of Porphyra Yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 44: 331-334.
Roberts, E. & Roberts, A.W. (2009). A cellulose synthase (Cesa) gene from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 45: 203-212.
Saito, E. & Tamura, G. (1971). Studies on the sulfite reducing system of algae. Part II. Purification and properties of the reduced methyl viologen-linked sulfite reductase from a red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Rep. Agr. Biol. Chem. 35: 491-500.
Sato, M., Sato, Y. & Tsuchiya, Y. (1984). Glutamate dehydrogenase of Porphyra yezoensis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 584-587.
Shen, S., He, L., Xu, P. & Jianyi, Z. (2006). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the development and differentiation of vegetative cells of Porphyra yezoensis on solid agar medium. Botanica Marina 49: 372-378.
Shin, J. & Miura, A. (1990). Estimation of the degree of self-fertilization in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 397-400.
Shin, J.-A. & Miura, A. (1997). Inheritance of some characters of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) I. Crispness and free amino acid content in two recombinant wild-types bred by reciprocal crosses. Algae 12(4): 313-318.
Shin, J.-a. & Miura, A. (1990). Estimation of the degree of self-fertilization in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 397-400.
Shin, J.-A. (1999). Crossing between Porphyra yezoensis and P. tenera. Algae 14(1): 73-75, 4 tables.
Shin, J.-A. (2003). Inheritance mode of some characters of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) II. Yield, photosynthetic pigment content, red rot disease-resistance, color, luster and volatile sulfur compounds concentration. Algae 18(1): 83-88, 2 figs, 3 tables.
Shin, J.-A. (2003). Quality improvement of dried sheets of Porphyra using recombinant wild-type in P. yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Algae 18(1): 95-100, 95-100.
Shin, J.-A. (2003). Yield improvement using recombinant wild-type in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Algae 18(1): 89-94, 3 figs, 1 table.
Shin, J.-A., Nishimoto, H. & Miura, A. (1996). Contents of photosynthetic pigments in a new cultivar bred by interspecific crossing between Porphyra teneraP. yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): preliminary report. Algae 11(4): 389-390, 1 table.
Shin, J.A. & Miura, A. (1995). Genetic improvement of eating quality of dried sheets of Porphyra by using the recombinant wild-type in P. yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Korean Journal of Phycology 10(2): 109-115, 2 tables.
Tsekos, I. & Reiss, H.-D. (1994). Tip cell growth and the frequency and distribution of cellulose microfibril-synthesizing complexes in the plasma membrane of apical shoot cells of the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Journal of Phycology 30: 300-310.
Ueki, C., Nagasato, C., Motomura, T. & Saga, N. (2008). Reexamination of the pit plugs and the characteristic membranous structures in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 47: 5-11.
Ueki, C., Nagasato, C., Motomura, T. & Saga, N. (2009). Ultrastructure of mitosis and cytokinesis during spermatogenesis in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 52(2): 129-139, 55 figs.
Uppalapati, S.R. & Fujita, Y. (2000). Carbohydrate regulation of attachment, encystment and appressorium formation by Pythium porphyrae (Oomycota) zoospores on Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 36: .
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Wang, J., Dai, J. & Zhang, Y. (2006). Nuclear division of the vegetative cells, conchosporangial cells and conchospores of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 54(3): 201-207.
Xu, D., Qiao, H., Zhu, J., Xu, P., Liang, C., Zhang, X, Ye, N. & Yang, W. (2012). Assessment of photosynthetic performance of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in conchocelis phase (Note). Journal of Phycology 48(2): 467-470.
Yamazaki, A., Nakanishi, K. & Saga, N. (1998). Axenic tissue culture and morphogenesis in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 34: 1082-1087, 18 figs.
Yan, X.-H. & Aruga, Y. (2000). Genetic analysis of artificial pigmentation mutants in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 48: 177-188.
Yan, X.H. & Aruga, Y. (1997). Induction of pigmentation mutatnts by treatment of monospore germlings with NNG in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Algae 12(2): 39-52, 15 figs.
Ying, L.S (1984). The ecological characterisitics of monospores of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda and their use in cultivation. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 255-258.
Yoshizawa, Y., Ametani, A., Tsunehiro, J., Nomura, K., Itoh, M., Fukui, F.& Kaminogawa, S. (1995). Macrophage stimulation activity of the polysaccharide fraction from a marine alga (Porphyra yezoensis): structure-function relationships and improved solubility. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 59: 1933-1937.
Zhang, B.Y., He, L.W., Jia,Z.J., Wang,G.C. & Peng, G. (2012). Characterization of the alternative oxidase gene in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) and cyanide-resistant respiration analysis. Journal of Phycology 48(3): 657-663.
Zhang, B.Y., Jia, Z.J., He, L.W., Wang, G.C. & Peng, G. (2012). Characterization of the protein phosphatase 2c gene from Porphyra yezoensis and functional analysis under dessicating conditions. Botanica Marina 55(4): 427-434.
Zhang, B.Y., Yang, F., Wang, G.C. & Peng, G. (2010). Cloning and quantitative analysis of the carbonic anhydrase gene from Porphyra yezoensis. Journal of Phycology 46(2): 290-296.

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