153,875 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,014 images, 59,578 bibliographic items, 413,474 distributional records.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Caulerpaceae
Genus Caulerpa

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
en su hábitat natural, en la zona Habana-Matanzas, sobre fondo rocoso, Cuba. Foto: Ángel Fernández.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Cabo de Palos, Murcia, Spain. 21 Jul 2014. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Cabo de Palos, Murcia, Spain. 21 Jul 2014. Isabel Rubio Perez " . © marmenormarmayor.es.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Morphological complex plant of ecad uvifera and ecad lamourouxii. Palau Islands, West Pacific. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad uvifera. Palau Islands, West Pacific. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad uvifera. Palau Islands, West Pacific, 2 m deep in the sun. Hideki Yukihira. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad uvifera. Palau Islands, West Pacific, 1 m deep in the sun. 29 Oct 1995. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad lamourouxii. Palau Islands, West Pacific. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad lamourouxii. Palau Islands, West Pacific, 0.5 m deep, shady place. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh
Ecad lamourouxii. Palau Islands, West Pacific, 4 m deep. Hideki Yukihira. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

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Rhodoglossum californicum (J.Agardh) I.A.Abbott

Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh Lord Howe Island, Australia
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh 1873: 35

Published in: Agardh, J.G. (1873 '1872'). Till algernes systematik. Nya bidrag. Lunds Universitets Års-Skrift, Afdelningen for Mathematik och Naturvetenskap 9(8): 1-71.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Caulerpa is Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskål) J.V.Lamouroux.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus racemosus Forsskål

Type information
Type locality: Suez, Egypt (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 832). Type: Herb. Forsskal, C 845 (Belton et al. 2014: 50). Notes: Leg. P. Forsskål (Lipkin & Silva 2002: 65).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), with flowers borne in racemes.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus racemosus Forsskål 1775

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus clavifer Turner 1807
Caulerpa obtusa J.V.Lamouroux 1809
Fucus uvifer Turner 1811
Caulerpa uvifera C.Agardh 1817
Caulerpa clavifera (Turner) C.Agardh 1817
Caulerpa clavifera var. uvifera (C.Agardh) C.Agardh 1823
Chauvinia clavifera (Turner) Bory 1829
Chauvinia clavifera var. uvifera (C.Agardh) Kützing 1849
Caulerpa racemosa var. uvifera (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1873
Caulerpa racemosa var. clavifera (Turner) Weber Bosse 1898
Caulerpa feldmannii Rayss & Edelstein 1960
Caulerpa racemosa var. disticha V.J.Chapman 1977
Caulerpa racemosa var. mucronata L.N.de Senerpont Domis 2003

Nomenclatural notes
Børgesen (1940) cites this species as Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) Weber van Bosse.

Taxonomic notes
John et al. (2004) cite Caulerpa racemosa (Forssk) J. Agardh var. peltata (J.V. Lamour.) Eubank, Caulerpa peltata J.V. Lamour, Caulerpa occidentalis (J. Agardh) Jaasund and Caulerpa lamourouxii C. agardh as synonyms of this species.

Distributional notes
Widespread in warm seas. (Lipkin & Silva 2002). Pantropical (Belton et al. 20140. - (22 Jun 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
One of the three varieties occurring in the Mediterranean has invasive characteristics and has become aggressively widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin since the early 1990s; Piazzi et al. (2001) provided experimental evidence of its deleterious effects on macroalgal diversity on local scale. Verlaque et al. (2003), on the basis of molecular data, confirmed that this invasion is the result of a recent introduction and identified the invasive variety as C. racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Caulerpa clavifera (Turner) C.Agardh)
Hawaiian: limu fuafua (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

(as Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh)
?: Lelato, Ararucip, Tahmuck (Madlener 1977), Lelatu, Limu Eka (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

English: Sea Grapes, Mouse plant (Madlener 1977).

Ilocano: Ar-arucep (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

Japanese: Surikogidzuta (Madlener 1977).

Tagalog: Lato (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

Tahitian: Rimu (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

(as Caulerpa racemosa var. clavifera (Turner) Weber Bosse)
Indonesian: Lai lai (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
sennarizuta {Jap}; nama {Fiji}; ar-arusip {Cagay}; latu {Cebu}

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus clavifer Turner)
South-east Asia: Singapore (Pham et al. 2011).

(as Caulerpa uvifera C.Agardh)
Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Huisman 2000), Norfolk Island (Huisman 2000), South Australia (Huisman 2000), Tasmania (Huisman 2000), Victoria (Huisman 2000), Western Australia (Huisman 2000).

(as Caulerpa clavifera (Turner) C.Agardh)
South America: Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Lewis 1987).

(as Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Ballesteros, Grau & Riera 1999, Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000), Croatia (Nuber et al. 2007, Blazina, Ivesa & Najdek 2009), Cyprus (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000), France (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Renoncourt & Meinesz 2002, Anon. 2017), Greece (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000), Italy (Alongi, Cormaci, Furnari & Giaccone 1993, Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Serio et al 2006, Valera-Alvarez et al 2006), Sardinia (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000), Spain (Pena Martín et al. 2003 ), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Turkey (Europe) (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Einav 2007, Taskin et al. 2008 ), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003, Maloney et al. 2011 ), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Gonzalez Henriquez & Santos Guerra 1983, Haroun Trabaue et al. 1985, Gil-Rodriguez, Afonso-Carrillo & Wildpret de la Torre 1987, Ballesteros, Sansón, Reyes, Afonso-Carrillo & Gil-Rodríguez 1992, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Barberá et al 2005, Barquín-Diez et al. 2005, Moreira-Reyes, Soler-Onís & Gil-Rodríguez 2005, Aldanondo-Aristizábal et al. 2005, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (John et al. 2004), St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (Mendes Crespo et al. 2014).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974, Stam et al 2006), Mexico (Taylor 1960, Robledo & Freile-Pelegrín 2005), Mexico (Caribbean) (Taylor 1972).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960, Norris & Bucher 1982, Littler & Littler 1997), Costa Rica (Taylor 1960, Fernández-García et al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Islas Revillagigedo (Taylor 1945), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2005), Panama (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1960, Kooistra 2002, Famà, Wysor, Kooistra & Zuccarello 2002, Wysor & Kooistra 2003, Wysor 2004, Fernández-García et al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2018), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999, Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad & Tobago (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975, Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Mendes Crespo et al. 2014, Wynne 2017).

South America: Aves (Taylor 1960), Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Falcão & Menezes de Széchy 2005, Moura 2010, Batista et al. 2014), Colombia (Taylor 1960, Schnetter 1969), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Peru (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Bachir Bouiadjra et al. 2010), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (John et al. 2004), Djibouti (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Egypt (Aleem 1950, Papenfuss 1968, Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993, Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Einav 2007, Marconi et al. 2011, Marconi et al. 2011), Equatorial Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Eritrea (Lipkin & Silva 2002), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Conde Poyales 1992, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Mozambique (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sudan (Papenfuss 1968, Osman & Mohammed 2016), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Zubia et al.), Rodrigues Island (De Clerck et al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed et al. 2008), Cyprus (Einav 2007, Taskin et al. 2013), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Suryanarayanan et al. 2010, Gupta 2012, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015, Rao & Gupta 2015), Iran (Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Jordan (Papenfuss 1968), Lebanon (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Einav 2007, Lakkis 2013), Oman (Wynne 2018), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Saudi Arabia (Papenfuss 1968), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans et al. 2009), Syria (Verlaque, Boudouresque, Meinesz & Gravez 2000, Einav 2007), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Yemen (Papenfuss 1968, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: China (Liu 2008, Liu 2008, Liu 2008, Titlyanov et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015), Hong Kong (Wang et al. 2008), Japan (Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016, Phang et al. 2016, Phang et al. 2016, Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Anon. 2012, Anon. 2012), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Myanmar (Burma) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Soe-Htun et al. 2009), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Verlque, Durand ,Huisman, Boudouresque & Le Parco 2003, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham et al. 2011), Thailand (Coppejans et al. 2011), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Hodgson et al. 2004, Tien 2007, Titlyanov et al. 2011, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Coral Sea Islands Territory (Millar 1999), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997, Huisman 1997, Huisman 1997, Huisman 1997, Huisman 1997, Huisman 1997), Kermadec Islands (Duffy & Ahyong 2015), Lord Howe Island (Lewis 1987, Millar & Kraft 1994, Kraft 2000, Kraft 2007), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Broady et al. 2012), Norfolk Island (Millar 1999), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans et al. 2001, Littler & Littler 2003), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Verlque, Durand ,Huisman, Boudouresque & Le Parco 2003, Kraft 2007, Bostock & Holland 2010, Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Huisman & Borowitzka 2003, Belton, Huisman & Gurgel 2015).

Pacific Islands: American Samoa (Skelton et al. 2004), Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Magruder & Hunt 1979, Abbott & Huisman, 2004, Hodgson et al. 2004, Beach et al. 2006, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957), New Caledonia (Payri 2007, Payri 2007, Payri 2007, Payri 2007, Payri 2007), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014), Republic of Palau (Ohba et al 2007), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999), Society Islands (Taylor 1973), Wake Atoll (Tsuda, Abbott & Foster 2006).

(as Caulerpa racemosa var. uvifera (C.Agardh) J.Agardh)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider 2003).

North America: Florida (FL) (Dawes 1974).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Joly 1957, Joly 1965), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945).

Africa: Mauritius (Børgesen 1951).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2008).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Lewis 1987).

Pacific Islands: Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996), Marshall Islands (Taylor 1950), Solomon Islands (Womersley & Bailey 1970).

(as Caulerpa racemosa var. clavifera (Turner) Weber Bosse)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Gonzalez Henriquez & Santos Guerra 1983).

North America: Florida (FL) (Dawes 1974).

Caribbean Islands: Trinidad & Tobago (Richardson 1975).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930).

Africa: Mauritius (Børgesen 1949).

Indian Ocean Islands: Mayotte (Verlque, Durand ,Huisman, Boudouresque & Le Parco 2003).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2008), India (Gupta 2012), Red Sea (Verlque, Durand ,Huisman, Boudouresque & Le Parco 2003).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Lewis & Norris 1987).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Pham et al. 2011).

Australia and New Zealand: Northern Territory (Womersley 1958, Lewis 1987), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Cribb 1996).

Pacific Islands: Marshall Islands (Taylor 1950, Dawson 1957).

(as Caulerpa racemosa var. disticha V.J.Chapman)
Australia and New Zealand: Norfolk Island (Millar 1999).

(as Caulerpa racemosa var. mucronata L.N.de Senerpont Domis)
South-east Asia: Philippines (Savage et al. 2013).

Key references
Belton, G.S., Huisman, J.M. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2015). Caulerpaceae. In: Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 75-102. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Belton, G.S., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F., Huisman, J.M., Draisma, S.G.A. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2014). Resolving phenotypic plasticity and species designation in the morphology challenging Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 50(1): 32-54.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Famá, P., Wysor, B., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2002). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Caulerpa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) inferred from chloroplast tufA gene. Journal of Phycology 38: 1040-1050.

Hodgson, L.M. Pham Huu Tri, Lewmanomont, K. & McDermid, K.J. (2004). Annotated checklist of species of Caulerpa and Caulerpella (Bryopsidales, Caulerpaceae) from Vietnam, Thailand and the Hawaiian Islands. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to the Pacific and other locations Volume IX. (Abbott, I.A. & McDermid, K.J. Eds) Vol.9, pp. 21-38.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Littler, D.S. & Littler, M.M. (1997). An illustrated flora of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 9: 1-149, 190 figs.

Nizamuddin, M. (1991). The green marine algae of Libya. pp. 1-230. Bern: El-Faateh University, Department of Botany.

Nuber, N., Gornik, O., Lauc, G., Bauer, N., Zuljevic, A., Papes, D. & Zoldos, V. (2007). Genetic evidence for the identity of Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42: 113-120.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Sauvage, T., Payri, C., Draisma, S.G.A., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F., Verbruggen, H., Belton, G.S., Gurgel, F.D., Gabriel, D., Sherwood, A.R. & Fredericq, S. (2013). Molecular diversity of the Caulerpa racemosa-Caulerpa peltata complex (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in New Caledonia, with new Australasian records for C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Phycologia 52(1): 6-13.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1-1259.

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Stam, W.T., Olsen, J.L., Zaleski, S.F., Murray, S.N., Brown, K.R. & Walters, L.J. (2006). A forensic and phylogenetic survey of Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium shops, and e-commerce: establishing a proactive baseline for early detection. Journal of Phycology 42: 1113-1124.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Created: 16 September 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 28 August 2016 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 37812 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aleem, A.A. (1992). Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta) on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Phycologia 31: 205-206.
Alongi, G., Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Giaccone, G. (1993). Prima segnalazione di Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyceae, Caulerpales) per le coste italiane. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat. 26(342): 49-53.
Bachir Bouiadjra, B., Belbachir, N., Youcef Benkada, M., Maarouf, A. & Riadi, H. (2010). Sur la presence de l'algue marine Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) devant la côte Mostaganemoise (Ouest Algerie). Acta Botanica Malacitana 35: 168-171.
Ballesteros, E., Grau, A.M. & Riera, F. (1999). Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) a Mallorca. Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears 42: 63-68.
Belton, G.S., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F., Huisman, J.M., Draisma, S.G.A. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2014). Resolving phenotypic plasticity and species designation in the morphology challenging Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 50(1): 32-54.
Bernardeau Esteller, J. & Martínez Garrido, J. (2010). Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea en el Mediterraneo: Estudios en la Región de Murcia. ALGAS. Boletín de Sociedad Española de Ficología 43: 19-26, 6 Fig.
Bernardeau-Esteller, J., Marín-Guirao, L., Sandoval-Gil, J.-M. & Ruiz, J.M. (2011). Photosynthesis and daily metabolic carbon balance of the invasive Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) along a depth gradient. Scientia Marina 75: 803-810.
Blazina, M., Ivesa, L. & Najdek, M. (2009). Caulerpa racemosa: adaptive varieties studied by fatty acid composition (Northern Adriatic Sea, Vrsar, Croatia). European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 183-189, 4 figs, 1 table.
Box, A., Sureda, A., Tauler, P., Terrados, J., Marba, N., Pons, A. & Deudero, S. (2010). Seasonality of caulerpenyne content in native Caulerpa prolifera and invasive C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindraceae in western Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 53(4): 367-375.
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Capiomont, A., Breugnot, E., den Haan, M. & Meinesz, A. (2005). Phenology of a deep-water population of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 48: 80-83.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 December 2018.

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