153,871 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,012 images, 59,576 bibliographic items, 413,474 distributional records.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; pools at HWM. 15 Jul 2018. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; pools at HWM. 15 Jul 2018. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; pools at HWM. 15 Jul 2018. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; pools at HWM. 15 Jul 2018. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; pools at HWM. 15 Jul 2018. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway; uppershore pools. 26 Jul 2017. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
La Manga, Murcia, Spain. 30 May 2010. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
1. Habit. 2. Surface view of cells. 3. Cell wall of hollow thallus in transverse section. 4 Intertidal (Kai River estuary, Nhatrang City, Vietnam).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Hawaii; scale 10 mm. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 03 Apr 2011. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry.

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40 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Eucheuma spinosum J.Agardh

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus Zeeland delta, Netherlands
© Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net)

Publication details
Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus 1753: 1163

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561-1200, [1-30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
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Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), relating to or found in the intestines (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Conferva intestinalis (Linnaeus) Roth 1797
Tetraspora intestinalis (Linnaeus) Desvaux 1818
Scytosiphon intestinalis (Linnaeus) Lyngbye 1819
Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees 1820
Fistularia intestinalis (Linnaeus) Greville 1824
Solenia intestinalis (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1824
Ilea intestinalis (Linnaeus) Leiblein 1827
Hydrosolen intestinalis (Linnaeus) C.Martius 1833
Ulva enteromorpha var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Le Jolis 1863
Ulva bulbosa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hariot 1889
Enteromorpha compressa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hamel 1931

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Enteromorpha intestinalis var. bullosa Le Jolis
Enteromorpha intestinalis f. genuina Hauck
Enteromorpha intestinalis f. genuina Ahlner
Scytosiphon intestinalis var. nematodes Wallroth 1833
Enteronia simplex Chevallier 1836
Enteromorpha vulgaris var. lacustris Edmondston 1845
Enteromorpha intestinalis f. maxima J.Agardh 1883
Enteromorpha intestinalis var. maxima (J.Agardh) Lily Newton 1931
Enteromorpha intestinalis var. genuina Schiffner 1938
Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding 1963
Ulva intestinalis var. asexualis (Bliding) Taskin 2007

Distributional notes
Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Zone: high, splash; epilithic (Augyte and Shaughnessy, 2014). - (3 Dec 2014) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Parial et al. 2012). - (3 Apr 2012) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus)
English: Gut Weed (Bunker et al. 2010).

Gaeilge: Líneáil ghorm (Anonymous 1978).

German: Darmtang (Braune 2008).

(as Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees)
?: Lumot, Ruprupu (Madlener 1977).

Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

Chinese: Tai tyau, Hu tai (Madlener 1977).

English: Stone Hair (Madlener 1977), Link confetti (Rhoads & Zunic 1978), Hallow-green nori (F.A.O. 1997).

Hawaiian: Limu eleele (Rhoads & Zunic 1978), Limu ele'ele (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Japanese: Bô-awonori, Yore-awonori (Tokida 1954), Bo-ao-nori (Madlener 1977), Ohashi nori (Rhoads & Zunic 1978).

Swedish: Tarmalg (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Type information
Type locality: Woolwich, London, England? (Hayden et al. 2003: 289). Lectotype: Dillenius (1742: pl. 9: fig. 7) (epitype) OXF (Yoshida 1998 Notes: Blomster et al. (1999) select a lectotype (epitype) of Dillenius (1742: pl. 9: fig. 7); see also Hayden et al. (2003: 289). Type locality: 'in Mari omni' (South & Skelton, 2003).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Enteromorpha intestinalis var. bullosa Le Jolis)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavienda 2018), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013, Garbary & Tarakhovskaya 2013).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Curiel et al. 2012), Balearic Islands (Weyler 1854), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Milchakova 2011), Britain (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Brodie et al. 2007, John, Whitton & Brook 2011, Flewelling et al. 2013, Brodie et al. 2016), Bulgaria (Berov et al. 2012), France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016), Greece (Christia et al. 2011, Tsiamis et al. ), Ireland (Tighe 1803, Guiry 2012), Portugal (Araújo et al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 2008, Viejo et al. 2008, de los Santos, Pérez-Lloréns & Vergara 2009, Mercado et al. 2009, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Kraft et al. 2010, Rasmusson & Björk 2014), Turkey (Europe) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (John et al. 2004), Azores (Parente), Canary Islands (Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004), Madeira (John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (John et al. 2004).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), British Columbia (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Saunders & Kucera 2010), California (CA) (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Kennison et al. 2011, Miller 2012, Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Connecticut (CT) (Van Patten 2009, Kraemer et al. 2017), Florida (FL) (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Maine (MA) (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Mexico (Caribbean) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Nova Scotia (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Oregon (OR) (Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Rhode Island (RI) (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Texas (TX) (Wynne 2009), Virginia (VA) (Adey et al. 2013), Washington (WA) (Galloway et al. 2012).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Costa Rica (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015, Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2005), Panama (Fernández-García et al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2018).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce et al. 2015), Brazil (Moura 2010).

Africa: Egypt (Mediterranean) (Shabaka 2018), Eritrea (Ateweberhan & Prud'homme van Reine 2005), Ghana (John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Guinea-Bissau (John et al. 2004), Morocco (Moussa et al. 2018), Namibia (John et al. 2004), South Africa (Coppejans, Leliaert & Verbruggen 2005), Sudan (Osman & Mohammed 2016).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Abu Dhabi (John 2005), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Rao & Gupta 2015), Israel (Hoffman 2004), Kuwait (Al-Yamani et al. 2014), Pakistan (Shahnaz & Shameel 2007), Sri Lanka (Coppejans et al. 2009), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: China (Titlyanov et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015), Japan (Kraft et al. 2010, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Bae 2010), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015, Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun et al. 2009, Hlaing Hlaing Htoon & Soe-Htun, Myo Min Tun & Soe-Htun 2014), Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Pham et al. 2011), Thailand (Tsutsui et al. 2012), Vietnam (Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Titlyanov et al. 2011, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Chatham Islands (Nelson 2013), New South Wales (Kirkendale et al. 2013), New Zealand (Taylor et al 2006, Taylor et al 2006, Heesch et al. 2009, Broady et al. 2012), North Island, NZ (Nelson 2013), South Australia (Kraft et al. 2010), South Island, NZ (Nelson 2013), Tasmania (Kirkendale et al. 2013, Scott 2017), Victoria (Kraft et al. 2010).

Pacific Islands: American Samoa (Skelton et al. 2004), Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), New Caledonia (Payri 2007), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014).

(as Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen et al. 1999).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980, Gallardo et al. 1993), Balearic Islands (Colmeiro, M. 1868, Navarro & Bellón 1945, Gómez Garreta 1983, Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995), Belgium (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Black Sea (Gallardo et al. 1993), Britain (Newton 1931, Burrows 1991, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Whitton et al. 2003), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Gallardo et al. 1993), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Gallardo et al. 1993, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Verlaque 2001, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Adams 1907, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971, Guiry 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Edwards et al. 1975, Cinelli et al. 1976, Gallardo et al. 1993, Gallardo et al. 1993, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Malta (Cormaci et al. 1997), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007, Veen et al. 2015), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al., 2003), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012), Russia (Europe) (Stenina & Patova 2007), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Lázaro Ibiza 1889, Sauvageau 1897, Hamel 1928, Miranda 1931, Bellón 1942, González Guerrero 1957, Seoane-Camba 1957, Ardré 1957, González Guerrero 1957, Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Barcelo & Seoane 1982, Gallardo & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Anadón 1983, Aboal & Llimona 1984a, Pérez-Ruzafa & Honrubia 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Aboal 1988b, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Gallardo et al. 1993, Aboal et al. 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Calvo, Bárbara & Cremades 1999, Veiga Villar 1999, Cantoral Uiza & Aboal Sanjurjo 2001, Moreno et al. 2001, Calvo & Bárbara 2002, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Pérez-Lorens et al. 2004), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1949, Shimada et al. 2003), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Gallardo et al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Aysel 2005).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980), Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1925, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Anon. 2011), Cape Verde Islands (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), E. Greenland (Pedersen 1976), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Parente et al. 2000, Hardy & Guiry 2003), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Saunders 1901, Lindstrom 1977, Scagel et al. 1989, Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), California (CA) (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979, Cohen & Fong 2005), Connecticut (CT) (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Florida (FL) (Taylor 1957, Dawes 1974), Gulf of California (Dawson 1944), Maine (MA) (Mathieson et al. 2001), Mexico (Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), New Hampshire (HN) (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (NC) (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Northwest Territories (Sheath & Steinman 1982), Oregon (OR) (Hansen 1997), Québec (Taylor 1957), Texas (TX) (Taylor 1960), Virginia (VA) (Humm 1979), Washington (WA) (Scagel et al. 1989).

Caribbean Islands: Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Comas González 2008, Comas González 2009), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985, Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Daga et al. 2014), Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Taylor 1939, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo et al. 1993), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Mohsen, Kharboush, Khaleafa, Metwalli & Azab 1975, Aleem 1993, Gallardo et al. 1993), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Guinea-Bissau (Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002, Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Libya (Gallardo et al. 1993), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Gil-Rodriguez & Socorro Hernández 1986, Gallardo et al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Rodrigues Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, De Clerck et al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed et al. 2008), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012), Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Gallardo et al. 1993), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Hu & Wei 2006, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Wang 2012), Japan (Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Shimada et al. 2003), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008), Kurile Islands (Nagai 1940), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014, Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Tien 2007).

Australia and New Zealand: Coral Sea Islands Territory (Millar 1999), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Chapman, Thompson & Segar 1957, Adams 1994, Adams 1997), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans et al. 2001), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Day et al. 1995, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Tasmania (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Day et al. 1995).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Abbott & Huisman, 2004, Sherwood 2004), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctica/Subantarctic Islands (Papenfuss 1964), Macquarie Island (Ricker 1987), South Shetland Islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002).

(as Solenia intestinalis (Linnaeus) C.Agardh)
South America: Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

(as Ulva enteromorpha var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Le Jolis)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha intestinalis f. maxima J.Agardh)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Lindstrom 1977), Connecticut (CT) (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva bulbosa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hariot)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha compressa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hamel)
Europe: France (Coppejans 1972).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha intestinalis var. maxima (J.Agardh) Lily Newton)
North America: Alaska (AK) (Saunders 1901).

(as Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding)
Europe: France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999).

South-west Asia: India (Gupta 2012).

(as Ulva intestinalis var. asexualis (Bliding) Taskin)
Europe: Turkey (Europe) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

South-west Asia: Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Key references
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Hayden, H.S., Blomster, J., Maggs, C.A., Silva, P.C., Stanhope, M.J. & Waaland, J.R. (2003). Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera. European Journal of Phycology 38(3): 277-294.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. (2013). A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Kraft, L.G.K., Kraft, G.T. & Waller, R.F. (2010). Investigations into southern Australian Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) taxonomy and molecular phylogeny indicate both cosmopolitanism and endemic cryptic species. Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1257-1277.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nelson, W.A. (2013). New Zealand seaweeds. An illustrated guide. pp. [1]-328. Wellington: Te Papa Press.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Titlyanova, T.V., Titlyanov, E.A., Xia, B. & Bartsch, I. (2012). New records of benthic marine green algae (Chlorophyta) for the island of Hainan (China). Nova Hedwigia 94: 441-470.

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Created: 19 October 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 15 March 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 26306 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Barr, N.G., Tijsen, R.J. & Rees, T.A.V. (2004). Contrasting effects of methionine sulfoximine on uptake and assimiliation of ammonium in Ulva intestinalis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 697-704.
Björnsäter, B.R. & Wheeler, P.A. (1983). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth and tissue composition of Ulva fenestrata and Enteromorpha intestinalis (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 603-611.
Björnsäter, B.R. & Wheeler, P.A. (1990). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth and tissue composition of Ulva fenestrata and Enteromrpha intestinalis (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 603-611, 5 figs, 4 tables.
Kostamo, K., Blomster, J., Korpelainen, H., Kelly, J., Maggs, C.A. & Mineur, F. (2008). New microsatellite markers for Ulva intestinalis (Chlorophyta) and the transferability of markers across species Ulvaceae. Phycologia 47: 580-587.
Shin, H.-W. & Smith, C.M. (1996). Impact of physical factors on periodic reproduction for Hawaiian algae Ulva fasciata Delile and Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link. Algae 11(3): 325-332, 2 figs, 4 tables.
Taylor, M.W., Barr, N.G., Grant, C.M. & Rees, T.A.V. (2006). Changes in amino acid composition of Ulva intestinalis (Chlorophyceae) following addition of ammonium or nitrate. Phycologia 45: 270-276.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 December 2018.

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