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Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Phyllophoraceae
Genus Gymnogongrus

Pictures

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Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus giffithisiae, upper subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2004, Ignacio Bárbara" . Ignacio Bárbara. © Igancio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus giffithisiae, lower intertidal, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2003, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Igancio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus giffithisiae, lower intertidal with Rhodothamniella floridula, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006, Ignacio Bárbara . Ignacio Bárbara. © Igancio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus giffithisiae, lower intertidal with Rhodothamniella floridula, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Igancio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
upper subtidal, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain, 2012. 01 Jan 0001. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus griffithsiae. Diameter of carpotetrasporangial outgrowths approx. 300 µm. Broadhaven, Pembrokeshire. 08 Jan 2012. Francis Bunker. © Francis Bunker.

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius
Gymnogongrus griffithsiae. Length approx. 3.5 cm. Broadhaven, Pembrokeshire. 08 Jan 2012. Francis Bunker. © Francis Bunker.

 

Sargassum droserifolium var. spathulatum Grunow

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius Gymnogongrus griffithsiae. Length approx. 3.5 cm. Broadhaven, Pembrokeshire
© Francis Bunker

Publication details
Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius 1833: 27

Published in: Martius, C.F.P. von (1833). Flora brasiliensis, seu, enumeratio plantarum in Brasilia: tam sua sponte quam accedente cultura provenientium, quas in itinere auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae Regis annis 1817-1820 peracto collegit, partim descripsit; alias a Maximiliano Seren. Principe Widensi, sellovio aliisque advectas addidit, communibus amicorum propriisque studiis secundum methodum naturalem dispositas et illustratas. Vol. I. Pars prior. Algae, lichenes, hepaticae exposuerunt Martius. Eschweilfr [sic]. Nees ab Esenbeck. pp. [i]-iv, [1]-390. Stuttgartiae & Tubingae [Stuttgart & Tübingen]: sumptibus J.G. Cottae.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Gymnogongrus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus griffithsiae Turner

Type information
Type locality: Chit Rocks, Sidmouth, Devon, England (Turner 1802: pl. 37). Lectotype: BM-K (Turner 1802: pl. 37). Notes: Devon (probably near Chit Rock, Sidmouth (Dixon & Irvine 1977: 219).

Eponomy
Named for Amelia Warren Griffiths (1768-1858), collector from Torquay, Devon, England.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus griffithsiae Turner 1808
Gigartina griffithsii (Turner) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Sphaerococcus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Agardh 1817
Polyides griffithsiae (Turner) Gaillon 1828
Ahnfeltia griffithsiae (Turner) Fries 1835
Chondrus griffithsiae (Turner) J.Agardh 1842
Tylocarpus griffithsiae (Turner) Kützing 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus tentaculatus Bertoloni 1818
Tylocarpus tentaculatus (Bertoloni) Kützing 1843
Gymnogongrus wulfenii Zanardini 1873
Actinococcus aggregatus F.Schmitz 1893

Nomenclatural notes
Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius 1828: 27 (Lewis & Womersley 1994: 269; Dixon & Irvine 1977: 219). In Index Nominum Algarum the date given is 1833: 27. - (30 Jun 2009) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
According to Lawson & John (1987) this species is "known as far south as Mauritanie (see Lawson & John, 1977).

Habitat notes
sand-covered rocks; upper to mid intertidal, in sites from sheltered to extremely wave-exposed (Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara, 2014). - (5 Aug 2014) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Description
Cartilaginous, cylindrical to compressed, brow-red to blackish purple fronds, to 75 mm high, from an expanded discoid base. Repeatedly dichotomous, fastigiate, with rounded, somewhat flattened apices.

Habitat
Epilithic, littoral in pools and emergent, upper sublittoral; tolerant of sand cover (Dixon & Irvine 1977: 219). On sand-covered rocks, lower intertidal, rare, widely distributed.

Similar species
Polyides rotundus from which it many be distinguished by the presence of a rhizoidal base, narrower branching angles (i.e. less fan-shaped), and that the fronds are brownish when held up to the light.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984, Pericás 1984), Britain (Newton 1931, Dixon & Irvine 1977, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016, Bunker et al. 2017), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981, Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977), France (Coppejans & Kling 1995, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2014, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987), Ireland (Adams 1908, Cotton 1912, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012, Bunker et al. 2017), Isla de Alborán (Conde & Flores Moya 2000), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Feoli & Bressan 1972, Edwards et al. 1975, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Furnari et al. 2003), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araujo et al. 2005, Araújo et al. 2009, Bárbara et al. 2012), Sardinia (Furnari et al. 2003), Spain (Sauvageau 1897, Hamel 1928, Miranda 1931, Bellón 1942, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Fernández, Niell & Anadón 1983, Gallardo et al. 1985, Soto & Conde 1989, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Conde et al. 1996, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Diaz Tapia et al. 2011), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Turkey (Europe) (Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Parente), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1929, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, John et al. 2004).

North America: Florida (FL) (Schneider & Searles 1991), Mexico (Caribbean) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), North Carolina (NC) (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), South Carolina (SC) (Schneider & Searles 1991).

Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola (Betancourt & Herrera-Moreno, 2001), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960), Trinidad & Tobago (Taylor 1960, Duncan & Lee Lum 2006).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Briani et al. 2018), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Colombia (Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Howe 1931 , Taylor 1960, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Egypt (Aleem 1993), Ghana (John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Moussa et al. 2018), Sierra Leone (John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Hoffman 2004, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Nguyen et al. 2013).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Lewis 1984, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Lewis & Womersley 1994), Victoria (Lewis & Womersley 1994).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Fuegia (Hariot 1889, Papenfuss 1964).

(as Actinococcus aggregatus F.Schmitz)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Ireland (Cotton 1912), Spain (Miranda 1931, Seoane-Camba 1965).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Diaz-Tapia, P. & Bárbara, I. (2014). Seaweeds from sand-covered rocks of the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Part 2. Palmariales, Ceramiales (excluding Rhodomelaceae), Gelidiales, Gigartinales, Plocamiales, Rhodymeniales and Scytothamniales. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(2): 157-199.

Dixon, P.S. & Irvine, L.M. (1977). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 1. Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-252, 90 figs. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Lewis, J.A. & Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). Family Phyllophoraceae Nägeli 1847: 248. In: The marine benthic flora of Southern Australia. Part III A. (Womersley, H.B.S. Eds), pp. 259-270. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Masuda, M., Kogame, K. & Guiry, M.D. (1996). Life history of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Phyllophoraceae, Gigartinales) from Ireland: implications for life history interpretation in the Rhodophyta. Phycologia 35: 421-434, 39 figs, 1 table.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8606 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Chemin, E. (1933). Sur la mode de reproduction de Gymnogongrus griffithsiae Mart. et de quelques espèces du même genre.. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 80: 755-770.
Cordeiro-Marino, M. & Poza, A.C. (1981). Life history of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius (Phyllophoraceae, Gigartinales). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 155-161.
Gregory, B.D. (1934). On the life history of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae Mart. and Ahnfeltia plicata Fries.. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 49: 531-551.
Kapraun, D.F., Dutcher, J.A., Bird, K.T. & Capecchi, M.F. (1993). Nuclear genome characterization and carrageenan analysis of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Rhodophyta) from North Carolina. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 99-107.
Masuda, M., Kogame, K. & Guiry, M.D. (1996). Life history of Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Phyllophoraceae, Gigartinales) from Ireland: implications for life history interpretation in the Rhodophyta. Phycologia 35: 421-434, 39 figs, 1 table.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 May 2019.

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