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Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Furcellariaceae
Genus Halarachnion

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006; surface view. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006; TS thallus. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006; TS thallus. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, TS thallus with cystocarp, Spain, Galicia, Ría de Arosa, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, Galicia, Spain, 2007; TS thallus. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
microscope, Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain; TS thallus. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing
with Cruoria rosea, microscope, Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

 

Cladophora hirta Kützing

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing microscope, Ría de Muros, Galicia, Spain, 2006; TS thallus
© Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es)

Publication details
Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing 1843: 394

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. Mit 80 farbig gedruckten Tafeln, gezeichnet und gravirt vom Verfasser. pp. [part 1]: [i]-xxxii, [1]-142, [part 2:] 143-458, 1, err.], pls 1-80. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Halarachnion.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Ulva ligulata Woodward

Type information
Type locality: Yarmouth and Cromer, Norfolk, U.K. (Dixon & Irvine 1977: 184). Lectotype: BM-K An undated, unlocalised specimen labelled ‘from Mr Woodward’ selected as provisional lectotype (Dixon & Irvine 1977: 184).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), ligulate (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva ligulata Woodward 1797
Dictyota ligulata (Woodward) S.F.Gray 1821
Halymenia ligulata (Woodward) C.Agardh 1822

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Halarachnion ligulatum var. dichotomum Harvey
Halarachnion ligulatum var. latifolium Harvey
Halarachnion ligulatum var. ramentaceum Harvey
Halymenia ligulata var. latifolia Unknown authority
Contarinia rosea P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1858
Halarachnion aciculare Kützing 1863
Cruoria rosea (P.Crouan & H.Crouan) P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1867
Halymenia ligulata f. acicularis (Kützing) Hauck 1883
Cruoria stilla Kuckuck 1897
Halarachnion ligulatum var. aciculare (Kützing) Van Heurck 1908

Habitat notes
Growing on living and dead maërl specimens and shells: depth range: 2-20 m (Peña & Bárbara 2010). - (4 May 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing)
English: Sea Spider Weed (Bunker et al. 2010).

Description
Gametophytes thin, filmy to subcartilaginous, deep brownish red, flattened fronds, 500 mm long, simple to much-divided with very narrow segments, arising from a small basal disc. Often marginally and superficially proliferous. Tetrasporophyte as known as the Cruoria rosea-phase and forms thin, rounded crusts on shells, stones and maerl fragments in the subtidal (to 30 m).

Habitat
Gametophytes are annual (most obvious in April-June) and occur on rock, stones, shells, and maerl in spring and early summer , shallow subtidal (0-8 m), widely distributed, frequent. Tetrasporophytes occur all year around.

Key characteristics
The gametophytes are filmy and delicate, and lack veins or frilly margins. Situation (shallow subtidal) and time of year (April-June) are helpful in making an identification.

Similar species
Another annual,Halymenia latifolia Kützing, is more delicate, is generally elongated tongue-like, occurs later in the year (July-November) and is rather rare on western and southern shores.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Knauss, M.E. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Vegetative and reproductive development of Halarachnion ligulatum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 24: 39-52.

Peña,V. & Bárbara, I. (2010). New records of crustose seaweeds associated with subtidal maërl beds and gravel bottoms in Galicia (NW Spain). Botanica marina 53: 41-62.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 08 February 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 6648 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Boillot, A. (1965). Sur l'alternance de générations héteromorphes d'une Rhodophycée, Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing (Gigartinales, Furcellariacées). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. 261: 4191-4193.
Boillot, A. (1972). Le cycle de l'Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing (Rhodophycée, Gigartinale). Soc Bot Fr Memoires : 275-292.
Deslandes, E., Floc'h, J.-Y. & Bodeau-Bellion, C. (1988). Evidence for kappa carrageenan in Halarachnion ligulatum. Phytochemistry 27: 278-279.
Knauss, M.E. & Hommersand, M.H. (1989). Vegetative and reproductive development of Halarachnion ligulatum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 24: 39-52.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 November 2018.

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