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Spongites fruticulosus Kützing

Publication details
Spongites fruticulosus Kützing 1841: 33

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1841). Über die "Polypieres calciféres" des Lamouroux. In: Zu der öffentlichen Prüfung sämmtlicher Classen der Realschule zu Nordhausen...1841. (Kützing, F.T. Eds), pp. 3-34. Nordhausen: Realschule.

Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Spongites.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), small and shrubby.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Melobesia fruticulosa (Kützing) Decaisne 1842
Lithothamnion fasciculatum f. fruticulosum (Kützing) Hauck 1883
Lithothamnion fruticulosum (Kützing) Foslie 1895
Paraspora fruticulosa (Kützing) Heydrich 1900

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Spongites fruticulosus f. clavulatus Foslie
Spongites fruticulosus f. crassiusculus Foslie
Lithothamnion ramulosum Philippi 1837
Spongites stalactiticus Kützing 1841
Spongites ramulosus (Philippi) Kützing 1869
Lithothamnion meneghianum Vinassa 1892
Lithothamnion fruticulosum f. ramulosa (Philippi) Foslie 1900
Goniolithon verrucosum Foslie 1900
Lithophyllum verrucosum (Foslie) Foslie 1901
Lithothamnion fruticulosum f. clavulatum Foslie 1901
Neogoniolithon verrucosum (Foslie) W.H.Adey 1970

Taxonomic notes
According to Woelkerling (1998: 269) it is possible that “.. some plants correctly referable to Lithothamnion fasciculatum (Lamarck) [Areschoug] have been erroneously associated with the misapplied Kützing epithet fruticulosum, originally described as Spongites fruticulosus Kützing”.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Occurring as rhodoliths on soft bottoms, in sediment composed of a mixture of biodetrital coarse fraction and terrigenous mud, sown to a depth of 75 m (Basso & Rodondi 2006: 404).

Type information
Type locality: Mediterranean Sea (Penrose 1996: 150). Lectotype: [Rösler et al. 2016: 421,fig. 2] (epitype) Rhodolith growing on another unidentified sterile coralline. L L943.8-134 (Penrose 1996: 150). Notes: Lectotypified with tetrasporangial plant by Basso & Rodondi (2006). Penrose in Womersley (1996: 277) gives the following data: type from Mediterranean Sea; holotype in L (943, 8-134) illustrated by Woelkerling (1985, figs 23-32) and Penrose (1991, figs 1-3). Epitype: specimen with herbarium voucher GDA61338 from the eastern coast of Spain; 19/10/2010/ Almería, Spain/Cala Chumba/5-10 m/A. Rösler.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Spongites fruticulosus Kützing)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Babbini & Bressan 1997), Apulia (Bottalico et al. 2016), Balearic Islands (Babbini & Bressan 1997, Joher et al. 2012), Corsica (Babbini & Bressan 1997), France (Babbini & Bressan 1997, Rösler et al. 2016, Anon. 2017), Greece (Babbini & Bressan 1997, Rösler et al. 2016), Italy (Cecere et al. 1996, Babbini & Bressan 1997, Babbini & Bressan 1997, Babbini & Bressan 1997, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Serio et al 2006, Basso & Rodondi 2006), Sardinia (Babbini & Bressan 1997), Spain (Ramos Esplá 1985, Conde et al. 1996, Rösler et al. 2016, Rösler et al. 2016), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Woelkerling et al. 1998), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004, Hernández-Kantún et al. 2017).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Tâmega et al. 2014).

Africa: Algeria (Babbini & Bressan 1997), Libya (Babbini & Bressan 1997), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Morocco (Babbini & Bressan 1997), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Babbini & Bressan 1997).

Indian Ocean Islands: Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Tsiamis et al. 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Turkey (Asia) (Basso & Rodondi 2006, Taskin et al. 2008).

Asia: Japan (Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Ringeltaube & Harvey 2000, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Penrose 1996), Victoria (Penrose 1996), Western Australia (Penrose & Woelkerling 1992, Penrose 1996).

(as Spongites ramulosus (Philippi) Kützing)
Europe: Greece (Athanasiadis 1987), Spain (Conde et al. 1996).

(as Lithothamnion fruticulosum (Kützing) Foslie)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980), Balearic Islands (Lemoine 1924, Buen 1934, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977), France (Anon. 2017), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974), Ireland (Anonymous 1898, Guiry 1978), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cinelli et al. 1976), Spain (Ballesteros 1983, Gallardo et al. 1985), Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

North America: Mexico (Dawson 1960).

Central America: Costa Rica (Fernández-García et al. 2011).

(as Lithothamnion fruticulosum f. ramulosa (Philippi) Foslie)
Europe: Greece (Diannelidis 1953).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Basso, D. & Rodondi, G. (2006). A Mediterranean population of Spongites fruticulosus (Rhodophyta, Corallinales), the type species of Spongites, and the taxonomic status of S. stalactitica and S. racemosa. Phycologia 45: 403-416.

Bressan, G. & Babbini, L. (2003). Biodiversità marina delle coste Italiane: Corallinales del Mar Mediterraneo: guida all deteminazione. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(Suppl. 2): 1-237.

Caragnano, A., Foetisch, A., Maneveldt, G.W., Millet, L., Liu, L.C., Lin, S.M., Rodondi, G. & Payri, C.E. (2018). Revision of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): recognizing Dawsoniolithon gen. nov., Parvicellularium gen. nov. and Chamberlainoideae subfam. nov. containing Chamberlainium gen. nov. and Pneophyllum. Journal of Phycology 54(3): 391-409.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Alongi, G. (2017). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Rhodophyta (Rhodymeniophycidae escluse). Bollettino Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania 50(380): 1-391, 53 pls.

Penrose, D. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1992). A reappraisal of Hydrolithon and its relationship to Spongites (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 81-88, 7 figs.

Penrose, D.L. (1996). Genus Spongites Kützing. In: The Marine benthic flora of South Australia. Rhodophyta. Part IIIB, Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. (Womersley, H.B.S. Eds), pp. 273-280. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Rösler, A., Perfectti, F., Peña, V. & Braga, J.C. (2016). Phylogenetic relationships of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): taxonomic implications for reef-building corallines. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 412-431.

Serio, D., Alongi, G., Catra, M., Cormaci, M. & Furnari, G. (2006). Changes in the benthic algal flora of Linosa Island (Straits of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 49: 135-144.

Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1-1259.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1985). A taxonomic reassessment of Spongites (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) based on studies of Kützing's original collections. British Phycological Journal 20: 123-153, 51 figs, 3 tables.

Created: 01 January 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 30 August 2018 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3060 times since it was created.

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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Basso, D. & Rodondi, G. (2006). A Mediterranean population of Spongites fruticulosus (Rhodophyta, Corallinales), the type species of Spongites, and the taxonomic status of S. stalactitica and S. racemosa. Phycologia 45: 403-416.
Penrose, D. (1991). Spongites fruticulosus (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta), the type species of Spongites, in southern Australia. Phycologia 30: 438-448, 24 figs.

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Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 January 2019.

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