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Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Charophyceae
Order Charales
Family Characeae
Tribe Chareae
Genus Chara

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Tylacanthous cortex, Pitsford Water, Nothamptonshire, UK. 01 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Antheridium in transmitted light showing manubria within. Pitsford Water, Northampton, UK, in shallow water.. 08 Oct 2014. © C.F. Carter(chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Red-cyan anaglyph; needs special glasses to see in 3D. Houghton Regis Chalk Pit (Marl Lakes) SSSI, Bedfordshire, UK.. 11 May 2013. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Houghton Regis Chalk Pit (Marl Lakes) SSSI, Bedfordshire, UK.. 11 May 2013. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Pitsford Water SSSI, Northampton, UK.. 01 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Antheridial shield cells deploying. Pitsford Water SSSI, Northampton, UK.. 01 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Red-cyan anaglyph showing tylacanthous cortex.Pitsford Water SSSI, Northampton, UK.. 01 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
Red-cyan anaglyph showing cortex in 3D. Pitsford Water SSSI, Northampton, UK.. 01 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing
© Anders Langangen (langangen@hotmail.com).

 

Phormidium subuliforme Gomont

Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing Red-cyan anaglyph; needs special glasses to see in 3D. Houghton Regis Chalk Pit (Marl Lakes) SSSI, Bedfordshire, UK.
© C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing 1845: 258

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1845). Phycologia germanica, d. i. Deutschlands Algen in bündigen Beschreibungen. Nebst einer Anleitung zum Untersuchen und Bestimmen dieser Gewächse für Anfänger. pp. [i]-x, [1]-340 ['240']. Nordhausen: zu finden bei Wilh. Köhne.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Chara is Chara vulgaris Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Chara Section Chara

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Chara vulgaris f. contraria (A.Braun ex Kützing) R.D.Wood 1962
Chara vulgaris var. contraria (A.Braun ex Kützing) J.A.Moore 1986

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Chara contraria f. subinermis A.Braun
Chara foetida var. moniliformis A.Braun 1834
Chara contraria var. hispidula A.Braun 1847
Chara contraria var. australis A.Braun 1852
Chara contraria f. hispidula (A.Braun) A.Braun 1882
Chara contraria f. robustior W.Migula 1892
Chara contraria f. macroptila W.Migula 1893
Chara contraria f. macroteles W.Migula 1925
Chara contraria f. crispata N.Filarszky 1931
Chara contraria f. clausa N.Filarszky 1931
Chara contraria f. stagnalis N.Filarszky 1931
Chara contraria var. saboiana A.G.Cunha 1935
Chara vulgaris f. hispidula (A.Braun) R.D.Wood 1962
Chara hispidula (A.Braun) R.D.Wood 1985
Chara vulgaris var. hispidula (A.Braun) J.A.Moore 1986

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Habitat
Normaly freshwater, but occationally in slightly brackish water.

Key characteristics
Monoecious. Small to high (1m). Normally ncrusted. Cortex regular ly 2-corticate, tylacanthous.

Similar species
Chara vulgaris

Type information
Germany: Carlsruhe (L) annotated "C. (foetida) contraria mihi" Braun; annotated "C.contraria, 21. Herb. Kütz." (From Wood & Imahori 1965) Holotype: 1839; L ( Notes: Lectotype April 9. 1958. R.D.Wood

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Chara contraria f. subinermis A.Braun)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Chara contraria A.Braun ex Kützing)
Europe: Austria (Schneider et al. 2015 ), Balearic Islands (Urrea-Clos 2004), Britain (Bryant & Stewart 2002, Whitton et al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), Bulgaria (Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008, Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008), Denmark (Langangen 2007), Finland (Langangen et. al. 2002), France (Hy 1913, Corillion 1957, Watterlot & Prey 2016, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Schneider et al. 2015, Herbst et al. 2018), Ireland (Langangen 2005), Nordic (Langangen 2007), Norway (Langangen 2007, Schneider et al. 2015), Poland (Boszke & Astel 2010), Portugal (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Urbaniak & Gabka 2014), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Russia (Europe) (Patova, Sterlyagova & Shabalina 2014, Romanov et al. 2018), Scandinavia (Karlason et al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016, Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Slovenia (Vrhovsek et al. 2006), Spain (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Sweden (Langangen 2007).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Saunders 1901), Canada (Schneider et al. 2015), Florida (FL) (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Great Lakes (Prescott 1962).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985, Vouilloud et al 2007).

South-west Asia: Iran (Ahmadi et al. 2012), Israel (Romanov & Barinova 2012).

Asia: China (Hu & Wei 2006), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015).

(as Chara contraria var. hispidula A.Braun)
Europe: Europe (Raam 2010), France (Anon. 2017), Germany (Wood 1965, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003), Norway (Langangen 2007), Sweden (Wood 1965).

(as Chara contraria f. robustior W.Migula)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Chara contraria f. macroptila W.Migula)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Chara contraria f. macroteles W.Migula)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Chara vulgaris f. contraria (A.Braun ex Kützing) R.D.Wood)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

North America: Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995).

(as Chara vulgaris var. contraria (A.Braun ex Kützing) J.A.Moore)
Europe: France (Anon. 2017).

South-west Asia: India (Gupta 2012).

(as Chara vulgaris var. hispidula (A.Braun) J.A.Moore)
Europe: Spain (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998).

Key references
Ahmadi, A., Sheidai, A.M., H. Riahi, H. & Van Raam, J.C. (2012). Some Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) from central and western of Iran including Chara kohrangiana species nova. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(4): 359-390. [in English]

Bazzichelli, G. & Abdelahad, N. (2009). Alghe d'acqua dolce d'Italia. Flora analitica delle Caroficee. pp. [i-viii], [1]-73, [Index]. Roma: Sapienza, Università di Roma.

Borisova, O.V. (2015 '2014'). Charales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 454-465. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Braun, A. (1847). Uebersicht der Schweizerischen Characeen. Ein Beitrag zur Flora der Schweiz. Neue Denkschr. Schweiz. Ges. Naturw. 10 (1849): 1-23.

Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cirujano, S, Cambra, J., Sánchez Castillo, P.M., Meco, A. & Flor Arnau, N. (2008). Flora ibérica algas continentales. Carófitos (Characeae). pp. [1]-132, 125 figs. Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico.

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Hy, F., (1913). Les Characées de France. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 60 (Mémoires 26): 1-47, pls. I-III.

Muller, S, D., Rhazi, L. & Soulie-Märsche, I. (2017). Diversity and distribution of Characeae in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). Crytogamie Algologie 38(3): 201-251.

Romanov, R.E. (2015). Chara inconnexa Allen (Streptophyta: Charales) and taxonomic ambiguities associated with subgymnophyllous species close to C. contraria A. Braun ex Kütz. s. str.. Cryptogamie Algologie 36(4): 371-388.

Schneider, S.C., Rodrigues, A., Moe, T.F. & Ballot, A. (2015). DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach. Journal of Phycology 51(2): 367-380.

Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. [1]-120. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.

Vouilloud, A.A., Caceres, E.J. & Leonardi, P.I. (2007). Amitosis, including nucleolar behaviour during fragmentation, in both axial and corticating cells of Chara contraria (Charales, Charophyta). Phycologia 46: 178-186.

Watterlot, A. & Prey, T. (2016). Inventaire des Characées sur le territoire picard (Aisne, Oise et Somme): Évaluation patrimoniale. Version No. 2, décembre 2016. pp. [1]-30, Annexe, 31-56 [Maps]. Bailleul: Centre régional de phytosociologie. Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 10 March 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3963 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Grant, M.C. & Proctor, V.W. (1971). Chara vulgaris and C. contraria: Patterns of reproductive isolation for two cosmopolitan species complexes. Evolution. 26(2): 267-281.
Jin, Q. & Hasenstein, K.H. (2009). Cytoskeletal control of sperm release in Chara contraria. Botanica Marina 52(2): 162-169, 19 figs.
Romanov, R.E. (2015). Chara inconnexa Allen (Streptophyta: Charales) and taxonomic ambiguities associated with subgymnophyllous species close to C. contraria A. Braun ex Kütz. s. str.. Cryptogamie Algologie 36(4): 371-388.
Vouilloud, A.A., Caceres, E.J. & Leonardi, P.I. (2007). Amitosis, including nucleolar behaviour during fragmentation, in both axial and corticating cells of Chara contraria (Charales, Charophyta). Phycologia 46: 178-186.
Vouilloud, A.A., Leonardi, P.I. & Caceres, E.J. (2012). Ultrastructure of male gametogenesis in Chara contraria var. nitelloides (Charales, Charophyceae) revisited: a model for a better characterization of the process in Charales. Phycologia 51(3): 239-246.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 April 2019.

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