154,548 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,106 images, 59,782 bibliographic items, 419,596 distributional records.

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Dictyotophycidae
Order Sphacelariales
Family Sphacelariaceae
Genus Sphacelaria

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
recolectada en la zona Sur del Macizo Guamuhaya. Detalle de filamentos con propágulos característicos de la especie. Foto: Ángel Moreira..

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Hawaii; propagule; scale 50 mm. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Saboga-Las Perlas. Panama. In situ long coarse filamentous tufts. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Saboga-Las Perlas. Panama. Habit of filamentous tufts on monofilament fishing line; Sphacelaria rigidula coarser tufts and, Kuetzingiella elachistaeformis the finer shorter filaments. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Panama. Two armed propagules developing laterally on multiseriate filament. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Panama. Pad-like holdfast. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Panama. Propagule with 2 cylindrical arms having little or no taper. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Saboga-Las Perlas, Panama. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia.. John Huisman. © John Huisman (j.huisman@murdoch.edu.au).

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing
From Littler, D.S., M.M. Littler & M.D. Hanisak (2008) Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon. Purchase information. Diane Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

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Porphyra umbilicalis f. linearis (Greville) Børgesen

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing Saboga-Las Perlas, Panama
© Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu)

Publication details
Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing 1843: 292

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. Mit 80 farbig gedruckten Tafeln, gezeichnet und gravirt vom Verfasser. pp. [part 1]: [i]-xxxii, [1]-142, [part 2:] 143-458, 1, err.], pls 1-80. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Sphacelaria is Sphacelaria reticulata Lyngbye.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Propagulifera Section Furcigera

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), somewhat rigid (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Sphacelaria divaricata Montagne 1849
Sphacelaria furcigera Kützing 1855
Sphacelaria variabilis Sauvageau 1901
Sphacelaria iridaeophytica Nagai 1932
Sphacelaria caespitosa Takamatsu 1943
Sphacelaria linearis Takamatsu 1943
Sphacelaria apicalis Takamatsu 1943
Sphacelaria expansa Noda 1969
Sphacelaria iwagaskensis Noda 1970

Taxonomic notes
According to Silva et al. (1996) the taxon Sphacelaria furcigera var. princeps apparently lies within the circumspection of this species but has not yet been transferred or reduced to synonymy.

Habitat notes
Widespread in warm and temperate seas. Usually on Sargassum and Turbinaria, forming dense velvety growths on the stalks, at times intermingled with, but less abundant than, S. tribuloides; also on Padina boergesenii and lithophytic (Lipkin & Silva 2002). Epilithic in rock pools and epiphytic on larger algae (especially Caulocystis uvifera; also on Cystoseira and on Cladostephus) and on seagrasses (Womersely 1987). - (14 Jun 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Sphacelaria variabilis Sauvageau)
Japanese: Matazaki-kurogashira (Tokida 1954).

Type information
Type locality: Nuweiba, Sinai, Red Sea (Lipkin & Silva 2002: 41). Holotype: W. Schimper; L 937.117.229 (Prud'homme van Reine 1982: 203). Notes: On Hormophysa cuneiformis (as Cystoseira triquetra) (Lipkin & Silva 2002). Womersley (1987: 166) gives the following data: Type from Red Sea, on Hormophysa triquetra (Schimper); Holotype in L, 937, 117...229; isotype in W, 19682.

No distributions recorded
No distributional records for this taxon have been recorded by AlgaeBase to date. Generally, recent national lists or extensive regional or state lists have been employed to give a general indication of distribution.

(as Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Ribera et al. 1992), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Belgium (Prud'homme van Reine 1982), Britain (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016), Corsica (Ribera et al. 1992), Denmark (Prud'homme van Reine 1982), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Ribera et al. 1992, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Greece (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Ribera et al. 1992, Tsirika & Haritonidis 2005, Tsiamis et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2013), Helgoland (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Guiry 2012), Italy (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Ribera et al. 1992, Ribera et al. 1992, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Serio et al 2006), Malta (Cormaci et al. 1997), Netherlands (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997), Norway (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Araújo et al. 2009, Bárbara et al. 2012), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Fuertes Lasala & Gómez-Menor Robles 1981, Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Gallardo et al. 1985, Ballesteros, Perera & Puchades 1986, Soto & Conde 1989, Rull Lluch & Gómez Garreta 1990, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Ribera et al. 1992, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Cremades, Bárbara, Granja & Veiga 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Bárbara et al. 2006, Peña & Bárbara 2006, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Díaz et al 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Bárbara et al. 2012), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Prud'homme van Reine 1982), Turkey (Europe) (Ribera et al. 1992, Taskin et al. 2008 ), Yugoslavia (Prud'homme van Reine 1982).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (John et al. 2004), Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994, Parente), Bermuda (Schneider & Searles 1991, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Faroe Islands (Prud'homme van Reine 1982), Madeira (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Parente et al. 2000, John et al. 2004).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Wynne 1987, Scagel et al. 1989, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), California (CA) (Scagel et al. 1989, Stewart 1991, Miller 2012), Florida (FL) (Schneider & Searles 1991, Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Manitoba (Saunders & McDevit 2013), Mexico (Caribbean) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017, Nava-Olvera et al. 2017), North Carolina (NC) (Schneider & Searles 1991), Oregon (OR) (Hansen 1997), Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018), Texas (TX) (Wynne 2009), Washington (WA) (Scagel et al. 1989).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2008), Veracruz (State) (Robinson, Galicia-García & Okolodkov 2012).

Caribbean Islands: Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Suárez 2005, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2011), St. Eustatius (van der Loos & Prud'homme van Reine 2015, van der Loos et al. 2017), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Villaca et al. 2010 , Menezes Széchy & Paula 2010), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Ribera et al. 1992, Ould-Ahmed et al. 2013), Angola (John et al. 2004), Benin (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968), Egypt (Mediterranean) (Shabaka 2018), Eritrea (Lipkin & Silva 2002), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Mauritius (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Moussa et al. 2018), Nigeria (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Spanish North Africa (González García, Paredes Ruiz & Enrique Mirón 2017), Sudan (Osman & Mohammed 2016), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Ribera et al. 1992).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Krishnamurthy & Baluswami 2010), Diego Garcia Atoll (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Krishnamurthy & Baluswami 2010, Rao & Gupta 2015), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Prud'homme van Reine 1982, Hoffman 2004, Einav 2007, Hoffman et al. 2014), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Al-Yamani et al. 2014), Levant states (Ribera et al. 1992), Oman (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Wynne 2018), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Aisha & Shameel 2012), Saudi Arabia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Syria (Prud'homme van Reine 1982), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Yemen (Papenfuss 1968 ).

Asia: China (Draisma, Keum, Prud'homme van Reine & Lokhorst 1998, Luan Rixiao et al. 2013), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2016), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Titlyanov et al 2006, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Keum 2010), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Thailand (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Tsutsui et al. 2012), Vietnam (Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2009), New South Wales (Womersley 1987), New Zealand (Harper et al. 2012), Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1987), Victoria (Womersley 1987, Kraft 2009), Western Australia (Womersley 1987, Huisman & Walker 1990, Huisman & Borowitzka 2003, Kraft 2009, Huisman 2015).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (N'Yeurt & Payri 2006), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Abbott & Huisman, 2004, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007, Vroom & Timmers 2009), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), New Caledonia (Payri 2007), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014), Samoa (Skelton & South 2007), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999), Wake Atoll (Ysuda et al. 2010).

(as Sphacelaria divaricata Montagne)
Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2008).

Asia: China (Draisma, Keum, Prud'homme van Reine & Lokhorst 1998, Liu 2008, Luan Rixiao et al. 2013), Japan (Yoshida 1998), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Cho, Lee & Boo 2004), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010).

(as Sphacelaria furcigera Kützing)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978), Britain (Newton 1931), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977), France (Feldmann & Magne 1964), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Diapoulis, Haritonidis & Koussouris 1986), Ireland (Guiry 1978), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Edwards et al. 1975, Cinelli et al. 1976), Spain (Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 1991), Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980), Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1978, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980), Cape Verde Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Gough Island (Chamberlain 1965).

North America: California (CA) (Silva 1957, Abbott & Hollenberg 1976), Connecticut (CT) (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Florida (FL) (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960), Gulf of California (Dawson 1944), Isla Guadalupe (Setchell & Gardner 1930), Massachusetts (MA) (Taylor 1957), North Carolina (NC) (Taylor 1960), Virginia (VA) (Humm 1979).

Central America: Costa Rica (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Brazil (Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997), Colombia (Schnetter 1969, Schnetter 1976), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Taylor 1960).

Africa: Angola (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Benin (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Cameroon (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993), Gabon (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Gambia (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Ghana (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Liberia (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Mauritania (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Mauritius (Børgesen 1941), Sierra Leone (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Sudan (Papenfuss 1968), Togo (Price, John & Lawson 1978), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2009), Iran (Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Papenfuss 1968, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984), Japan (Okamura 1936), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969).

Australia and New Zealand: Northern Territory (Womersley 1958).

Pacific Islands: Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Magruder & Hunt 1979), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957), Solomon Islands (Womersley & Bailey 1970).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctica/Subantarctic Islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Sphacelaria variabilis Sauvageau)
South America: Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Adams 1994, Nelson & Phillips 1996).

(as Sphacelaria iridaeophytica Nagai)
Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphacelaria caespitosa Takamatsu)
Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphacelaria linearis Takamatsu)
Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphacelaria apicalis Takamatsu)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphacelaria expansa Noda)
Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphacelaria iwagaskensis Noda)
Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Key references
Aisha, K. & Shameel, M. (2012). Taxonomy of the genus Sphacelaria Lyngb. (Phaeophycota) from the coast of Pakistan. International Journal on Algae 14: 247-264.

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Catra, M., Alongi, G. & Giaccone, G. (2012). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Phaeophyceae. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia 45: 1-508.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Keum, Y.-S. (2010). Sphacelariales, Cutleriales, Ralfsiales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 2, Number 2. Heterokontophyta: Phaeophyceae: Ishigeales, Dictyotales, Desmarestiales, Sphacelariales, Cutleriales, Ralfisales, Laminariales. (Anon. Eds), pp. 19-69. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kraft, G.T. (2009). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 2. Brown algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-364, 107 figs. Erratum of fig. 73 from vol. 1. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study and CSIRO Publishing.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Luan Rixiao, Ding Lanping, Lu Baoren & Tseng, C.K. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus III Phaeophyta No. I(1) Ectocarpales Ralfsiales Sphaceariales Dictyotales. pp. [i]-xxii, 1-195, pls I-XXII. Beijing: Science Press. [in Chinese]

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedroche, P.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar Rosas, R. (2008). Catálogo de las algas benthónicas del Pacífico de México II. Phaeophycota. pp. [i-viii], i-vi, 15-146. Mexicali & Berkeley: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California; University of California Berkeley.

Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. (1982). A taxonomic revision of the European Sphacelariaceae (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae). Leiden Botanical Series 6: [i-x], 1-293, 660 figs, XXI tables, 6 pls.

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1987). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part II. pp. 481, 169 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 4 maps. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 7247 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Dimitriadis, I., Katsaros, C. & Galatis, B. (2001). The effect of taxol on centrosome function and microtubule organization in apical cells of Sphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 49: 23-34.
Karyophyllis, D., Katsaros, C. & Galatis, B. (2000). F-actin involvement in apical cell morphogenesis of Sphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae): mutual alignment between cortical actin filaments and cellulose microfibrils. European Journal of Phycology 35: 195-203, 23 figs.
Karyophyllis, D., Katsaros, C., Dimitriadis, I. & Galatis, B. (2000). F-Actin organization during the cell cycle of Sphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 35: 25-33, 12 figs.
Keum, Y.-S., Oak, J.H., Draisma, S.G.A., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. & Lee, I.K. (2005). Taxonomic reappraisal of Sphacelaria rigidula and S. fusca (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae) based on morphology and molecular data with special reference to S. didichotoma. Algae 20(1): 1-13, 31 figs, 1 table.
Tamura, H., Mine, I. & Okuda, K. (1996). Cellulose-synthesizing terminal complexes and microfibril structure in the brown alga Sphacelaria rigidula (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 44(1): 63-68.
Ten Hoopen, A. (1983). Effects of daylength and irradiance on the formation of reproductive organs in two algae: Acrosymphyton purpuriferum (J.Ag) Sjöst. (Rhodophyceae) and Sphacelaria rigidula Kütz. (Phaeophyceae). : 1-87.
ten Hoopen, A., Bos, S. & Breeman, A.M. (1983). Photoperiodic response in ther formation of gametangia of the long-day plant Sphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae). Marine Ecology Progress Series 13: 285-289.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 February 2019.

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