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Fucus distichus Linnaeus

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Fucales
Family Fucaceae
Genus Fucus

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
The mingling of marine and terrestrial: Fucus distichus and a terrestrial grass on the mudflats of Tofino, British Columbia. 24 Oct 2014. Bridgette Clarkston. © 2014 Bridgette Clarkston.

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
False Klamath Cove, Del Norte County, California, USA; mid intertidal; juvenile. 04 Apr 2007. Courtnay Hermann. © Courtnay Janiak (theseaweedknot@hotmail.com).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
False Klamath Cove, Del Norte County, California, USA; mid intertidal; juvenile. 04 May 2007. Courtnay Hermann. © Courtnay Janiak (theseaweedknot@hotmail.com).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; reproductive intertidal plants on rock. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; reproductive intertidal plants on rock. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; reproductive intertidal plants on rock. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; reproductive intertidal plants on rock; 16-mm lens. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; reproductive intertidal plants on rock; 16-mm lens. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Fucus distichus Linnaeus
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; intertidal zone in Vancouver Harbour. 04 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Fucus distichus Linnaeus Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; intertidal zone in Vancouver Harbour
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Fucus distichus Linnaeus 1767: 716

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. Editio duodecima, reformata. pp. 533-1327 [1328] [+ 1-36]. Homiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Fucus is Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), arranged in two opposite rows (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Virsodes distichum (Linnaeus) Kuntze 1891

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus evanescens var. cuneatus Unknown authority
Fucus evanescens var. ecostatus Unknown authority
Fucus evanescens var. oregonensis Unknown authority
Fucus furcatus f. angustus Unknown authority
Fucus furcatus f. elongatus Unknown authority
Fucus furcatus f. luxurians Unknown authority
Fucus linearis Oeder 1767
Fucus furcatus C.Agardh 1820
Fucus fuecii Bachelot de la Pylaie 1830
Fucus miclonensis Bachelot de la Pylaie 1830
Fucus distichus var. robustior J.Agardh 1868
Fucus distichus var. tenuior J.Agardh 1868
Fucus distichus var. miclonensis (De La Pylaie) Kleen 1874
Fucus distichus f. robustior (J.Agardh) Kjellman 1883
Fucus distichus f. tenuior (J.Agardh) Kjellman 1883
Virsodes furcatum Kuntze 1891
Fucus inflatus var. linearis (Oeder) Rosenvinge 1893
Fucus inflatus f. distichus (Linnaeus) Børgesen 1902
Fucus inflatus f. linearis (Oeder) Børgesen 1902
Fucus fuecii f. elenkinii E.S.Sinova 1922
Fucus fuecii f. ruprechtii E.S.Sinova 1922
Fucus nitens N.L.Gardner 1922
Fucus furcatus f. typicus N.L.Gardner 1922
Fucus fuecii f. typicus E.S.Sinova 1922
Fucus gardneri P.C.Silva 1953

Taxonomic notes
See Rice & Chapman (1985).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Fucus distichus Linnaeus)
English: Two-headed Wrack (Bunker et al. 2010).

(as Fucus gardneri P.C.Silva)
English: Popweed (Garza 2005).

Type information
Type locality: Unspecified (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 901). Type: LINN No. 56 (Powell 1957: 413).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

De Toni, G.B. (1895). Sylloge algarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Vol. III. Fucoideae. Vol. 3 pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-638. Patavii [Padua]: Sumptibus auctoris.

Harvey, W.H. (1864). The Kilkee Fucus. Popular Science Review 3: 389.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Petrov, J.E. (1965). Fucus distichus L. emend. Powell et Fucus evanescens C. Ag. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum non Vascularium 2: 64-70.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Zinova, A.D. (1953). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Manual for identification of the brown algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-224. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 14064 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Ang, P.O. (1991). Natural dynamics of a Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta, Fucales) population: reproduction and recruitment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78: 71-85.
Ang, P.O., Jr & De Wreede, R.E. (1993). Simulation and analysis of the dynamics of a Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) population. Marine Ecology Progress Series 93: 253-265.
Bird, N.L. & McLachlan, J. (1976). Control of formation of receptacles in Fucus distichus L. subsp. distichus (Phaeophyceae, Fucales). Phycologia 15: 79-84.
Bisgrove, S.R., Nagasato, C., Motomura, T. & Kropf, D.L. (1997). Immunolocalization of centrin during fertilization and the first cell cycle in Fucus distichus and Pelvetia compressa (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 33: 823-829, 18 figs.
Brawley, S.H. & Quatrano, R.S. (1979). Effects of microtubule inhibitors on pronuclear migration and embryogenesis in Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 15: 266-272.
Carruthers, W. (1863). Fucus distichus Linn. as an Irish plant. 1: 353-355.
Coleman, M.A. & Brawley, S.H. (2005). Variability in temperature and historical patterns in reproduction in the Fucus distichus complex (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae): implications for speciation and the collection of herbarium specimens. Journal of Phycology 41: 1110-1119.
Edelstein, T. & McLachlan, J. (1975). Autecology of Fucus distichus ssp. distichus (Phaeophyceae: Fucales) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Biology, Berlin 30: 305-324.
Harvey, W.H. (1866). Notice of the discovery of Fucus distichus L. at Duggerna, County Clare, Ireland. Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 8(1-4): 53-54.
Kim, K.Y. & Garbary, D.J. (2009). Form, function and longevity in fucoid thalli: chlorophyll a fluorescence differentiation pf Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and F. distichus (Phaeophyceae. Algae 24(2): 93-104, 15 figs.
Kloareg, B. & Quatrano, R. S. (1987). Enzymatic removal of the cell walls from zygotes of Fucus distichus (L.) Powell (Phaeophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 123-129.
McLachlan, J. (1974). Effects of temperature and light on growth and development of embryos of Fucus edentatus and F. distichus ssp. distichus. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 943-951.
Motomura, T. & Nagasato, C. (2009). Functional and non-functional spindle formation affecting mitosis and cytokinesis in Fucus distichus zygotes: the role of the centrosome. Botanica Marina 52(2): 140-149, 38 figs.
Motomura, T. (1995). Premature chromosome condensation of the karyogamy-blocked sperm pronucleus in the fertilization of Fucus distichus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 108-113, 15 figs.
Nagasato, C., Motomura, T. & Ichimura, T. (2000). Parthenogenesis and abnormal mitosis in unfertilized eggs of Fucus distichus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) (Research Note). Phycologia 39: 163-166.
Nagasato, C., Terauchi, M., Tanaka, A. & Motomura, T. (2015). Development and function of plasmodesmata in zygotes of Fucus distichus. Botanica Marina 58(3): 229-238.
Pearson, G.A. & Davison, I.R. (1994). Freezing stress and osmotic dehydration in Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta): evidence for physiological similarity. Journal of Phycology 30: 257-267, 7 figs, 1 table.
Petrov, J.E. (1965). Fucus distichus L. emend. Powell et Fucus evanescens C. Ag. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum non Vascularium 2: 64-70.
Pollock, E.G. (1969). Effect of 17 B-estradiol on early cleavage patterns in the embryo of Fucus distichus. Experientia 25: 1073-1075.
Powell, H.T. & Lewis, J.R. (1952). Occurence of Fucus inflatus L. forma distichus Börgesen on the North Coast of Scotland. Nature, London 169: 508, 509.
Powell, H.T. (1957). Studies in the genus Fucus L. I. Fucus distichus L. emend. Powell. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 36: 407-432.
Powell, H.T. (1957). Studies in the genus Fucus L. II. Distribution and ecology of forms of Fucus distichus L. emend. Powell in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 36: 663-693.
Powell, H.T. (1963). New records of Fucus distichus subspecies for the Shetland and Orkney Islands. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 247-254.
Powell, H.T. (1981). The occurrence of Fucus distichus subsp. edentatus in Macduff harbour, Scotland — the first record for mainland Britain. British Phycological Journal 16: 139.
Quatrano, R. S., Hogsett, W. S. & Roberts, M. (1979). Localization of a sulfated polysaccharide in the rhizoid wall of Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae) zygotes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 113-123.
Rice, E.L. & Chapman, A.R.O. (1985). A numerical taxonomic study of Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 65: 433-459.
Rueter, J.G. & Robinson, D.H. (1986). Inhibition of carbon uptake and stimulation of nitrate uptake at low salinities in Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 22: 243-246.
Russell, G. (1974). Fucus distichus communities in Shetland. J. Appl. Ecol. 11: 679-684.
Schonbeck, M. & Norton, T.A. (1981). Growth forms of Fucus distichus in the San Juan Islands of Washington State. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 475-483.
Sideman, E.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (1983). The growth, reproductive phenology, and longevity of non-tide-pool Fucus distichus (L.) Powell in New England. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 68: 111-127.
Sideman, E.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (1985). Morphological variation within and between natural populations of non-tide pool Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta) in New England. Journal of Phycology 21: 250-257, 10 figs, 3 tables.
Strömgren, T. (1985). Effect of light on apical length growth of Fucus distichus ssp. edentatus (Phaeophyta).. Marine Biology, Berlin 86: 263-269.
Thom, R.M. (1983). Spatial and temporal patterns of Fucus distichus ssp. edentatus (de la Pyl.) Pow. (Phaeophyceae: Fucales) in central Puget Sound. Botanica Marina 26: 471-486.
Thomas, T.E. & Turpin, D.H. (1980). Desiccation enhanced nutrient uptake rates in the intertidal alga Fucus distichus. Botanica Marina 23: 479-481.
Thomas, T.E., Harrison, P.J. & Taylor, E.B. (1985). Nitrogen uptake and growth of the germlings and mature thalli of Fucus distichus. Marine Biology, Berlin 84: 267-274.
Van Alstyne, K.L. (1990). Effects of wounding by the herbivorous snails Littorina sitkana and L. scutulata (Mollusca) on growth and reproduction of the intertidal alga Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 412-416, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Vreeland, V. (1972). Immunocytochemical localization of the extracellular polysaccharide alginic acid in the brown seaweed, Fucus distichus. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 20: 358-367.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 September 2018.

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