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Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Charophyceae
Order Charales
Family Characeae
Genus Nitella

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Collected by Claudia Ferguson-Smyth, Isle of Lewis. 15 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Fertile branch. Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Branch with antheridia.Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Spermatozoidal filaments. Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Composite image showing size. Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Antheridial shield cells. Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Antheridium. Collected by Claudia Ferguson-Smyth, Isle of Lewis. 15 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Oogonium. Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Collected by Nick Stewart, Loch Druidibeg, South Uist.. 28 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi
Oogonium. Collected by Claudia Ferguson-Smyth, Isle of Lewis,. 15 Aug 2016. © C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com).

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Staurastrum sinuatum Borge

Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi Collected by Claudia Ferguson-Smyth, Isle of Lewis
© C.F. Carter (chris.carter at 6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi 1863: 146

Published in: Leonhardi, H. von (1863). Weitere Characeen-Fundorte. Lotos 13: 129-132, 145-148.

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Nitella is Nitella opaca (C.Agardh ex Bruzelius) C.Agardh.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Nitella gracilis var. confervacea Brébisson

Type information
Lectotype locality: Argentan (probably Etang de Vrigny) (Gregor et al. 2012: 394 (Table 1), 393). Lectotype: Brébisson; 1837; PC 0719925 (Gregor et al. 2012: 394 (Table 1)). Notes: Lectotype: Specimen is labeled (1) "Herb. G. Thuret/Brébisson dedit 1850/ Nitella gracilis V. confervacea/Argentan Jt. 1837" and (2) " Herbier Museum Paris Cryptogamie PC0719925".

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Tieffallania Section Gioallenia

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Nitella gracilis var. confervacea Brébisson 1849
Nitella gracilis f. confervacea Brébisson ex Leonhardi 1863

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Chara batrachosperma H.G.L.Reichenbach 1830
Nitella batrachosperma A.Braun 1847
Nitella anomala J.Wallman 1853
Nitella tenuissima var. brebissonii (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Brébisson 1859
Nitella nordstedtiana H.Groves & J.Groves 1890
Nitella batrachosperma f. maxima W. Migula 1890
Nitella batrachosperma f. fallax Migula 1897
Nitella batrachosperma f. minor Migula 1897
Nitella confervacea subsp. chevallieri F.Hy 1905
Nitella confervacea subsp. harioti F.Hy 1905
Nitella confervacea subsp. nordstedti F.Hy 1905
Nitella confervacea f. brebissoni F.Hy 1905
Nitella confervacea subsp. renovi F.Hy 1905
Nitella confervacea subsp. brebissonii (A. Braun) ex Brébisson) Hy 1905
Nitella renovii (Hy) Hy 1914
Nitella nordstedtii (Hy) Hy 1914
Nitella nordstedtti (Hy) Hy 1914
Nitella brebissonii (A. Braun ex Brébisson) Hy 1914
Nitella gracilis subsp. leptosoma var. nordstedtiana ( H.Groves & J.Groves) R.D.Wood 1962

Taxonomic notes
Nitella confervacea can be confused with small specimens of N. mucronata, N. wahlbergiana and N. gracilis. N. mucronata has reticulate oospore-membrane. N. wahlbergiana has the gametangia on the second furcation and branchlets in heads. The oospore-membrane is granulate. N. gracilis do not have branchlets in heads. The oospore-membrane is granulate. Dactyls are 3- celled. - (26 Sep 2009) -

= N batrachosperma (Thuill. acc. Reich) A. Br. (cf. Gregor et al., 2012) (Muller et al., 2017: 231). - (6 Nov 2017) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
According to Gregor et al. (2012), the "Least stonewort" occurs over a huge area on the Northern Hemisphere covering North America, Europe, North Africa, and Asia (Wood, 1965); in Europe it is generally rare and its natural sites have greatly diminished (Blazencic et al., 2006; Schmidt et al., 1996) but it responds well to the conditions in newly formed water bodies (e.g. parts of Germany). - (7 Oct 2014) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Forms carpets in shallow waters (down to 2 m), often covered by sediment and mud; oligotrophic ponds and lake, where it can be associated with other Nitella (Muller et al., 2017). - (6 Nov 2017) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Common names

(as Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi)
English: Least Stonewort (Stewart & Church 1992).

Description
This is the most tiny and delicate charophyte in the area. The plants are up to 4 cm high and dark green. It is commonly rich branched and the whorls are often forming small heads. The axis is less than 300 µm in diameter. The 6-8 branchlets in each whorl are repeatedly divided. The dactyls are 2-celled with tapering end-cells. The species is monoecious. The gametangia are regularly on the first branchlet furcations. The oogonium is yellow brown to black, up to 450 µm long and has prominent ridges and granulate membrane. The antheridium is up to 250 µm in diameter. The plants are often covered by soft sediment and therefore difficult to find. It is often found by coincidence.

Habitat
Nitella confervacea is found in different types of waters, from small ponds to lakes. The lakes can be of different types from, both oligotrophic (Lobelia-lakes) and mesotrophic (Potamogeton- lakes). It is also found in slightly brackish water in the Baltic Sea and in Drammensfjorden in Norway. It is found in shallow water, down to a depth of 40-50 cm. N. confervacea is annular. It is generally richly fertile, and fertile plants are found from July. Ripe oospores are found from August onwards.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Detailed conservation status with sources
(as Nitella confervacea (Brébisson) A.Braun ex Leonhardi)
Data Deficient: (Stewart & Church 1992)

Key references
Borisova, O.V. (2015 '2014'). Charales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 454-465. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cambra Sánchez, J., Álvarez Cobelas, M. & Aboal Sanjurjo, M. (1998). Lista florística y bibliográfica de los clorófitos (Chlorophyta) de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares e Islas Canarias. pp. 1-614. Burgos: Asociación Española de Limnología.

Gregor, T., Raabe, U. & Van Raam, J. (2012). Typification of Nitella gracilis (Sm.) C.Agardh var. confervacea Brébisson (= N. confervacea (Brébisson) A. Braun ex Leonhardi) with remarks on its nomenclatural history. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(4): 391-398.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hy, F., (1913). Les Characées de France. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 60 (Mémoires 26): 1-47, pls. I-III.

Moore, J.A. (1986). Charophytes of Great Britain and Ireland. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 5. Illustrated by Margaret Tebbs. Distribution maps prepared by Dorothy Green. pp. [i-ii], 1-140, 26 figs, 17 maps. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Muller, S, D., Rhazi, L. & Soulie-Märsche, I. (2017). Diversity and distribution of Characeae in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). Crytogamie Algologie 38(3): 201-251.

Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. [1]-120. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.

Watterlot, A. & Prey, T. (2016). Inventaire des Characées sur le territoire picard (Aisne, Oise et Somme): Évaluation patrimoniale. Version No. 2, décembre 2016. pp. [1]-30, Annexe, 31-56 [Maps]. Bailleul: Centre régional de phytosociologie. Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 August 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3268 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Gregor, T., Raabe, U. & Van Raam, J. (2012). Typification of Nitella gracilis (Sm.) C.Agardh var. confervacea Brébisson (= N. confervacea (Brébisson) A. Braun ex Leonhardi) with remarks on its nomenclatural history. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(4): 391-398.
Hy, F. (1905). Sur le Nitella confervacea Braun. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 52: 88-94.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 November 2018.

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