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Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Nemaliophycidae
Order Acrochaetiales
Family Acrochaetiaceae
Genus Acrochaetium

Pictures

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Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli
Black Head, Co. Clare, Ireland; lower intertidal rock; on Palmaria palmata. 02 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; epipthytic on the older parts of Palmaria palmata.. 04 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland. 08 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

 

Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; epipthytic on the older parts of Palmaria palmata.
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli in Nägeli & Cramer 1858: 532, footnote

Published in: Nägeli, C. & Cramer, C. (1858). Die Stärkekörner: Morphologische, physiologische, chemisch-physicalische und systematisch-botanische Monographie. Pflanzenphysiologische Untersuchungen. 2. Heft. pp. [i]-x, [1]-623, pls XI-XXVI. Zürich: bei Fredrich Schultness.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Acrochaetium.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Callithamnion daviesii var. secundatum Lyngbye

Type information
Type locality: Kvivig, Faeroe Is (Womersley 1994: 48). Type: on "Conferva rupestris". C (Womersley 1994: 48). Notes: Dawson (1953: 32) notes holotype not designated, but represented by Lyngbye's original specimen in the Botanical Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), with secund branching (Lewis & Short 1890).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Acrochaetium luxurians f. secundatum (Lyngbye) Thuret
Callithamnion daviesii var. secundatum Lyngbye 1819
Ceramium secundatum (Lyngbye) C.Agardh 1824
Callithamnion secundatum (Lyngbye) C.Agardh 1828
Boryna secundata (Lyngbye) Gaillon 1828
Ceramium daviesii var. secundatum (Lyngbye) Duby 1830
Trentepohlia secundata (Lyngbye) Harvey 1836
Chantransia secundata (Lyngbye) Thuret 1863
Chantransia virgatula f. secundata (Lyngbye) Rosenvinge 1909
Chantransia virgatula var. secundata (Lyngybe) Rosenvinge 1920
Chantransia virgatula subsp. secundata (Lyngbye) Printz 1926
Acrochaetium virgatulum f. secundatum (Lyngbye) Hamel 1927
Acrochaetium virgatulum f. secundata (Lyngbye) Hamel 1927
Chromastrum secundatum (Lyngbye) Papenfuss 1945
Kylinia secundata (Lyngbye) Papenfuss 1947
Colaconema secundatum (Lyngbye) Woelkerling 1973
Audouinella secundata (Lyngbye) P.S.Dixon 1976

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Acrochaetium virgatulum var. tetricum (Rosenvinge) Celan
Callithamnion pubes C.Agardh 1828
Callithamnion virgatulum Harvey 1833
Callithamnion lenormandii Suhr ex Kützing 1849
Callithamnion piliferum Kützing 1861
Callithamnion ramellosum (Kützing) Kützing 1861
Chantransia lenormandii (Suhr ex Kützing) Nägeli 1861
Acrochaetium pubes (C.Agardh) Nägeli 1861
Acrochaetium lenormandii (Suhr ex Kützing) Nägeli 1862
Acrochaetium griffithsianum Nägeli 1862
Chantransia virgatula (Harvey) Thuret 1863
Callithamnion cystosirarum Ardissone 1866
Chantransia nordstedtiana Reinsch 1874
Chantransia lenormandii (Suhr ex Kützing) Ardissone & Strafforello 1877
Trentepohlia virgatula (Harvey) Farlow 1881
Chantransia virgatula f. farlowii Kjellman 1883
Acrochaetium virgatulum (Harvey) Batters 1902
Chantransia rhipidandra Rosenvinge 1909
Chantransia virgatula var. tetrica (Rosenvinge) Rosenvinge 1912
Acrochaetium rhipidandrum (Rosenvinge) Hamel 1927
Acrochaetium rhipidandrum f. oppositum Hamel 1927
Acrochaetium virgatulum f. tetricum (Rosenvinge) Hamel 1927
Rhodochorton rhipidandrum (Rosenvinge) K.M.Drew 1928
Rhodochorton virgatulum (Harvey) K.M.Drew 1928
Kylinia rhipidandra (Rosenvinge) Kylin 1944
Chromastrum rhipidandrum (Rosenvinge) Papenfuss 1945
Chromastrum virgatulum (Harvey) Papenfuss 1945
Chromastrum secundatum f. virgatulum (Harvey) Papenfuss 1945
Kylinia virgatula (Harvey) Papenfuss 1947
Audouinella rhipidandra (Rosenvinge) P.S.Dixon 1976
Audouinella virgatula (Harvey) P.S.Dixon 1976

Nomenclatural notes
Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli 1861: 405 (Womersley 1994: 48). A. secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli 1858: 532, footnote (Silva et al. 1996: 101). - (20 May 2009) - Wendy Guiry

Taxonomic notes
Placed in Acrochaetium by Nielsen et al. (1995). John et al. (2004) cite Acrochaetium virgatulum (Harv.) J. Agardh and Audouinella virgatula (Harv.) P.S. Dixon as synonyms of this species.

Habitat notes
on a diversity of plant and animal hosts (Clayden & Saunders, 2014). - (1 Jul 2014) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Acrochaetium luxurians f. secundatum (Lyngbye) Thuret)
South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930).

(as Callithamnion daviesii var. secundatum Lyngbye)
Europe: Denmark (Garbary 1987).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ceramium secundatum (Lyngbye) C.Agardh)
Europe: Ireland (Adams 1908).

South America: Chile (Leonardi et al 2006).

Africa: Spanish North Africa (González García, Paredes Ruiz & Enrique Mirón 2017).

(as Callithamnion secundatum (Lyngbye) C.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Callithamnion virgatulum Harvey)
Europe: Ireland (Sanders 1860).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Trentepohlia secundata (Lyngbye) Harvey)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngbye) Nägeli)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013, Mikhaylova 2017).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Ercegovic 1980), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Newton 1931, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016), Bulgaria (Berov et al. 2012), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1939, Verlaque 2001, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Diannelidis 1953, Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Tsirika & Haritonidis 2005), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cinelli et al. 1976), Netherlands (Stegenga et al. 1997), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Valenzuela Miranda 2002, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Kylin 1944), Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin et al. 2008).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001), Salvage Islands (John et al. 2004).

North America: British Columbia (Clayden & Saunders 2014), Mexico (Caribbean) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), New Brunswick (Bates et al. 2005), Texas (TX) (Wynne 2009).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

Africa: Egypt (Aleem 1993), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Mauritius (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002, John et al. 2004), South Africa (Stegenga 1985, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2016), Japan (Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Hwang & Kim 2011), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1994), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012).

(as Callithamnion piliferum Kützing)
Europe: Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999).

(as Acrochaetium lenormandii (Suhr ex Kützing) Nägeli)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978), France (Anon. 2017), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999).

(as Acrochaetium griffithsianum Nägeli)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978).

(as Chantransia secundata (Lyngbye) Thuret)
Europe: Ireland (Adams 1908), Sweden (Kylin 1907).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chantransia virgatula (Harvey) Thuret)
Europe: Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Ireland (Adams 1907, Adams 1908, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913), Sweden (Kylin 1907), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Callithamnion cystosirarum Ardissone)
Europe: Italy (Garbary 1987).

(as Acrochaetium virgatulum (Harvey) Batters)
Arctic: White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013, Garbary & Tarakhovskaya 2013).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Ercegovic 1980), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Newton 1931, Hardy & Guiry 2003), Bulgaria (Berov et al. 2012), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982), France (Feldmann 1939, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Verlaque 2001, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Diannelidis 1953, Gerloff & Geissler 1974), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cinelli et al. 1976), Norway (Jaasund 1965), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Cremades, Bárbara, Granja & Veiga 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Bárbara et al. 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Sweden (Kylin 1944), Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Salvage Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

North America: Virginia (VA) (Humm 1979).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2013).

Africa: Egypt (Aleem 1993), Morocco (Dangeard 1949), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Israel (Einav & Israel 2008), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2016), Japan (Titlyanov et al 2006), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Hwang & Kim 2011), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Nguyen et al. 2013).

(as Chantransia rhipidandra Rosenvinge)
Europe: Denmark (Rosenvinge 1909, Garbary 1987).

(as Chantransia virgatula var. tetrica (Rosenvinge) Rosenvinge)
Europe: Ireland (Cotton 1912).

(as Chantransia virgatula var. secundata (Lyngybe) Rosenvinge)
Europe: Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Ireland (Cotton 1912).

(as Chantransia virgatula subsp. secundata (Lyngbye) Printz)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Acrochaetium rhipidandrum (Rosenvinge) Hamel)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Netherlands (Stegenga et al. 1997), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Valenzuela Miranda 2002).

(as Acrochaetium rhipidandrum f. oppositum Hamel)
Europe: France (Garbary 1987), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954).

(as Acrochaetium virgatulum f. tetricum (Rosenvinge) Hamel)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Romania (Caraus 2002).

South-west Asia: Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

(as Acrochaetium virgatulum f. secundatum (Lyngbye) Hamel)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Acrochaetium virgatulum f. secundata (Lyngbye) Hamel)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002), Spain (Miranda 1931).

(as Chromastrum rhipidandrum (Rosenvinge) Papenfuss)
Europe: Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983).

(as Chromastrum secundatum (Lyngbye) Papenfuss)
Europe: Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), France (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983).

South-west Asia: Red Sea (Papenfuss 1968 ).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chromastrum virgatulum (Harvey) Papenfuss)
Europe: Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

(as Chromastrum secundatum f. virgatulum (Harvey) Papenfuss)
Europe: France (Coppejans & Kling 1995).

(as Kylinia secundata (Lyngbye) Papenfuss)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

North America: Connecticut (CT) (Taylor 1957), Maine (ME) (Taylor 1957), Mexico (Dawson 1953).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands: Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957).

(as Kylinia virgatula (Harvey) Papenfuss)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

North America: Massachusetts (MA) (Taylor 1957), New Jersey (NJ) (Taylor 1957).

(as Colaconema secundatum (Lyngbye) Woelkerling)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Audouinella rhipidandra (Rosenvinge) P.S.Dixon)
Europe: Ireland (De Valéra 1939, Dixon & Irvine 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979), Italy (Furnari et al. 2003).

(as Audouinella virgatula (Harvey) P.S.Dixon)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Rull Lluch, Gómez Garreta & Ribera Siguán 1987, Ballesteros 1992, Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b), Britain (Dixon & Irvine 1977, Guiry 1997), France (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Athanasiadis 1987), Ireland (Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Morton 1994), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b, Serio et al 2006), Spain (Ballesteros 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Soto & Conde 1989, Ballesteros 1990, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Price, John & Lawson 1986).

Africa: Algeria (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b), Mauritania (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Morocco (Báez et al. 2005b), Tunisia (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b).

(as Audouinella secundata (Lyngbye) P.S.Dixon )
Europe: Balearic Islands (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b), Britain (Dixon & Irvine 1977, Guiry 1997), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982), France (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Athanasiadis 1987), Ireland (Dixon & Irvine 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Morton 1994), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b), Sardinia (Furnari et al. 2003), Spain (Ballesteros 1983, Gallardo et al. 1985, Ballesteros 1989, Soto & Conde 1989, Ballesteros 1990, Conde et al. 1996, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998, Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider & Searles 1998, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

North America: Connecticut (CT) (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Maine (ME) (Mathieson et al. 2001), New Hampshire (HN) (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (NC) (Schneider & Searles 1991), Sargasso Sea (Schneider & Searles 1991), South Carolina (SC) (Schneider 1983).

Africa: Algeria (Báez et al 2005a, Báez et al. 2005b), Mauritania (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Morocco (Báez et al. 2005b), Tunisia (Báez et al. 2005b).

Asia: China (Liu 2008), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Tasmania (Womersley 1994), Victoria (Womersley 1994).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Bates, C.R., Saunders, G.W. & Chopin, T. (2005). An assessment of two taxonomic distinctness indices for detecting seaweed assemblage responses to environmental stress. Botanica Marina 48: 231-243.

Clayden, S.L. & Saunders, G.W. (2014). A study of two Acrochaetium complexes in Canada with distinction of Rhododrewia gen. nov. (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(3): 221-232.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Alongi, G. (2017). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Rhodophyta (Rhodymeniophycidae escluse). Bollettino Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania 50(380): 1-391, 53 pls.

Dixon, P.S. & Irvine, L.M. (1977). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 1. Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-252, 90 figs. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Garbary, D.J. (1987). The Acrochaetiaceae (Rhodophyta): an annotated bibliography. Bibliotheca Phycologica 77: 1-267, 2 tables.

Hwang, I.-K. & Kim, H.-S. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 2. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae: Acrochaetiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales, Nemaliales. Nemalian red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-111, figs 1-66. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1-1259.

Stegenga, H. (1985). The marine Acrochaetiaceae (Rhodophyta) of southern Africa. South African Journal of Botany 51: 291-330, 25 figs, 1 table.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIA - Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales and Gigartinales sensu lato). pp. 1-508, 167 figs, 4 pls, 4 maps. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Wynne, M.J. (2005). A check-list of benthic marine algae of the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic: second revision. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 129: 1-152.

Created: 16 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 December 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 10309 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abdel-Rahman, M.H. & Bidoux, C. (1989). Le cycle de développment de l'Acrochaetium secundatum (Rhodophycée, Acrochaetiales). Cryptogamie, Algologie 10: 235-245.
Coppejans, E. & De Vos, D. (1979). Acrochaetium secundatum (Lyngb.) Näg. (Acrochaetiales) en Aglaothamnion scopulorum (C. Ag.) G. Feldm.-Maz. var. polyspermum (C. Ag.) Halos (Ceramiales), <> roodwieren langs de Belgische kust. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea 47: 63-73.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 April 2019.

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