152,885 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,939 images, 59,127 bibliographic items, 408,269 distributional records.

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
recolectada en la zona Suroriental. Hábito. Foto: Abdiel Jover..

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
reproductive lamina in cross-section, Galicia, Spain, 2015, Ignacio Bárbara. 24 Dec 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
reproductive lamina in Surface view, Galicia, Spain, 2015, Ignacio Bárbara. 24 Dec 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
eproductive lamina in cross-section, Galicia, Spain, 2015, Ignacio Bárbara. 24 Dec 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
Mar Menor, Murcia, Spain. 03 Jul 2013. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
lower inertidal, Ria de A Coruna, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Barbara. 27 Dec 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
lower intertidal, Ria de A Coruna, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. 27 Dec 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
South of Portugal, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2011. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva rigida C.Agardh
Ulva rigida, Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia" . M.D. Guiry" . © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Ulva rigida C.Agardh Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; on Corallina officinalis in shallow pool
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Ulva rigida C.Agardh 1823: 410

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1823). Species algarum rite cognitae, cum synonymis, differentiis specificis et descriptionibus succinctis. Volumen primum pars posterior. pp. [vii-viii], [399]-531. Lundae [Lund]: ex officina Berlingiana.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), rigid (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Phycoseris rigida (C.Agardh) Kützing 1843
Ulva lactuca var. rigida (C.Agardh) Le Jolis 1863

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Phycoseris ulva Sonder 1845
Phycoseris gigantea var. perforata Kützing 1849
Letterstedtia petiolata J.Agardh 1883
Ulva thuretii B.Föyn 1955
Ulva petiolata (J.Agardh) Womersley 1956
Ulva spathulata Papenfuss 1960
Ulva scandinavica Bliding 1969
Ulva armoricana P.Dion, B.de Reviers & G.Coat 1998

Nomenclatural notes
Ricker (1987) gives as type locality “Cape of Good Hope, S. Africa.”

Taxonomic notes
John et al. (2004) cite Ulva uncialis (Kütz.) Mont. as a synonym of this species.

Distributional notes
For problems concerning the correct taxonomic identity of Mediterranean plants reported as Ulva rigida, see Gallardo et al. (1993) and Phillips (1998).

Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Unlike U. laetevirens, this species occurs preferentially in eutrophic environments, especially lagoon areas rich in phosphate, ammonium and phytoplankton (Sfriso, 2009). - (4 May 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva rigida C.Agardh)
English: Sea Lettuce (Anon. 2000).

Gaeilge: Glasán (Anon. 2000).

Type information
Type locality: Cádiz, Spain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 750). Type: LD herb. alg. Agardh, 14449 (Ricker 1987: 41). Notes: Silva et al. recommend consulting Papenfuss (1960: 305) for further information regarding the type locality of this species. The type locality was given as Cape of Good Hope by Ricker (1987: 41) and he records that a lectotype has been selected by R.B. Searles on 10 October 1975. Womersley (1984: 144) gives the herbarium no. 14294.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva rigida C.Agardh)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen et al. 1999).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980, Gallardo et al. 1993, Curiel et al.1998), Balearic Islands (Gómez Garreta 1983, Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993), Black Sea (Gallardo et al. 1993, Milchakova 2011), Britain (Burrows 1991, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2007, Brodie et al. 2016), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981, Berov et al. 2012), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Hoeksema & Hoek 1983, Gallardo et al. 1993, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954, Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993, Christia et al. 2011, Tsiamis et al. ), Ireland (Guiry 1978, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012, Fort, Guiry & Suplice 2018), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cinelli et al. 1976, Gallardo et al. 1993, Gallardo et al. 1993, Sfriso 2010, Marconi et al. 2011, Wolf et al. 2012, Sfriso et al. 2017), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Spain (Ballesteros 1981, Gómez, Ribera & Romero 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Barcelo & Seoane 1982, Gallardo & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Fernández, Niell & Anadón 1983, Boisset & Barceló 1984, Sierra & Fernández 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Anadón & Fernández 1986, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Silva & Fernández 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Fernández & Menéndez 1991, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Conde Poyales 1992, Barbara, Cremades & López Rodriguez 1992, Gallardo et al. 1993, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto et al. 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998, Calvo & Bárbara 2002, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Valenzuela Miranda 2002 , Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2004, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Cabello-Pasini & Figueroa 2005, Sánchez & Fernández 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2006, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Pena & Bárbara 2008, Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 2008, Viejo et al. 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2010, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Diaz Tapia et al. 2011, Pinedo et al. 2013), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Turkey (Europe) (Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Gallardo et al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin et al. 2008 ), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Sanson, Chacana & Gil-Rodriguez 1990, Febles et al. 1995, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Lorenzo-Martín, Hernández-González & Gil-Rodriguez 1998, Febles, Arias, Gil-Rodríguez, Hardisson & Sierra López 199?, Haroun et al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Hernández-González et al. 2004a, Hernández-González et al. 2004b, Díaz-Villa et al 2005, Domínguez-Alvarez et al. 2005, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (Otero-Schmitt & Sanjuan 1992, John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, Haroun et al. 2002, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Parente et al. 2000, John et al. 2004), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977), Baffin Island (Küpper et al. 2016), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Stewart 1991), Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Florida (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Gulf of California (Setchell & Gardner 1924, Dawson 1944), Mexico (Aguilar-Rosas et al. 2005), Mexico (Caribbean) (Taylor 1972, Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010), New Hampshire (Hofman et al. 2010), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (Wynne 2009).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Belize (Norris & Bucher 1982, Littler & Littler 1997), Gulf of California (Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2005).

Caribbean Islands: Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2018).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Carvalho et al. 2017), Brazil (Moura 2010), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Hayden & Waaland 2004), Peru (Acleto 1973, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo et al. 1993), Angola (John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Egypt (Aleem 1993, Gallardo et al. 1993), Egypt (Mediterranean) (Shabaka 2018), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Gil-Rodriguez & Socorro Hernández 1986, Gallardo et al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Mozambique (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997, Coppejans, Leliaert & Verbruggen 2005), Spanish North Africa (González García, Paredes Ruiz & Enrique Mirón 2017), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993), Western Sahara (John et al. 2004).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Rodrigues Island (De Clerck et al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Cyprus (Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Hoffman 2004, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Al-Yamani et al. 2014), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Gallardo et al. 1993), Oman (Wynne & Jupp 1998), Pakistan (Abid et al. 2005), Southeast Arabian coast (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans et al. 2009), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 , Percot, Yalcin, Aysel, Erdugan, Durral & Guven 2009), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014), Japan (Yoshida & Yoshinaga 2010, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Millar & Kraft 1994, Kraft 2000, Kraft 2007), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Heesch et al. 2009, Broady et al. 2012), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans et al. 2001), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Huisman & Walker 1990).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott & Huisman, 2004), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014), Tuamotu Islands (Taylor 1973).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctica/Subantarctic Islands (Papenfuss 1964), Macquarie Island (Ricker 1987).

(as Ulva lactuca var. rigida (C.Agardh) Le Jolis)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Piccone 1889, Rodríguez y Femenías 1889), Britain (Newton 1931), Romania (Caraus 2002), Spain (Sauvageau 1897, Seoane-Camba 1957, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Børgesen 1925).

North America: Alaska (Saunders 1901), Florida (Taylor 1928, Dawes 1974).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930), Chile (Taylor 1939, Silva & Chacana 2005), Colombia (Schnetter 1969), Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas (Taylor 1939), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964).

Africa: Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968).

South-west Asia: Sri Lanka (Børgesen 1936).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Chapman 1956).

(as Letterstedtia petiolata J.Agardh)
Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Chapman 1956).

(as Ulva spathulata Papenfuss)
Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Womersley 1984), New Zealand (Womersley 1984, Adams 1994), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Papenfuss 1960, Womersley 1984).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctica/Subantarctic Islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Ulva scandinavica Bliding)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Battelli & Tan 1998), Belgium (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Britain (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Loughnane et al. 2008), France (Hoeksema & Hoek 1983, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Shimada et al. 2003), Norway (Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Araújo et al. 2009), Spain (Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Calvo, Bárbara & Cremades 1999, Calvo & Bárbara 2002, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2010).

(as Ulva armoricana P.Dion, B.de Reviers & G.Coat)
Europe: France (Dion, Reviers & Coat 1998, Coat et al. 1998, Shimada et al. 2003, Robic et al. 2009), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008).

Asia: Japan (Shimada et al. 2003).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Heesch et al. 2009 , Broady et al. 2012).

Key references
Bliding, C. (1969 '1968'). A critical survey of European taxa in Ulvales, Part II. Ulva, Ulvaria, Monostroma, Kornmannia. Botaniska Notiser 121: 535-629, 47 figs.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Hoeksema, B.W. & Hoek, C. van den (1983). The taxonomy of Ulva (Chlorophyceae) from the coastal region of Roscoff (Brittany, France). Botanica Marina 26: 65-86, 31 figs.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Loughnane, C.J., McIvor, L.M., Rindi, F., Stengel, D.B. & Guiry, M.D. (2008). Morphology, rbcL phylogeny and distribution of distromatic Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in Ireland and southern Britain. Phycologia 47: 416-429.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Smith, G.M. (1944). Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula. pp. i-ix, 1-622, 98 pls. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Vinogradova, K.L. (1974). Ulvovye vodorosli (Chlorophyta) morei SSSR [Ulvaceous algae (Chlorophyta) of the seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-165. Leningrad [St Petersburg]: Nauka. [in Russian]

Wolf, M.A., Sciuto, K., Andreoli, C. & Moro, I. (2012). Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): cryptic species and new introductions. Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1510-1521.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk. [in Russian]

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 39997 times since it was created.

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Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A. & Figueroa, F.L. (2000). Long-term effects of natural sunlights under various ultraviolet radiation conditions on growth and photosynthesis of intertidal Ulva rigida (Chlorophyceae) cultivated in situ. Botanica Marina 43: 119-126, 5 figs.
Badini, L., Pistocchi, R. & Bagni, N. (1994). Polyamine transport in the seaweed Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 30: 599-605, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Björk, M., Haglund, K., Ramazanov, Z., Garcia-Reina, G. & Pedersén, M. (1992). Inorganic-carbon assimilation in the green seaweed Ulva rigida C. Ag. (Chlorophyta). Planta 187: 152-156, 3 figs, 1 table.
Björk, M., Gómez-Pinchetti, J., García-Reina, G. & Pedersén, M. (1992). Protoplast isolation from Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta). British Phycological Journal 27: 401-407, 3 figs, 1 table.
Boubonari, T., Malea, P. & Kevrekidis, T. (2008). The green seaweed Ulva rigida as a bioindicator of metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) in a low-salinity coastal environment. Botanica Marina 51: 472-484.
Cabello-Pasini, A. & Figueroa, F.L. (2005). Effect of nitrate concentration on the relationship between photosynthetic oxygen evolution and electron transport rate in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 1169-1177.
Cabello-Pasini, A., Macías-Carranza, V., Abdalá, R., Korbee, C. & Figueroa, F.L. (2011). Effect of nitrate concentration and UVR on phothosyntesis, respiratrion, nitrate reductasa activity and phenolic compounds in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 23: 363-369.
Collén, J. & Pedersén, M. (1996). Production, scavenging and toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in the green seaweed Ulva rigida. European Journal of Phycology 31: 265-271, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Corzo, A. & Niell, F.X. (1991). Determination of nitrate reductase activity in Ulva rigida C. Agardh by the in situ method. J Exp Mer Biol Ecol 146: 181-191.
Cuomo, V., Perretti, A., Palomba, I., Verde, A. & Cuomo, A. (1995). Utilization of Ulva rigida biomass in the Venice Lagoon (Italy): biotansformation in compost. Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 479-485.
De Casabianca, M.-L. & Posada, F. (1998). Effect of environmental parameters on the growth of Ulva rigida (Thau Lagoon, France). Botanica Marina 41: 157-165, 9 figs.
del Campo, E., García-Reina, G. & Correa, J.A. (1998). Degradative disease in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyceae) associated with Acrochaete geniculata (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34: 160-166, 22 figs.
Fillit, M. (1995). Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic capacities and pigment content of Ulva rigida in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Botanica Marina 38: 271-280, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Fujita, R.M., Wheeler, P.A. & Edwards, R.L. (1988). Metabolic regulation of ammonium uptake by Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 24: 560-566, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Gordillo, F.J.L., Figueroa, F.L. & Niell, F.X. (2003). Photon- and carbon use efficiency in Ulva rigida at different CO2 and N levels. Planta 218: 315-322.
Jiménez del Rio, M., Ramazanov, Z. & García-Reina, G. (1996). Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) tank culture as biofilters for dissolved inorganic nitrogen from fishpond effluents. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 61-66.
Lavery, P.S. & Mccomb, A.J. (1991). The nutritional eco-physiology of Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva rigida in Peel Inlet, western Australia. Botanica Marina 34: 251-260.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 September 2018.

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