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Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Ostreopsidaceae
Genus Alexandrium

Pictures

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Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech
© Geogina McDermott (robin.raine@nuigalway.ie).

Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech
Thecal plate structure of the epitheca. The epitheca has been flattened and broken apart at the joint between the first apical plate and the fourth apical and sixth precingular plates. One can see a pore along the join between the first and fourth apical . © Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).

 

Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech Thecal plate structure of the epitheca. The epitheca has been flattened and broken apart at the joint between the first apical plate and the fourth apical and sixth precingular plates. One can see a pore along the join between the first and fourth apical
© Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech 1995: 38, pl. 6: figs 1-40; pl. 7: figs 1-9

Published in: Balech, E. (1995). The genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). pp. 1-151. Sherkin Island: Sherkin Island Marine Station.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour

Type information
Type locality: English Channel: River Tamar Estuary, near Plymouth, United Kingdom (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 18). Notes: "LECTOTYPE: Plate XIV, figures 1a-1d (Lebour 1925) is designated here as the lectotype for Gonyaulax tamarensis M. Lebour (ICN Art 9.8).
EPITYPE: SEM stub of strain ATSW01-1 is designated here as epitype for A. tamarense (M. Lebour 1925) Balech 1985 emended U. John (Fig. 5). It is deposited at the Herbarium Senckenbergianum (FR) in the Centre of Excellence for Dinophyte Taxonomy (identification number CEDiT2013E27)." (John et al. 2014: 792).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour 1925
Gessnerium tamarensis (Lebour) Loeblich III & L.Loeblich 1979
Protogonyaulax tamarensis (Lebour) F.J.R.Taylor 1979

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax tamarensis var. excavata T.Braarud 1945
Gonyaulax excavata (Braarud) Balech 1971
Protogonyaulax excavata (Braarud) F.J.R.Taylor 1979
Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) Balech & Tangen 1985
Alexandrium tamarense f. excavatum (T.Braarud) G.V.Konovalova 1993

Taxonomic notes
According to Lilly et al. (2007: 1336), the three morphospecies of the A. tamarense complex do not conform to the phylogenetic, biological, or morphological species definition and thus ought not to be considered valid species. Instead, five phylogenetic groups have been identified that are likely cryptic species, and they strongly recommend that these groups be evaluated for species-level status. They argue that geographically based names are no longer indicative of the range occupied by members of each group. They recommend a simple group-numbering scheme for use until the taxonomy of this group is reevaluated and species names proposed. The sympatric occurrence of A. tamarense Group I and Group III gives further support to the hypothesis that the groups/ribotypes of the A. tamarense species complex are cryptic species rather than variants belonging to the same species (Toebe et al. 2013). - (11 Mar 2008) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 19) notes this species produces very potent paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) neurotoxins; gonyautoxins, neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin. Resting cysts can harbour PSP toxins, it was been demonstrated that cysts were more toxic than their motile stage. Humans, other mammals, fish and birds can be affected. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species

Toxin- and non toxin-producing strains (Brown et al. 2011). - (20 Jan 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Alpermann, T.J., Tillmann, U., Beszteri, B., Cembella, A.D. & John, U. (2010). Phenotypic variation and genotypic diversity in a planktonic population of the toxigenic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46(1): 18-32.

Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Diogene, J., Fraga, S., Sampedro, N. & Figueroa, R.I. (2006). Resting cysts of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in recent sediments from the Western Mediterranean coast, including the first description of cysts of A. kutnerae and A. peruvianum. European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 293-302.

Brown, L., Bresnan, E., Graham, J., Lacaze, J.-P, Turrell, E. & Collins, C. (2010). Distribution, diversity and toxin composition of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. European Journal of Phycology 45(4): 375-393.

Carignan, M.O. & Carreto, J.I. (2013). Characterization of mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester, a major mycosporine-like amino acid from dinoflagellates: a mass spectrometry study. Journal of Phycology 49(4): 680-688.

Chan, C.X., Soares, M.B., Bonaldo, M.F., Wisecaver, J.H., Hackett, J.D., Anderson, D.M., Erdner, D.L. & Bhattacharya, D. (2012). Analysis of Alexandrium tamarensie (Dinophyceae) genes reveals the complex evolutionary history of a microbial eukaryote. Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1130-1142.

Collins, C., Graham, J., Brown, L., Bresnan, E., Lacaze, J.-P. & Turrell, E.A. (2009). Identification and toxicity of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. Journal of Phycology 45(3): 692-703, 7 figs, 1 table.

Fabro, E., Almandoz, G.O., Ferrario, M., John, U., Tillmann, U., Toebe, K., Krock, B. & Cembella, A. (2017). Morphological, molecular, and toxin analysis of field populations of Alexandrium genus from the Argentine Sea. Journal of Phycology 53(6): 1206-1222.

Fauchot, J., Levasseur, M., Roy, S., Gagnon, R. & Weise, A.M. (2005). Environmental factors controlling Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) growth rate during a red tide event in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada). Journal of Phycology 41: 263-272.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Gagnon, R., Levasseur, M., Weise, A.M., Fauchot, Campbell, P.G.C., Weissenboeck, B.J., Merzouk, A., Gosselin, M. & Vigneault, B. (2005). Growth stimulation of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) by humic substances from the Manicouagan River (Eastern Canada). Journal of Phycology 41: 489-497.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2007). S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates. Phycologia 46: 46-53.

John, U., Litaker, R.W., Montresor, M., Murray, S., Brosnahan, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2014). Formal revision of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex (Dinophyceae) taxonomy: the introduction of five species with emphasis on molecular-based (rDNA) classification. Protist 165: 779-804.

Kennaway, G.M. & Lewis, J.M. (2004). An ultrastructural study of hypnozygotes of Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 43: 353-363, 22 figs, 1 table.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Kim, S. (2006). Patterns in host range for two strains of Amoebophyra (Dinophyta) infecting thecate dinoflagellates: Amoebophyra spp. ex Alexandrium affine and ex Gonyaulax polygramma (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1170-1173.

Kobiyama, A., Ikeda, Y., Koike, K & Ogaka, T. (2007). Isolation of a differentially expressed gene in separate mating types of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 183-190, 5 figs.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lewis, N.L., Xu, W., Jericho, S.K., Kreuzer, H.J., Jericho, M.H. & Cembella, A.D. (2006). Swimming speed of three species of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) as determined by digital in-line holography. Phycologia 45: 61-70.

Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M. & Anderson, D.M. (2007). Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 1329-1338.

Liu, L. & Hastings, J.W. (2006). Novel and rapidly diverging intergenic sequences between tandem repeats of the luciferase genes in seven dinoflagellate species. Journal of Phycology 42: 96-103.

McMinn, A. & Scott, F.J. (2005). Dinoflagellates. In: Antarctic marine protists. (Scott, F.J. & Marchant, H.J. Eds), pp. 202-250. Canberra & Hobart: Australian Biological Resources Study; Australian Antarctic Division.

Nagai, S., Lian, C., Yamaguchi, S., Hamaguchi, M., Matsuyama, Y., Itakura, S., Shimada, H., Kaga, S., Yamauchi, H., Sonda, Y., Nishikawa, T., Kim, C.-H. & Hogetsu, T. (2007). Microsatellite markers reveal population genetic structure of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) in Japanese coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 43: 43-54.

Penna, A., Fraga, S., Masó, M., Giacobbe, M.G., Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Vila, M., Bertozzini, E., Adreoni, F., Lugliè, A. & Vernesi, C. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178, 25 figs, 3 tables.

Sebastián, C.R., Etheridge, S.M., Cook, P.A., O'Ryan, C. & Pitcher, G.C. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolates from South Africa: implications for the global phylogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex . Phycologia 44: 49-60.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Toebe, K., Alpermann, T.J., Tillmann, U., Krock, B., Cembella, A. & John, U. (2013). Molecular discrimination of toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium species (Dinophyta) in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the Scottish coast of the North Sea. European Journal of Phycology 48(1): 12-26.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Zonnefeld, K.A.F., Marret, F., Versteegh, G.J.M., Bogus, K., Bonnet, S., Bouimetarhan, I., Crouch, E., Vernal., A. de V., Elshanawany, R., Edwards, L., Esper, O., Forke, E., Grøsfjeld, K., Henry, M., Holtzwarth, U., Kielt, J.-F., Kim, S.-Y., Ladouceur, S., Ledu, D., Chen, L., Limoges, A., Londeix, L., Lu, S.-H., Mahmoud, S., Marino, G., Matsouka, K., Matthiessen, J., Mildenhal, D.C., Mudie, P., Neil, H.L., Pospelova, V., Qi, Y., Raadi, T., Richerol, T., Wang, Y., Wang, Z.-H. & Young, M. (2012). Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 191: 1-197, 292 figs.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 September 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 10392 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adachi, M., Sako, Y. & Ishida, Y. (1996). Note: Identification of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium catenella and A. tamarense (Dinophyceae) using DNA probes and whole-cell hybridization. Journal of Phycology 32: 1049-1052, 1 fig, 1 table.
Alpermann, T.J., Tillmann, U., Beszteri, B., Cembella, A.D. & John, U. (2010). Phenotypic variation and genotypic diversity in a planktonic population of the toxigenic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46(1): 18-32.
Blanco, E.P. & Lewis, J. (2014). A comparative study of Alexandrium tamarense cyst distribution in Belfast Lough. European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 255-263.
Cho, E.S. & Lee, H.J. (2001). Thecal plates, toxin content and growth of five clones of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) isolated from Jinhae Bay, Korea. Phycologia 40: 435-439.
Choi, K.-J., Ha, C.-H., Han, M.-S., Jeon, J.-K., Kim, K.-T., Lee, H.-O. & Yoon, M.-Y. (1999). Identification and characterization of nitrate reductase in a marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense. Algae 14(3): 189-194, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Collins, C., Graham, J., Brown, L., Bresnan, E., Lacaze, J.-P. & Turrell, E.A. (2009). Identification and toxicity of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. Journal of Phycology 45(3): 692-703, 7 figs, 1 table.
Collos, Y., Hadjadji, I., Plisson, B., Cecchi, P., Laabir, M., Bechemin, C. & Masseret, E. (2011). Phased oscillations in cell numbers and nitrate in batch cultures of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1057-1062.
Destombe, C., Cembella, A.D., Murphy, C.A. & Ragan, M.A. (1992). Nucleotide seguence of the 18S ribosomal RNA genes from the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyta). Phycologia 31: 121-124, 1 fig.
Doucette, G.J., Cembella, A.D. & Boyer, G.L. (1989). Cyst formation in the red tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae): effects of iron stress. Journal of Phycology 25: 721-731, 23 figs.
Fauchot, J., Levasseur, M., Roy, S., Gagnon, R. & Weise, A.M. (2005). Environmental factors controlling Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) growth rate during a red tide event in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada). Journal of Phycology 41: 263-272.
Gagnon, R., Levasseur, M., Weise, A.M., Fauchot, Campbell, P.G.C., Weissenboeck, B.J., Merzouk, A., Gosselin, M. & Vigneault, B. (2005). Growth stimulation of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) by humic substances from the Manicouagan River (Eastern Canada). Journal of Phycology 41: 489-497.
Han, M.-S., Jeon, J.-K. & Yoon, Y.-H. (1993). Distribution and toxin profiles of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech (Dinoflagellate) in the southwestern coastal waters, Korea. Korean Journal of Phycology 8(1): 7-13, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Higman, W.A., Stone, D.M. & Lewis, J.M. (2001). Sequence comparisons of toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) isolates from UK waters. Phycologia 40: 256-262.
Itakura, S. & Yamaguchi, M. (2001). Germination characteristics of naturally occurring cysts of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) in Hiroshima Bay, Inland Sea of Japan. Phycologia 40: 263-267.
John, U., Cembella, A., Hummert, C., Elbrachter, M., Groben, R. & Medlin, L. (2003). Discrimination of the toxigenic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. ostenfeldii in co-occurring natural populations from Scottish coastal waters. European Journal of Phycology 38(1): 25-40.
John, U., Litaker, R.W., Montresor, M., Murray, S., Brosnahan, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2014). Formal revision of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex (Dinophyceae) taxonomy: the introduction of five species with emphasis on molecular-based (rDNA) classification. Protist 165: 779-804.
Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M., Fukuyo, Y. & Kim, C.-H. (2002). Morphological observation of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, A. catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech and one related morphotype (Dinophyceae) in Korea. Algae 17(1): 11-19, 3 figs, 1 tale.
Kobiyama, A., Ikeda, Y., Koike, K & Ogaka, T. (2007). Isolation of a differentially expressed gene in separate mating types of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 183-190, 5 figs.
Laurion, I. & Roy, S. (2009). Growth and photoprotection in three dinoflagellates (including two strains of Alexandrium tamarense) and one diatom exposed to four weeks of natural and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. Journal of Phycology 45: 16-33.
Leblond, J.D. & Dahmen, J.L. (2012). Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. V. The galactolipid profile of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) during the course of infection by the parasitic syndinian dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.. European Journal of Phycology 47(4): 490-497.
Lee, H.-O., Cheun, B.S., Watanabe, E. & Han, M.-S. (2000). Comparison of HPLC analysis and a channel biosensor in the detection of PSP toxin in natural Alexandrium tamarense population. Algae 15(1): 61-64, 4 figs.
Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M. & Anderson, D.M. (2007). Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 1329-1338.
Nagai, S., Lian, C., Yamaguchi, S., Hamaguchi, M., Matsuyama, Y., Itakura, S., Shimada, H., Kaga, S., Yamauchi, H., Sonda, Y., Nishikawa, T., Kim, C.-H. & Hogetsu, T. (2007). Microsatellite markers reveal population genetic structure of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) in Japanese coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 43: 43-54.
Orlova, T.Y., Selina, M.S., Lilly, E.L. Kulis, D.M. & Anderson, D.M. (2007). Morphogenetic and toxin composition variability of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) from the east coast of Russia. Phycologia 46: 534-548.
Sako, Y., Hosoi-Tanabe, S. & Uchida, A. (2004). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rRNA-targeted probes for simple and rapid identification of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catanella. Journal of Phycology 40: 598-605.
Scholin, C.A., Hallegraeff, G.M. & Anderson, D.M. (1995). Molecular evolution of the Alexandrium tamarense 'species complex' (Dinophyceae): dispersal in the North American and West Pacific regions. Phycologia 34: 472-485, 4 figs, 1 table.
Sebastián, C.R., Etheridge, S.M., Cook, P.A., O'Ryan, C. & Pitcher, G.C. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolates from South Africa: implications for the global phylogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex . Phycologia 44: 49-60.
Shi, Y., Hu, H. & Cong, W. (2005). Positive effects of continuous low nitrate levels on growth and photosynthesis of Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 53(1): 43-48.
Shin, H.H., Yoon, Y.H., Kawami, H., Iwataki, M. & Matsuoka, K. (2008). The first appearance of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) responsible for the PSP contaminations in Gamak Bay, Korea. Algae 23(4): 251-255, 5 figs.
Yamamoto, T. & Tarutani, K. (1999). Growth and phosphate uptake kinetics of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense from Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Phycological Research 47: 27-32.
Yoshida, T., Sako, Y. & Uchida, A. (2001). Geographic differences in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profiles among Japanese populations of Alexandrium tamarense and A/ catenella (Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 49: 13-22.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 August 2019.

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