153,581 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,369 bibliographic items, 411,009 distributional records.

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Laminariaceae
Genus Macrocystis

Pictures

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Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Santa Barbara, California; from Left: David Young, Don Kapraun, Rick Wetherbee, Don Ott; August 1977. 26 Mar 2018. G.T. Kraft. © G.T. Kraft.

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Postels and Ruprecht (1840). 25 Sep 2015. unknown. © expired.

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Macrocystis pyrifera, Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia. M.D. Guiry" . © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Macrocystis pyrifera, Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia. M.D. Guiry" . © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh
Macrocystis pyrifera. M.D. Guiry" . © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Solieria natalensis (Reinbold) Børgesen

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh Macrocystis pyrifera, Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1820: 47

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1820 '1821'). Species algarum rite cognitae, cum synonymis, differentiis specificis et descriptionibus succinctis. Volumen primum. Pars prima. pp. [i-iv], [1]-168. Lundae [Lund]: ex officina Berlingiana.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Macrocystis.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus pyrifer Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: ‘in oceano AEthiopico’ (South Atlantic Ocean) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 641). Type: LINN 1274.59? (Womersley 1987: 328). Notes: In LINN, 1274.59? (see Womersley (1954a: 111)).

Origin of species name
Adjective A (Latin), bearing pears (Brown 1956).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus pyrifer Linnaeus 1771
Laminaria pyrifera (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux 1813

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Macrocystis pyrifera var. humboldtii Bonpland 1808
Macrocystis humboldtii (Bonpland) C.Agardh 1822
Macrocystis angustifolia Bory 1826
Macrocystis integrifolia Bory 1826
Macrocystis communis Bory 1826
Macrocystis latifolia Bory 1826
Fucus giganteus Gaudichaud 1826
Macrocystis pomifera Bory 1826
Macrocystis planicaulis C.Agardh 1839
Macrocystis orbigniana Montagne 1839
Macrocystis tenuifolia Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Macrocystis pyrifera var. luxurians J.D.Hooker & Harvey 1847
Macrocystis luxurians (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) J.Agardh 1848
Macrocystis pelagica Areschoug 1848
Macrocystis pyrifera var. longibullata Reinsch 1890
Macrocystis laevis C.H.Hay 1986

Usage notes
At the height of production 140,000 tonnes were harvested each year from the state-owned kelp beds off the southern California shores (Abbott & Hollenberg, 1976). Plants reach 45 meters long and grow in waters 6-20 (-80) m deep, and grow at up to 30 cm per day. In 2005, US alginate firm ISP shut down activities at its San Diego plant, shifting production to Girvan in Scotland. After 76 years in operation, the San Diego plant represented the USA's largest kelp harvesting facility, but operating costs eventually forced closure. Kelp continues to be mechanically harvested off the coast of southern California for feed for abalone aquaculture.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh)
English: Giant Kelp, Sea Ivy (Madlener 1977), Giant Pacific Kelp (McConnaughey 1985).

(as Macrocystis integrifolia Bory)
English: Small perennial kelp, Giant perennial kelp (McConnaughey 1985).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
iodine kelp {Eng}; varech porte-poire {Fr}; "kelp, giant"; "kelp, iodine"

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Macrocystis pyrifera var. humboldtii Bonpland)
South America: Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964).

(as Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh)
Europe: France (Anon. 2017).

Atlantic Islands: Gough Island (Chamberlain 1965), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Saunders 1901, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), Baja California (Taylor 1945), Baja California N (Pacific) (Beas-Luna & Ladah 2014), Baja California Sur (Pacific) (Riosmena-Rodriguez et al. 2012, Beas-Luna & Ladah 2014), British Columbia (Starko & Martone 2016), California (CA) (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Stewart 1991, Spalding, Foster & Heine, 2003, Hernandez-Carmona et al 2006, Cho et al. 2006, Carney 2011, Miller 2012, Drobnitch et al. 2017), Mexico (Ladah & Zertuche-Gonzalez 2004 , Schubert et al. 2006, Colombo-Pallotta et al 2006, Castaneda-Fernández de Lara et al. 2010 ).

Central America: Islas Revillagigedo (Taylor 1945).

South America: Argentina (Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Asensi & Küpper 2012 , Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Cazon et al. 2014), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Buschmann et al 2005, Engel et al. 2008, Rothausler et al. 2011, Henriquez et al. 2011), Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas (van Tussenbroek 1993), Peru (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Coll & Oliveira 1999).

Indian Ocean Islands: Amsterdam Island (Wynne & Scott 1989, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Îles Kerguelen (Rousseau et al. 2000), Indian Ocean (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), St Paul Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Australia and New Zealand: Antipodes Islands (Nelson 2013), Auckland Islands (Nelson 2013), Bounty Island (Nelson 2013), Campbell Island (Nelson 2013), Chatham Islands (Nelson 2013), New Zealand (Chapman & Chapman 1980, Adams 1994, Adams 1997, Hurd & Pilditch 2011, Harper et al. 2012), North Island, NZ (Nelson 2013 ), South Island, NZ (Nelson 2013), Stewart Island/Rakiura (Levring 1945, Nelson 2013), Tasmania (Womersley 1987, Scott 2017).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctica/Subantarctic Islands (Papenfuss 1964), Macquarie Island (Ricker 1987), South Georgia (John et al. 1994, Wells, Brewin & Brickle 2011).

(as Macrocystis angustifolia Bory)
Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2008).

Africa: South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Lewis 1985), South Australia (Womersley 1987, Huisman 2000), Tasmania (Huisman 2000), Victoria (Womersley 1987, Huisman 2000, Marconi et al. 2011).

(as Macrocystis integrifolia Bory)
North America: Alaska (AK) (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel et al. 1989, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989, Druehl et al 2005, Lane & Saunders 2005, Lane et al. 2006, McDevit & Saunders 2010), California (CA) (Scagel et al. 1989), Oregon (OR) (Hansen 1997), Washington (WA) (Scagel et al. 1989).

Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2008).

South America: Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Buschmann et al 2005), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

(as Macrocystis planicaulis C.Agardh)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1978).

South America: Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

(as Macrocystis laevis C.H.Hay)
Indian Ocean Islands: Marion Island (Hay 1986).

Key references
Adams, N.M. (1997). Common seaweeds of New Zealand. pp. [1]-48, 48 pls. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.

Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (2013). Elementos para el estudio de las macroalgas de Argentina. Con colaboración de J.M. Zaixso. pp. [1]-204. Comodoro Rivadavia: Universitaria de la Patagonia.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Demes, K.W, Graham, M.H. & Suskiewicz, T.S. (2009). Phenotypic plasticity reconciles incongruous molecular and morphological taxonomies: the giant kelp, Macrocystis (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae), is a monospecific genus (note). Journal of Phycology 45(6): 1266-1269.

Leal, P.P., Hurd, C.L. & Roleda, M.Y. (2014). Meiospores produced in sori of nonsporophyllous laminae of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) may enhance reproductive output (Note). Journal of Phycology 50(2): 400-405.

Lewis, R.J. & Neushul, M. (1995). Intergeneric hybridization among five genera of the family Lessoniaceae (Phaeophyceae) and evidence for polyploidy in a fertile Pelagophycus x Macrocystis hybrid. Journal of Phycology 31: 1012-1017, 2 figs, 1 table.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Macaya, E.C. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2010). DNA barcoding and genetic divergence in the giant kelp Macrocystis (Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 46(4): 736-742.

McHugh, D.J. (2003). A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441: x + 105, 64 figs.

Nelson, W.A. (2013). New Zealand seaweeds. An illustrated guide. pp. [1]-328. Wellington: Te Papa Press.

Pedroche, P.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar Rosas, R. (2008). Catálogo de las algas benthónicas del Pacífico de México II. Phaeophycota. pp. [i-viii], i-vi, 15-146. Mexicali & Berkeley: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California; University of California Berkeley.

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Smith, G.M. (1944). Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula. pp. i-ix, 1-622, 98 pls. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1987). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part II. pp. 481, 169 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 4 maps. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.

Zinova, A.D. (1966). Novitates de algis marinis antarcticis ac subantarcticis.. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum Non Vascularium 3: 103-109, no figs. [in Russian]

Created: 24 March 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 February 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 63276 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)



Alveal, K., Romo, H. & Avila, M. (1982). Estudio del ciclo de vida de Macrocystis pyrifera de Isla Navarino, Chile. Gay. Bot. 39: 1-12.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1989). Chemotactic effect of nutrients onspores of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica. Marine Biology, Berlin 102: 557-564.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1990). Nutrient stimulation of spore settlement in the kelps Pterygophora californica and Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(2): 297-304.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1991). Photosynthetic physiology and chemical composition of spores of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera, Nereocystis leutkeana, Laminaria farlowii, and Pterygophora californica (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 27: 26-34.
Anderson, B.S., Hunt, J.W., Turpen, S.L., Coulon, A.R. & Martin, M. (1990). Copper toxicity to microscopic stages of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera - interpopulation comparisons and temporal variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 68(1-2): 147-156.
Anderson, L. M. (1984). Iron reduction by juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 493-497.
Arnold, K.E. & Manley, S.L. (1985). Carbon allocation in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta): intrinsic variability in photosynthesis and respiration. Journal of Phycology 21: 154-167, 13 figs, 2 tables.
Asensi, A., Beucher, M. & Delepine, R. (1981). Etude sur la croissance et le developpement de Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. aux iles Kerguelen. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 278-289.
Barrales, H. (1976). Relevamiento de Macrocystis pyrifera y normas para su explotación. Inf. Téc. CNP 1.3.1: 74.
Barrales, H.L. & Lobban, C.S. (1975). The comparative ecology of Macrocystis pyrifera, with emphasis on the forests of Chubut, Argentina. Journal of Ecology 63: 657-677.
Beas-Luna, R. & Ladah, L.B. (2014). Latitudinal, seasonal, and small-scale spatial differences of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and an herbivore at their southern range limit in the northern hemisphere. Botanica Marina 57(2): 73-83.
Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. & Paternoster, I. (1980). Observaciones preliminares sobre la reproducción de Macrocystis pyrifera en la costa Argentina. Contribución CNP 30: 9.
Boraso de Zaixso, A.L., Zaixso, H. & Taylor, R. (1982). Cortes experimentales en bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones (prov. de Chubut, Rep. Argentina). Contribución CNP 67: 22.
Boraso, A.L. & Taylor, R. (1980). Dinámica de los bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones (Chubut). Resultado de las campañas I y II (8/77-5/78 y 7/78-4/79). Contribución CENPAT 24: 16.
Borras-Chavez, R., Edwards, M.S., Arvizu-Higuera, D.L., Rodríguez-Montesinos, Y.E., Hernández-Carmona, G. & Briceño-Domínguez, D. (2016). Repetitive harvesting of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) and its effects on chemical constituents of economic value. Botanica Marina 59(1): 63-71.
Brown, M.B., Edwards, M.S. & Kim, K.Y. (2014). Effects of climate change on the physiology of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and grazing by purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 29(3): 203-215.
Brown, M.T., Nyman, M.A., Keogh, J.A. & Chin, N.K.M. (1997). Seasonal growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in New Zealand. Marine Biology, Berlin 129: 417-424.
Brzezinski, M.A., Reed, D.C. & Amsler, C.D. (1993). Neutral lipids as major storage products in zoospores of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 16 -23, 5 figs, 1 table.
Buggeln, R.G., Fensom, D.S. & Emerson, C.J. (1985). Translocation of 11C-photoassimilate in the blade of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 21: 35-40.
Buschmann, A.H., Moreno, C., Vasquez, J.A. & Hernandez-Gonzalez, M.C. (2007). Reproduction strategies of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) in Southern Chile: The importance of population dynamics. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 349-356.
Butler, A., Soedjak, H.S., Polnefuller, M., Gibor, A., Boyen, C. & Kloareg, B. (1990). Studies of Vanadium-bromoperoxidase using surface and cortical protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 589-592.
Candia, A., Romo, H., Alveal, K. & Dellarossa, V. (1979). Cultivo unialgal de Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. de la Bahía de Concepción-Chile. Rickia 8: 75-83.
Carney, L.T. & Edwards, M.S. (2010). Role of nutrient fluctuations and delayed development in gametophyte reproduction by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) in southern California. Journal or Phycology 46(5): 987-996.
Cazon, J.P., Viera, M., Sala, S. & Donati, E. (2014). Biochemical characterization of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) in relation to their potentiality as biosorbents. Phycologia 53(1): 100-108.
Chirife, J. & Gardner, R. G. (1969). Características de secado de algas de la especie: Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 671-684.
Clendennen, S.K., Zimmerman, R.C., Powers, D.A. & Alberte, R.S. (1996). Photosynthetic response of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) to ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Phycology 32: 614-620, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Clendenning, K. A. (1964). Photosynthesis and growth in Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 55-65.
Clendenning, K.A. (1962). Determination of fresh weight, solids, ash and equilibrium moisture in Macrocystis pyrifera. Botanica Marina 3-4: 204-218.
Colombo-Pallotta, M.F., Garcia-Mendoza, E. & Ladah, L.B. (2006). Photosynthetic performance, light absorption, and pigment composition of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) blades from different depths. Journal of Phycology 42: 1225-1234.
Correa, T., Gutiérrez, A., Flores, R., Buschmann, A.J., Cornejo, P. & Bucarey, C. (2016). Production and economic assesment of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera cultivation for abalone feed in the south of Chile. Aquaculture Research 47(3): 698-707.
Coyer, J.A., Robertson, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1994). Genetic variability within a population and between diploid/haploid tissue of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 30: 545-552, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Coyer, J.A., Robertson, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1995). Genetic variability and parentage in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) using multi-locus DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Phycology 31: 819-823, 2 tables.
Coyer, J.A., Steller, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1995). Note: A field-compatible method for extraction of fingerprint-quality DNA from Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 177-180, 2 figs, 1 table.
Cribb, A.B. (1954). Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) Ag. in Tasmanian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5: 1-34.
Davison, I.R. & Polne-Fuller, M. (1990). Note: Photosynthesis in protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 383-387, 3 figs.
Davison, I.R. & Polnefuller, M. (1990). Photosynthesis in Protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 384-387.
de Nys, R., Jameson, P.E. & Brown, M.T. (1991). The influence of cytokinins on the growth of Macrocystis pyrifera. Botanica Marina 34: 465-467.
de Nys, R., Jameson, P.E., Chin, N., Brown, M.T. & Sanderson, K.J. (1990). The cytokinins as endogenous growth regulators in Macrocystis pyrifera (I.) C. Ag. (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 33: 467-475.
Dean, T.A. & Jacobsen, F.R. (1984). Growth of juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales) in relation to environmental factors. Marine Biology, Berlin 83: 301-311.
Delf, E.M. & Levyn, M. (née M. Michell) (1926). Reproduction in Macrocystis pyrifera, Ag.. An. Bot. 40: 503-506.
Devinny, J.S. & Volse, L.A. (1978). Effects of sediments on the development of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes. Marine Biology 48: 343-348.
Deysher, L.E. & Dean, T.A. (1984). Critical irradiance levels and the interactive effects of quantum irradiance and dose on gametogenesis in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Journal of Phycology 20: 520-524, 3 figs, 1 table.
Deysher, L.E. & Dean, T.A. (1986). Interactive effects of light and temperature on sporophyte production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, Berlin 93: 17-20.
Dixon, J., Schroeter, S.C. & Kastendiek, J. (1981). Effects of the encrusting Bryozoan, Membranipora membranacea, on the loss of blades and fronds by the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 17: 341-345, 1 fig, 6 tables.
Dizerbo, A.-H. & Floc'h, J.-Y. (1974). L'algue geante Macrocystis pyrifera et le probleme de son introduction. Penn ar Bed 9(No 78): 407-415.
Drobnitch, S.T., Nickols, K. & Edwards, M. (2017). Abiotic influences on bicarbonate use in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in the Monterey Bay. Journal of Phycology 53(1): 85-94.
Druehl, L. D. (1984). Morphological and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera in nitrate enrichment. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 471-474.
Druehl, L.D. (1984). Morphological and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera to nitrate enrichment. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 471-474.
Eardley, D.D., Sutton, C.W., Hempel, W.M., Reed, D.C. & Ebeling, A.W. (1990). Monoclonal anitbodies specific for sulfated polysaccharides on the surface of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 54-62, 8 figs, 1 table.
Edgar, G.J. (1987). Dispersal of faunal and floral propagules associated with drifting Macrocystis pyrifera plants. Marine Biology, Berlin 95: 599-610.
Eyras, M.C. & Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1994). Observaciones sobre la fertilidad de los esporofitos de Macrocystis pyrifera en la costa Argentina. Naturalia Patagónica 2: 33-47.
Fain, S.R. & Murray, S.N. (1982). Effects of light and temperature on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of gametophytes and embryonic sporophytes of Macrocystis pyrifera. Journal of Phycology 18: 92-98.
Fernández, P.A., Hurd, C.L. & Roleda, M.Y. (2014). Bicarbonate uptake via an anion exchange protein is the main mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) under variable pH. Journal of Phycology 50(6): 998-1008.
Fork, D.C., Herbert, S.K. & Malkin, S. (1991). Light energy distribution in the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp). Plant Physiol 95(3): 731-739.
Foster, M.S. (1975). Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Marine Biology, Berlin 32: 313-329.
Foster, M.S. (1975). Regulation of algal community development in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Marine Biology, Berlin 32: 331-342.
Fox, M.D. (2013). Resource translocation drives delta13C fractionation during recovery from disturbance in giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Letter). Journal of Phycology 49(5): 811-815.
Gerard, V. A. & North, W. J. (1984). Measuring growth, production, and yield of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 321-324.
Gerard, V.A. & Kirkman, H. (1984). Ecological observations on a branched , loose-lying form of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agaradh in New Zeland. Botanica Marina 27: 105-109.
Gherardini, G. L. & North, W. J. (1972). Electron microscopic studies of Macrocystis pyrifera zoospores, gametophytes, and early sporophytes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 172-180.
Grenville, D.J., Petersen, R.L., Barrales, H.L. & Gerrath, J.F. (1982). Structure and development of the secretory cells and duct system in Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. A. Agardh. Journal of Phycology 18: 232-240.
Gutierrez, A., Correa, T., Munoz, V., Santibanez, A., Marcos, R., Caceres, C. & Buschmann, A.H. (2007). Farming of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern Chile for development of novel food products. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 33-41.
Guzmán del Próo, S.A., de la Campa de Guzmán, S. & Granados, J.L. (1971). El sargazo gigante (Macrocystis pyrifera) y su explotación en Baja California. Rev. Soc. Mex. de Hist. Nat., México 32(12): 15-57.
Haines, K.C. & Wheeler, P.A. (1978). Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 319-324, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Hall, M.A. & Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1981). Ciclo de los bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones, prov. de Chubut, Argentina. Ecosur 6(12): 165-184.
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