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Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck]

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Trebouxiophyceae
Order Chlorellales
Family Chlorellaceae
Genus Chlorella

Pictures

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Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck]
Original plate; Chlorella vulgaris is Fig. 2. 31 Jan 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry.

Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck]
Seattle, Washington, USA; cement wall, 1000x, DIC. 01 Nov 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

 

Lithothamnion patena (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Heydrich

Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck] Original plate; Chlorella vulgaris is Fig. 2
© M.D. Guiry

Publication details
Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck] 1890: 758, pl. VII: fig. 2 a-d

Published in: Beyerinck [Beijerinck], M.W. (1890). Culturversuche mit Zoochlorellen, Lichenengonidien und anderen niederen Algen. Botanische Zeitung 47: 725-739, 741-754, 757-768, 781-785.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Chlorella.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), common, general, ordinary (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Chlorella pyrenoidosa var. duplex (Kützing) West
Pleurococcus beijerinckii Artari 1892
Chlorella communis Artari 1906
Chlorella vulgaris var. viridis Chodat 1913
Chlorella terricola Gollerbach [Hollerbach] 1936
Chlorella candida Shihira & R.W.Krauss 1965

Nomenclatural notes
Martinus Willem Beijerinck (1861-1931), who also used the spelling Beyerinck, at least in German publications, was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist. Born in Amsterdam, he studied at the Technical School of Delft, where he was awarded the degree of Chemical Engineer in 1872. He obtained his Doctor of Science degree from the University of Leiden in 1877 ( Wikipedia). - (31 Jan 2012) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Potential wastewater treatment (Perez-Garcia et al. 2010, 2011). - (8 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

suitable pioneer organism for soil restoration (Lin & Wu 2014). - (1 Apr 2014) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater/terrestrial species.

Type information
Type locality: [Pond near Delft, The Netherlands] (Hanagata et al. 1998: 222).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Chlorella pyrenoidosa var. duplex (Kützing) West)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck])
Arctic: Arctic (Patova, Davdov & Andreeva 2015), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Matula et al. 2007).

Europe: Austria (Ettl & Gärtner 1995), Balearic Islands (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Britain (John & Tsarenko 2002, Whitton et al. 2003, Müller et al 2005, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), Czech Republic (Hasler, Handák & Handákova 2007, Stirk et al. 2013 ), Denmark (Rindi & Guiry 2004), France (Rindi & Guiry 2004, Anon. 2017), Georgia (Barinova et al. 2011, Barinova & Kukhaleishvili 2014, Barinova & Kukhaleishvili 2017), Germany (Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Müller et al 2005, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016), Netherlands (Müller et al 2005, Gustavs et al. 2011, Krienitz et al. 2012, Veen et al. 2015), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Russia (Europe) (Patova & Demina 2007, Novakovskaya & Patova 2008, Novakovskaya & Patova 2008, Novakovskaya, Patova & Shabalina 2012, Patova & Novakovskaya 2018), Scandinavia (Karlason et al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016, Hindák & Hindáková 2016, Hindák & Hindáková 2016, Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Álvarez Cobelas 1982, Aboal & Llimona 1984, Aboal & Llimona 1984b, Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Aboal 1996, Aboal 1996, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Uher, Aboal & Kovacik 2004, Müller et al 2005, Uher et al. 2005, Fanés Treviño, Comas González & Sánchez Castillo 2009), Sweden (Skuja 1948, Müller et al 2005), Turkey (Europe) (Aysel 2005), Ukraine (Tsarenko 2011, Malakhov, Kryvosheia & Tsarenko 2017, Berezovskaya 2019).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Xavier et al. 2018), Iceland (Ettl & Gärtner 1995).

North America: Aleutian Islands (Skuja 1969, Durrell 1969), Arkansas (AR) (Smith 2010), Great Lakes (Prescott 1962), Mexico (Figueroa-Torres et al. 2015, Galindo-Alcázar et al. 2018), Northwest Territories (Sheath & Steinman 1982), Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995), Tennessee (TN) (Johansen et al. 2007).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Comas González 2009).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Brazil (Bicudo et al. 1999, Ferragut et al. 2005, Fonseca & Bicudo 2008, Menezes 2010).

Africa: Egypt (Nassar & Khairy 2014, Nassar & Kham 2014), Ghana (Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Sudan (Reinhold 1937).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2008), India (Gupta 2012), Iran (Afsharzadeh et al. 2003), Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013), Pakistan (Shahnaz et al. 2007, Hussain et al. 2010), Turkey (Asia) (Soylu & Gonulol 2006).

Asia: China (Hu & Wei 2006), Japan (Hirose, Yamagishi & Akiyama 1977, Ettl & Gärtner 1995), Korea (Cho et al. 2013 ), Nepal (Ettl & Gärtner 1995), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Yamamoto & Shiah 2012), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015, Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Pham et al. 2011).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Chapman, Thompson & Segar 1957, Broady et al. 2012), Queensland (Day et al. 1995), Victoria (Day et al. 1995).

(as Chlorella vulgaris var. viridis Chodat)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Chlorella terricola Gollerbach [Hollerbach])
Arctic: Arctic (Patova, Davdov & Andreeva 2015).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Key references
Andreyeva, V.M (1998). Poczvennye i aerophilnye zelyonye vodorosli (Chlorophyta: Tetrasporales, Chlorococcales, Chlorosarcinales). Terrestrial and aerophilic green algae (Chlorophyta: Tetrasporales, Chlorococcales, Chlorosarcinales). pp. [1]-349, [2], 108 pls. St Petersberg: "NAUKA".

Ettl, H. & Gärtner, G. (1995). Syllabus der Boden-, Luft- und Flechtenalgen. pp. i-vii, 1-721. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Fott, B. & Nováková, M. (1969). A monograph of the genus Chlorella. The freshwater species. In: Studies in Phycology. (Fott, B. Eds), pp. 10-74. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart'sche.

Gors, M., Schumann, R., Gustavs, L. & Karsten, U. (2010). The potential of ergosterol as chemotaxonomic marker to differenciate between "Chlorella" species (Chlorophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1296-1300.

Hindák, F. (1980). Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). II. Biologicke Práce 26: 1-195.

Hindák, F. (1984). Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae) III. Biologické Práce 30: 1-312.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Khaybullina, L.S., Gaysina, L.A., Johansen, J.R. & Krautova, M. (2010). Examination of the terrestrial algae of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Fottea, Olomouc 10: 201-215.

Komárek, J. & Fott, B. (1983). Chlorophyceae (Grünalgen) Ordnung: Chlorococcales. Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers. In: Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers (Die Binnengewässer) XVI. (Huber-Pestalozzi, G. Eds), pp. [1]-x, [1]-1044. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlangbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller).

Korshikov, A.A. (1953). Viznachnik prisnovodnihk vodorostey Ukrainsykoi RSR [Vyp] V. Pidklas Protokokovi (Protococcineae). Bakuol'ni (Vacuolales) ta Protokokovi (Protococcales) [The Freshwater Algae of the Ukrainian SSR. V. Sub-Class Protococcineae. Vacuolales and Protococcales]. pp. 1-439. Kyjv [Kiev]: Akad. NAUK URSR.

Krienitz, L., Hegewald, E.H., Hepperle, D., Huss, V.A.R., Rohr, T. & Wolf, M. (2004). Phylogenetic relationship of Chlorella and Parachlorella gen. nov. (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Phycologia 43: 529-542, 19 figs, 3 tables.

Lin, C.S. & Wu, J.T. (2014). Tolerance of soil algae and cyanobacteria to drought stress. Journal of Phycology 50(1): 131-139.

Phillipson, J. (1935). Some algae of Victorian soils. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, New Series 47: 262-287, 33 figs.

Rindi, F. & Guiry, M.D. (2004). Composition and spatial variability of terrestrial algal assemblages occurring at the bases of urban walls in Europe. Phycologia 43: 225-235.

Shahnaz, A., Zarina, A., Masud-ul-Hasan & Shameel, M. (2007). Survey of some Volvocophyta Shameel from Lahore, Pakistan. International Journal of Phycology and Phycochemistry 3(2): 205-212.

Shihira, I. & Krauss, R.W. (1965). Chlorella. Physiology and taxonomy of forty-one isolates. pp. 1-97. Maryland: University of Maryland, College Park.

Toepel, J., Langner, U. & Wilhelm, C. (2005). Combination of flow cytometry and single cell absorption spectroscopy to study the phytoplankton structure and to calculate the chl a specific absorption coefficients at the taxon level. Journal of Phycology 41(6): 1099-1109.

Tsarenko, P.M. & John, D.M. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Chlorellales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 475-499. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tsarenko, P.M. (2011). Trebouxiophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 61-108. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Yamamoto, M., Nozaki, H., Miyazawa, Y., Koide, T. & Kawano, S. (2003). Relationship between presence of a mother cell wall and speciation in the unicellular microalga Nannochloris (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 39(1): 172-184.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 22 November 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 39646 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Cacco, G. & Ferrari, G. (1975). Isolation of nitrosoguanidine-induced Chlorella vulgaris mutants with high methionine content. Journal of Phycology 11: 139-141, 3 tables.
Caporgno, M.P., Olkiewicz, M., Fortuny, A., Stuber, F., Fabregat, A., Font, J., Pruvost, J., Lepine, O., Legrand, J. & Bengoa, C. (2016). Evaluation of different strategies to produce biofuels from Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris. Fuel Processing Technology 144: 132-138.
Chia, M.A., Lombardi, A.T., Da Graca Gama Melao, M. & Parrish, C.C. (2013). Effects of cadmium and nitrogen on lipid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 48(1): 1-11.
Coder, D.M. & Starr, M.P. (1978). Antagonistic association of the chlorellavorus bacterium ("Belloviobrio" chlorellavorus) with Chlorella vulgaris. Cur. Microbiol. 1: 59-64.
Creed, I.F., Havas, M. & Trick, C.G. (1990). Effects of arsenate on growth of nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae) isolates. Journal of Phycology 26: 641-650.
de-Bashan, L.E., Antoun, H. & Bashan, Y. (2008). Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by the growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp. in promoting growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Phycology 44: 938-947.
de-Bashan, L.E., Magallon, P., Antoun, H. & Bashan, Y. (2008). Role of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in Chlorella vulgaris during assimilation of ammonium when jointly immobilized with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Journal of Phycology 44: 1188-1196.
de-Bashan, L.E., Schmid, M., Rothballer, M., Hartmann, A. & Bashan, Y. (2011). Cell-cell interaction in the eukaryote-prokaryote model of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense immobilized in polymer beads. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1350-1359.
Eixler, S., Karsten, U. & Selig, U. (2006). Phosphorus storage in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) cells and its dependence on phosphate supply. Phycologia 45: 53-60.
Escapa, C., Coimbra, R.N., Paniagua, S., García, A.I. & Otero, M. (2017). Comparison of the culture and harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris and Tetradesmus obliquus for the removal of pharmaceuticals from water. Journal of Applied Phycology 29(3): 1179-1193.
Evens, T.J. & Niedz, R.P. (2010). Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 45(3): 247-257.
Gouveia, L., Choubert, G., Gomes, E., Rema, P. & Empis, J. (1998). Use of Chlorella vulgaris as a carotenoid source for rainbow trout: effect of dietary lipid content on pigmentation, digestibility and retention in the muscle tissue.. Aquaculture International 6: 269-279.
Hosmani, S.P. (1976). Effect of extract of Microcystis aeruginosa on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzenphysiol 51: 321-324.
Kong, S.-K. & Toshiuki, N. (2002). Activity of Chlorella vulgaris associated by Escherichia coli W3110 on removal of total organic carbon in continuous river water flow system. Algae 17(3): 195-199, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Maeda, S., Mizoguchi, M., Ohki, A. & Takeshita, T. (1990). Bioaccumulation of Zinc and Cadmium in freshwater alga, Chlorella vulgaris .1. toxicity and accumulation. Chemosphere 21(8): 953-963.
Maeda, S., Mizoguchi, M., Ohki, A., Inanaga, J. & Takeshita, T. (1990). Bioaccumulation of Zinc and Cadmium in freshwater alga, Chlorella vulgaris .2. association mode of the metals and cell tissue. Chemosphere 21(8): 965-973.
Mahdy, A., Méndez, L., Tomás-Pejó, E., Morales, M.M., Ballesteros, M. & González-Fernández, C. (2016). Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the biochemical methane potential of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 91(5): 1299-1305.
Martinez, F., Ascaso, C. & Orus, M.I. (1991). Morphometric and stereologic analysis of Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic growth conditions. Ann Bot 67(3): 239-245.
Muñoz, M.J., Ramos, C. & Tarazona, J.V. (1996). Bioaccumulation and toxicity of hexachlorobenzene in Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. Aquatic Toxicology 35: 211-220.
Müller, J., Friedl, T., Hepperle, D., Lorenz, M. & Day, J.G. (2005). Distinction between multiple isolates of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) and testing for conspecificity using amplified fragment length polymorphism and ITS rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 41: 1236-1247.
Nasir, N.T.B.M., Sahin, S., Cakmak, Z.E. & Cakmak, T. (2017). Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction via multiresponse surface for high antioxidant recovery from Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta). Phycologia 56(5): 561-569.
Oyamada, N., Takahashi, G. & Ishizaki, M. (1991). Methylation of inorganic selenium compounds by freshwater green algae, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorella vulgaris and Selenastrum sp.. Eisei Kagaku-Japan J Tox Envi 37(2): 83-88.
Patterson, G.W. (1967). The effect of culture conditions on the hydrocarbon content ofChlorella vulgaris. Journal of Phycology 3: 22-23, 2 figs.
Perez-Garcia, O., Bashan, Y. & Puente, M.E. (2011). Organic carbon supplementation of sterilized municipal wastewater is essential for heterotrophic growth and removing ammonium by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Phycology 47(1): 190-199.
Perez-Garcia, O., de-Bashan, L.E., Hernandez, J.-P. & Bashan, Y. (2010). Efficiency of growth and nutrient uptake from wastewater by heterotrophic, autotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense. Journal of Phycology 46(4): 800-812.
Post, A.F., Cohen, I. & Romem, E. (1994). Characterization of two Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae) strains isolated from wastewater oxidation ponds. Journal of Phycology 30: 950-954, 5 figs, 2 tables.
Puglisi, I., Barone, V., Sidella, S., Coppa, M., Broccanello, C., Gennari, M. & Baglieri A. (2018). Biostimulant activity of humic-like substances from agro-industrial waste on Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda. European Journal of Phycology 53(3): 433-442.
Rachlin, J.W. & Grosso, A. (1991). The effects of pH on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and its interactions with Cadmium toxicity. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20(4): 505-508.
Ramos Targarona, R. & Pizarro, R. (2018). Crecimiento y capacidad de biorremediación de Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) cultivada en aguas residuales generadas en el cultivo del pez dorado Seriola lalandi (Perciformes: Carangidae). Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 53(1): 75-86.
Ting, Y.P., Lawson, F. & Prince, I.G. (1991). Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc by the alga Chlorella vulgaris .2. Multi-ion situation. Biotechnol Bioeng 37(5): 445-455.
Vinarova, K., Chankova, S. & Jordanova, S. (1983). Ultrastructure and pigment composition of 2 Chlorella vulgaris B mutant forms. Genetika i Selektsiya 16: 151-156.
Zaidi, B. R. & Tosteson, T. R. (1972). Differential adhesion of Chlorella vulgaris during the cell cycle. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 323-328.
Zhao, J., Yang, L., Zhou, L., Bai, Y., Wang, B., Hou, P., Xu, Q., Yang, W. & Zuo, Z. (2016). Inhibitory effects of eucalyptol and limonene on the photosynthetic abilities in Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 55(6): 696-702.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 July 2019.

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