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Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Codiaceae
Genus Codium

Pictures

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Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland. 14 Jun 2011. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland. 14 Jun 2011. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, sporangium; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Pontevedra, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, mucronate utricle; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Pontevedra, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, sporangium, hair and utricle; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Pontevedra, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, mucronate utricle; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Aldán,. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, utricles; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Aldán,. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot
microscope, sporangia; Spain, Galicia, Ría de Aldán, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot Groton, Connecticut, USA; low intertidal to subtidal

Publication details
Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: 32

Published in: Hariot, P. (1889). Algues. In: Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn. 1882-1883. Tome V. Botanique. (Hariot, P., Petit, P., Muller De Argovie, J., Bescherelle, E., Massolongo, C. & Franchet, A. Eds), pp. 3-109. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Fils, Imprimieurs Libraires.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Codium is Codium tomentosum Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Acanthocodium fragile Suringar

Type information
Type locality: Japan (Suringar 1867: 258). Type: L 910, 187...1712 (Womersley 1984: 238).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), fragile (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides Van Goor 1923
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goor) P.C.Silva 1955
Codium fragile subsp. capense P.C.Silva 1959

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot)
Europe: Britain (Brodie et al. 2007), Netherlands (Gittenberger et al. 2010 ), Norway (Armitage et al. 2014), Spain (Invernón et al. 2009, Bermejo et al. 2010).

Africa: Tunisia (Cherif et al. 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Nelson et al. 2014), North Island, NZ (Armitage et al. 2017), Victoria (Shepherd et al. 2009).

(as Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goor) P.C.Silva)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Gallardo et al. 1993, Battelli & Vukovic 1995, Battelli 1996), Balearic Islands (Pericás 1984, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993), Britain (Burrows 1991, Hardy & Guiry 2003), Channel Islands (Trowbridge, Farnham & White 2004, Trowbridge & Farnham 2004), Corsica (Gallardo et al. 1993), France (Feldmann & Magne 1964, Gallardo et al. 1993, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007), Ireland (Parkes 1975, Guiry 1977, Guiry 1978, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994, Stokes, O'Neill & McDonald 2004), Isla de Alborán (Conde & Flores Moya 2000), Italy (Gallardo et al. 1993, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Spain (Ballesteros 1981, Gómez, Ribera & Romero 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Barcelo & Seoane 1982, Gallardo et al. 1985, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Pérez-Cirera, Cremades & Bárbara 1989, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Gallardo et al. 1993, Cremades Ugarte, J. (1995), Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Bárbara et al., 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Bárbara et al. 2005, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Peña & Bárbara 2008), Turkey (Europe) (Gallardo et al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 2005), Canary Islands (John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011, Anon. 2011).

North America: California (Silva 1979, Goff, Liddle, Silva, Voytek & Coleman 1992), Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979, Schneider & Searles 1991), Maine (Schneider & Searles 1991, Mathieson et al. 2001, Prince & Trowbridge 2004, Lam & Zechman 2006), Massachusetts (Schneider & Searles 1991), New Brunswick (Kusakina et al 2006), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Schneider & Searles 1991), New Jersey (Schneider & Searles 1991), New York (Schneider & Searles 1991, Goff, Liddle, Silva, Voytek & Coleman 1992), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991, Goff, Liddle, Silva, Voytek & Coleman 1992), Nova Scotia (Bégin & Scheibling 2003, Kusakina et al 2006, Schmidt & Scheibling 2006), Rhode Island (Schneider & Searles 1991).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo et al. 1993), Tunisia (Gallardo et al. 1993).

South-west Asia: Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: China (Xu & Gao 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Silva 1979, Adams 1994, Nelson 1999 ), South Australia (Womersley 2003), Victoria (Womersley 2003).

(as Codium fragile subsp. capense P.C.Silva)
Africa: Namibia (Wynne 1986, Rull Lluch 2002, John et al. 2004), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997).

Key references
Armitage, P.R., Nelson, W.A. & Sutherland, J.E. (2017). Mismatch of morphological and molecular identifications in native and invasive subspecies of Codium fragile (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 218-229.

Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.

Gittenberger, A., Rensing, M., Stegenga, H. & Hoeksema, B. (2010). Native and non-native species of hard substrata in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Nederlandse faunistische Mededelingen No. 33: 21-75.

Created: 29 December 2007 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 April 2017 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 9081 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Armitage, C.S., Sjotun, K. & Jensen, K,H. (2014). Correlative evidence for competition between Fucus serratus and the introduced chlorophyte Codium fragile subsp. fragilie on the southwest coast of Norway. Botanica Marina 57(2): 85-97.
Armitage, P.R., Nelson, W.A. & Sutherland, J.E. (2017). Mismatch of morphological and molecular identifications in native and invasive subspecies of Codium fragile (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 218-229.
Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E. (2003). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina 46: 404-412.
Blunden, G., Fletcher, R.L., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). An unusual growth form of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subspecies tomentosoides (Goor) Silva found on floating structures in the Solent. British Phycological Journal 24: 299.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Mitosis and mitotic activity in Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 8: 149-155.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Reproduction and early development on Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot: Chlorophyceae. Phycologia 8: 91-99.
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.
Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.
Carlton, J.T. & Scanlon, J.A. (1985). Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina 28: 155-165.
Chapman, A.S. (1999). From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 277-289.
Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.
Churchill, A.C. & Moeller, H.W. (1972). Seasonal patterns of reproduction in New York. Population of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva.. Journal of Phycology 8: 147-152.
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Cuesta Moliner, C. (2006). Macroalgas invasoras del Principado de Asturias: situación actual de Codium fragile. In: (GEIB: Grupo Especialista en Investigaciones Biológicas, eds.) Resúmenes del II Congreso Nacional sobre Especies Exóticas Invasoras, León, p. 71. ( Eds)
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Rico Ordás, J.M. (2007). Distribución, crecimiento y fenología del alga invasora Codium fragile y su congénere nativa Codium tomentosum. In: (Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, eds.) I Congreso de Estudios Asturianos (2006) Tomo VI. Comisión de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y Tecnología, Oviedo, pp. 145-161. ( Eds)
Delgado, A. & Duville, C.A. (1977). Estudio de la composición química de Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyta) en Pto. Deseado (Prov. de Santa Cruz, Argentina). Contribución Técnica CIBIMA 31: 9.
Dromgoole, F.I. (1975). Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 257-264.
Drouin, A., McKindsey, C. & Johnson, L. (2011). Detecting the impacts of notorious invaders: experiments versus observations in the invasion of eelgrass meadows by the green seaweed Codium fragile. Oecología : .
Feldmann, J. (1956). Sur la parthénogénèse du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot dans la Méditerranée. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 243: 305-307.
Fletcher, R.L., Blunden, G., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). J Appl Phycol 1: 227-237.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia 11: 67-70.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1973). Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Marine Biology, Berlin 19: 127-132.
Furnari, G. (1974). Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in the Lake Faro (Messina). Mem Biol Marina e Oceanogr 4: 193-199.
Furnari, G. (1974). Segnalazione di Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot nel lago di Faro (Messina). Mem. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 4: 193-199.
Garbary, D.J., Vandermeulen, H. & Kim, K.Y. (1997). Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) Invades the Gulf of St Lawrence , Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 40: 537-540.
Griffin, R.L., Rogers, D.J., Spencer-Phillips, P.T. & Swain, L. (1995). Lectin from Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides conjugated to colloidal gold: a new histochemical reagent.. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 52: 225-227.
Hanisak, M.D. & Harlin, M.M. (1978). Uptake of inorganic nitrogen by Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 450-454, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Hanisak, M.D. (1979). Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on growth of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 15: 124-127.
Hedberg, M.F., Huang, Y.-S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1981). Size of the chloroplast genome in Codium fragile. Science 213: 445-447.
Hewad, W.D. & Carpenter, E.J. (1975). Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 815-823.
Hubbard, C.B. & Garbary, D.J. (2002). Morphological variation of Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) in Eastern Canada. Botanica Marina 45: 476-485.
Hwang, E.K., Baek, J.M. & Park, C.S. (2009). Cultivation of the green alga, Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, by artificial seed production in Korea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 19-25, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Jónsson, S. & Gunnarsson, K. (1975). La presence du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot en Islande et son extension dans l'Atlantique Nord. Nova Hedwigia 26: 725-732.
Jurd, K.M., Rogers, D.J., Blunden, G. & McLellan, D.S. (1995). Anticoagulant properties of sulphated polysaccharides and a proteoglycan from Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum. J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 339-345.
Kadokami, K., Yoshida, N., Mizusaki, K., Noda, K. & Makisumi, S. (1990). Some properties of trypsin-like proteases extracted from the seaweed Codium fragile and their purification. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(3): 513-517.
Kim, K.Y. & Garbary, D.J. (2007). Photosynthesis in Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) from a Nova Scotia estuary: responses to desiccation and hyposalinity . Marine Biology, Berlin 151: 99-107.
Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.
Lassen, C., Bebout, L.E., Paerl, H.W. & Jørgensen, B.B. (1994). Microsensor studies of oxygen and light distribution in the green macroalga Codium fragile. Journal of Phycology 30: 381-386, 7 figs.
Loveless, R.W. & Rogers, D.J. (1985). Biochemical studies on the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 188.
Malinowski, K.C. & Ramus, J. (1973). Growth of the green alga Codium fragile in a Connecticut estuary. Journal of Phycology 9: 102-110.
Manhart, J.R. & VonderHaar, R.A. (1991). Intron revealed by nucleotide sequence of large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Codium fragile (Chlorophyta): phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Phycology 27: 613-617, 3 figs.
Matheson, K., McKenzie, C.H., Sargent, P.S., Hurley, M. & Wells, T. (2014). Northward expansion of the invasive green algae Codium fragile spp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 into coastal waterd of Newfoundland, Canada. Bioinvasions Rec. 3: 151-158.
Mathieson, A.C., Dawes, C.J., Harris, L.G. & Hehre, E.J. (2003). Expansion of the Asiatic green alga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine. Rhodora 105(921): 1-53.
Meslin, R. (1954). Sur la naturalisation du Codium fragile (Suring.) Hariot et son extension aux côtes de Normandie. Bull. Lab. Mar. Dinard 49-50: 110-117.
Miravalles, A.B., Leonardi, P.I. & Cáceres, E.J. (2011). Male gametogenesis ultrastructure of Codium fragile subsp. novae-zelandiae (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 50(4): 370-378.
Ortiz, J., Uquiche, E., Robert, P., Romero, N., Quitral, N., & Llantén, C. (2009). Functional and nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Codium fragile, Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 111: 320-?.
Park, C.S. & Sohn, C.H. (1992). Effects of light and temperature on morphogenesis of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in laboratory culture. Korean Journal of Phycology 7(2): 213-223, 10 figs, 1 table.
Prince, J.S. (1988). Sexual reproduction in Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) from the northeast coast of North America. Journal of Phycology 24: 112-114.
Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.
Ramus, J. (1972). Differentiation of the green alga Codium fragile. American Journal of Botany 59: 478-482.
Raven, J.A. & Osmond, C.B. (1990). Bicarbonate use in photosynthesis by brown macroalgae and Codium fragile from North Carolina. British Phycological Journal 25: 94.
Ricketts, T.R. (1971). The structures of siphonein and siphonoxanthin from Codium fragile. Phytochemistry 10: 155-160.
Rogers, D.J. & Loveless, R.W. (1985). Receptor-specificity differences in the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 190-191.
Rogers, D.J., Jurd, K., Blunden, G., Zanetti, F. & Paoletti, S. (1990). Anticoagulant activity in extracts of the green alga Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum. British Phycological Journal 25: 96.
Scheibling, R.E. & Melady, R.A. (2008). Effect of water movement and substratum type on vegetative recruitment of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Botanica Marina 51: 341-349.
Schmidt, A.L. & Scheibling, R.E. (2006). A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada.. Botanica Marina 49: 315-330.
Searles, R.B., Hommersand, M.H. & Amsler, C.D. (1984). The occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides and C. taylorii (Chlorophyta) in North Carolina. Botanica Marina 27: 185-187.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1995). Establishment of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on New Zealand rocky shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers. Journal of Ecology 83: 949-965.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1998). Ecology of the green macroalga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: invasive and non-invasive subspecies. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 36: 1-64.
Trowbridge, C.D. (2001). Coexistence of introduced and native congeneric algae: Codium fragile and C. tomentosum on Irish rocky intertidal shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 931-937.
Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.
Wassman, E.R. & Ramus, J. (1973). Primary-production measurements for the green seaweed Codium fragile in Long Island Sound. Marine Biology, Berlin 21: 289-297.
Williams, M.L. & Cobb, A.H. (1985). Effects of irradiance and light quality on starch synthesis by isolated chloroplasts of Codium fragile. New Phytologist 101: 79-88.
Yotsui, T. & Migita, S. (1989). Cultivation of a green alga Codium fragile by regeneration of medullary threads. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55: 41-44.
Yu, S. & Pedersén, M. (1989). Light/DTT-activated fructose bisphosphatase in isolated chloroplasts from the marine green macroalga Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot. Botanica Marina 32: 79-84.

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Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 27 June 2017.

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