148,407 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,273 images, 57,042 bibliographic items, 360,092 distributional records.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Bonnemaisoniales
Family Bonnemaisoniaceae
Genus Asparagopsis

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
being used by the crab Macropodia deflexa at Hannafore, Cornwall.. 03 Apr 2017. David Fenwick. © David Fenwick.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
being used by the crab Macropodia deflexa at Hannafore, Cornwall.. 03 Apr 2017. David Fenwick. © David Fenwick.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
subtidal with Cystoseira baccata, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
ubtidal with Cystoseira baccata, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
1, 2. In habitat, subtidal, Cape Ba Lang An (Vietnam).. 29 Feb 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru). © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
Collected near Roscoff (F), Dec 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
Galicia, Ría de Muros, 2011. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
Spain, North of Galicia, 2009. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
Spain, North of Galicia, 2009. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Asparagopsis armata Harvey
Spain, North of Galicia, 2009. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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42 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Halarachnion ligulatum f. aciculare (Kützing) Hauck

Asparagopsis armata Harvey South of Spain, 2011

Publication details
Asparagopsis armata Harvey 1855: 544

Published in: Harvey, W.H. (1855). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of western Australia. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 22: 525-566.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Asparagopsis is Asparagopsis delilei Montagne.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), equipped, armed (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Polysiphonia rufolanosa Harvey 1855
Polysiphonia vagabunda Harvey 1859
Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz 1897
Falkenbergia vagabunda (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901
Falkenbergia olens A.H.S.Lucas 1919

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Asparagopsis armata Harvey)
English: Harpoon weed (Anon. 2000).

Gaeilge: Feamainn mhuirgha (Anon. 2000).

Description
In north-eastern Europe, gametophyte plants occurring from June or July - August or September (sometimes overwintering), pale purplish-red, quickly degenerating when removed from the water and becoming distinctly orange; fronds bushy, with a cylindrical axis to1 mm wide and 200 mm long, arising from bare, creeping stolons; irregularly branched, with 4 rows of branchlets, simple, short, branchlets alternating with longer ones with 4 rows of simple filamentous ramuli. Lower branchlets unbranched, long, tapered, with harpoon-like barbs. Tetrapsorophyte (“Falkenbergia-phase”) occurring all year round, but most obvious in October-March, brownish-red, much branched, filamentous, in dense cotton-wool-like tufts to 15 mm in diameter.

Habitat
Both phases readily reproduce vegetatively. Drift specimens of gametophyte readily attach to other algae by barbed branchlets, and produce new shoots. Introduced from Southern Hemisphere, the gametophyte was first recorded in Europe in 1925 (Cherbourg and Biarritz), arriving in the Ireland and Britain at Galway in 1941, and is now well established in open sandy pools of lower intertidal and subtidal, on rock or epiphytic (mainly on Ulva spp.)in the Channel Is, S England (Swanage to Scilly Is.) and S and W Ireland (Carnsore Pt, Co. Wexford; Magharees Lagoon, Co. Kerry; and from Finavarra, Co. Clare north to Clare I., Co. Mayo). Tetrasporophyte epiphytic, especially on Corallina, in similar habitats to gametophyte, but more widely distributed on western and southern coast N to Shetland Is.

Key characteristics
The harpoon-like hooks and bushy habit are unmistakable; association with Ulva.

Similar species
Bonnemaisonia hamifera occurs in similar habitats but has crozier-shaped attachment branchlets rather than recurved barbs.

Type information
Type locality: Garden Island, Western Australia (Womersley 1996: 329). Lectotype: Harvey; Herb. Harvey, TCD Trav. Set 193 (Womersley 1996: 329). Notes: Syntype localities: Garden Island and King George Sound, Western Australia; Tasmania (Silva et al. 1996: 182).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Asparagopsis armata Harvey)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Curiel et al. 2012), Britain (Dixon & Irvine 1977, Guiry 1997, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Brodie et al. 2016), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Croatia (Cormaci et al. 2004 ), France (Feldmann 1939, Cormaci et al. 2004 , Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Zubia et al. 2009, Anon. 2012), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954, Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Greece (Athanasiadis 1987, Cormaci et al. 2004 ), Ireland (De Valéra 1957, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Whelan & Cullinane 1985, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Stokes, O'Neill & McDonald 2004, Kraan & Barrington 2005, Sekimoto et al. 2009, Guiry 2012), Isla de Alborán (Conde & Flores Moya 2000), Italy (Cinelli 1971, Cinelli et al. 1976, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Furnari et al. 2003, Cormaci et al. 2004 , Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Serio et al 2006), Malta (Cormaci et al. 1997, Cormaci et al. 2004 ), Monaco (Cormaci et al. 2004 ), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997), Pelagean Islands (Alongi et al. 2012), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al., 2003, Araújo et al. 2009, Lopes et al. 2011), Sardinia (Furnari et al. 2003), Sicily (Alongi et al. 2012), Spain (Miranda 1934, Miranda 1936, Ardré 1957, Seoane-Camba 1965, Polo 1978, Varo, Ramirez & Renteria 1979, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Aranda, Niell & Fernández 1984, Conde 1984, García Raso & Salas 1984, Boisset & Barceló 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Anadón & Fernández 1986, Soto Moreno 1987, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Navarro & Gallardo 1989, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Flores-Moya & Conde 1992, Cremades Ugarte, J. (1995), Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Conde et al. 1996, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Valenzuela Miranda 2002, Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Cormaci et al. 2004 , Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2006, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Peña & Bárbara 2008, de los Santos, Pérez-Lloréns & Vergara 2009, Mercado et al. 2009, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Cormaci et al. 2004 , Taskin et al. 2008).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1985, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Ballesteros, Sansón, Reyes, Afonso-Carrillo & Gil-Rodríguez 1992, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, Haroun et al. 2002, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Parente et al. 2000, John et al. 2004).

North America: California (Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Miller 2012).

Central America: Costa Rica (Fernández-García et al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Panama (Fernández-García et al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004).

South America: Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Silva & Chacana 2005), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Africa: Algeria (Cormaci et al. 2004 ), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Gil-Rodriguez & Socorro Hernández 1986, Cormaci et al. 2004 ), Senegal (John et al. 2004), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Cormaci et al. 2004 ).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Red Sea (Papenfuss 1968 ), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008).

Asia: Korea (Lee & Kang 2001).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Myanmar (Burma) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Australia and New Zealand: Auckland Islands (Nelson 2013), Australia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Chatham Islands (Nelson 2013), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1993, Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000, Paul et al 2006), New Zealand (Bonin & Hawkes 1987, Adams 1994, Womersley 1996, Adams 1997, Huisman 2000, Nelson 2012, Nelson et al. 2014), Norfolk Island (Millar 1999), North Island, NZ (Nelson 2013), Queensland (Lewis 1984 ), Snares Islands/Tini Heke (Nelson 2013), South Australia (Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000, Copertino et al. 2005), South Island, NZ (Nelson 2013), Stewart Island/Rakiura (Nelson 2013), Tasmania (Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000), Three Kings Is./Manawatawhi (Nelson 2013), Victoria (Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Western Australia (Harvey 1855, Huisman & Walker 1990, Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000).

(as Polysiphonia rufolanosa Harvey)
Europe: Italy (Giaccone 1969).

(as Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977, Coppejans 1979, Demoulin, Janssen & Licot 1980, Verlaque 1984), France (Feldmann 1943, Augier, Boudouresque & Laborel 1971, Coppejans 1972), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Tsirika & Haritonidis 2005), Ireland (De Valéra 1957, Maggs 1983), Italy (Cinelli 1971), Netherlands (Stegenga et al. 1997), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al. 2009), Spain (Miranda 1934, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Polo 1978, Varo, Ramirez & Renteria 1979, Gómez, Ribera & Romero 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Boisset & Barceló 1984, Aranda, Niell & Fernández 1984, Conde 1984, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Soto Moreno 1987, Boisset Lopez 1987, Barceló 1987, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Navarro & Gallardo 1989, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Flores-Moya & Conde 1992, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto et al. 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2006, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Morais e Silva, Lavelli & Rull Lluch 2008, Pena & Bárbara 2008, Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2010, Pinedo et al. 2013), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Gil-Rodriguez, Afonso-Carrillo & Wildpret de la Torre 1987), Madeira (Haroun et al. 2002), Salvage Islands (Parente et al. 2000).

Africa: Morocco (Dangeard 1949), Senegal (Price, John & Lawson 1986), South Africa (Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997 ), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

Pacific Islands: Easter Island (Børgesen 1924, Santelices & Abbott 1987).

(as Falkenbergia olens A.H.S.Lucas)
Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1993).

Distributional notes
This species has been introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 109) being first found at Elba, Italy in 1880 and subsequently in Algeria in 1923. It is now frequent and widespread in the western Mediterranean. - (17 Aug 2009) - Pier Kuipers

Usage notes
Strong cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines (Zubia et al. 2009). - (24 Mar 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Bonin, D.R. & Hawkes, M.W. (1987). Systematics and life histories of New Zealand Bonnemaisoniaceae (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): I. The genus Asparagopsis. New Zealand Journal of Botany 25: 577-590.

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dijoux, L., Viard, F., & Payri, C. (2014). The more we search, the more we find: discovery of a new lineage and a new species complex in the genus Asparagopsis. PLoS ONE 9(7): 1-13.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Nelson, W.A. (2013). New Zealand seaweeds. An illustrated guide. pp. [1]-328. Wellington: Te Papa Press.

Ní Chualáin, F., Maggs, C.A., Saunders, G.W. & Guiry, M.D. (2004). The invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta): molecular systematics, morphology, and ecophysiology of Falkenbergia isolates. Journal of Phycology 40: 1112-1126.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1-1259.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1996). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIB - Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. Vol. 5 pp. 1-392, 160 figs. Canberra & Adelaide: Australian Biological Resources Study & the State Herbarium of South Australia.

Yoon, H.S., Nelson, W., Lindstrom, S.C., Boo, S.M., Puschel, C., Qiu, H. & Bhattacharya, D. (2016). Rhodophyta. In: Handbook of the Protists. (Archibald, J.M, Simpson, A.G.B. & Samovits, C.H. Eds), pp. [1-45]. Cham: Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Zanolla, M., Carmona, R., De La Rosa, J., Salvador, N., Sherwood, A.R., Andreakis, N. & Altamirano, M. (2014). Morphological differentiation of cryptic lineages within the invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(3): 233-242.

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 06 February 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 37469 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Andreakis, N., Procaccini, G. & Kooistra, W.H.C.F. (2004). Asparagopis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): genetic and morphological identification of Mediterranean populations. European Journal of Phycology 39: 273-284.
Aranda, J., Niell, F.X. & Fernández, J.A. (1984). Production of Asparagopsis armata (Harvey) in a thermally-stressed intertidal system of low tidal amplitude. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 84: 285-295.
Bruneau, Y., Codomier, L., Combaut, G. & Teste, J. (1978). Étude compatative des composés halogénés du Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harv.) Schmitz et de l'Asparagopsis armata (Harv.): Rhodophycées bonnemaisoniales. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 286: 603-605.
Chemin, E. (1937). Répartition géographique et mode de dissémination d'Asparagopsis armata, Harv.. : 43-44.
Codomier, L., Bruneau, Y., Combaut, G. & Teste, J. (1977). Étude biologie et chimique d'Asparagopsis armata et de Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Rhodophycées bonnemaisoniales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 284: 1163-1165.
Codomier, L., Segot, M. & Combaut, G. (1979). Effets de l'iode sur la croissance des frondes d'Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophycées, Bonnemaisoniales) obtenues en culture à partir de rameaux à harpons. Giornale Botanico Italiano 113: 387-393.
Codomier, L., Segot, M. & Combaut, G. (1981). Influence de composés organiques haligénés sur la croissance d'Asparagopsis armata (Rhjodophycée, Bonnemaisoniale). Botanica Marina 24: 509-513.
Codomier, L., Segot, M. & Teste, J. (1979). Sur le developpement d'Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophycée, Bonnemaisoniale) en culture. Botanica Marina 22: 153-157.
Codomier, L., Segot, M., Combaut, G. & Teste, J. (1981). Sur le développemement d'Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophycée, Bonnemaisoniale) en culture. Effets de certaines substances azotées ou phosphorées inorganiques ou organiques. Botanica Marina 24: 43-49.
Codomier, L., Segot, M., Teste, J. & Jeanty, G. (1978). Sur la croissance et le développement des frondes d'Asparagopsis armata Harv. (Rhodophycée, Bonnemaisoniale) à pratir de rameaux à harpons mis en culture dans un milieu enrichi en brome. Bulletin de la Société Phycologique de France 23: 29-37.
Combaut, G., Bruneau, Y., Codomier, L. & Teste, J. (1979). Comparative sterols composition of the red alga Asparagopsis armata and its tetrasporophyte Falkenbergia rufolanosa. Journal of Natural Products 42: 150-151.
Combaut, G., Bruneau, Y., Teste, J. & Codomier, L. (1978). Composes halogens d'une algue rouge, Falkenbergia rufolanosa tetrasporophyte d'Asparagopsis armata. Phytochemistry 17: 1661-1663.
De Valéra, M. & Folan, A. (1964). Germination in situ of carpospores in Irish material of Asparagopsis armata Harv. and Bonnemaisonia asparagoides (Woodw.) Ag.. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 332-338.
De Valéra, M. (1942). A red alga new to Ireland: Asparagopsis armata Harv. on the west coast. Irish Naturalists' Journal 8: 30-33.
De Valéra, M. (1957). A note on the distribution of Asparagopsis armata and Falkenbergia rufolanosa in Ireland as compared with Spain. Collectanea Botanica 5: 377-380.
Dizerbo, A.H. (1964). L'écologie d'Asparagopsis armata Harv. et de Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harv.) Schmitz dans le Massif Armoricain. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 179-185.
Drew, K.M. (1950). Occurrence of Asparagopsis armata Harv. on the coast of Cornwall. Nature, London 161: 223.
Feldmann, J. & Feldmann, G. (1939). Sur le développement des carpospores et l'alternance de générations de l'Asparagopsis armata Harvey. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 208: 1240-1242, Figs. A-E.
Flores-Moya, A. & Conde, F. (1992). Fenología y corología de Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta) en el Mediterráneo. Acta Botanica Malacitana 17: 245-249.
Guiry, M.D. & Dawes, C.J. (1992). Daylength, temperature and nutrient control of tetrasporogenesis in Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophyta). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 158: 197-219.
Haslin, C. & Pellegrini, M. (2001). Culture medium composition for optimal thallus regeneration in the red alga Asparagopsis armata Harvey (Rhodophyta, Bonnemaisoniaceae). Botanica Marina 44: 23-30.
Haslin, C., Lahaye, M. & Pellegrini, M. (2000). Chemical composition and structure of sulphated water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides from the gametic, carposporic and tetrasporic stages of Asparagopsis armata Harvey (Rhodophyta, Bonnemaisoniaceae). Botanica Marina 43: 475-482.
Horridge, G.A. (1951). Occurrence of Asparagopsis armata Harv. on the Scilly Isles. Nature, London 167: 732-733.
Kraan, S. & Barrington, K. (2005). Commercial farming of Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta) in Ireland, maintenance of an introduced species. Journal of Applied Phycology 17: 103-110.
Mata, L., Silva, J., Schuenhoff, A. & Santos R. (2007). Is the tetrasporophyte of Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniales) limted by inorganic carbon in integrated aquaculture?. Journal of Phycology 43: 1252-1258.
Mata, L.; Schuenhoff, A. & Santos, R. (2010). A direct comparison of the performance of the seaweed biofilters, Asparagopsis armata and Ulva rigida. J. Appl. Phycol. 22: 639-644.
McLachlan, J. (1967). Tetrasporangia in Asparagopsis armata. British Phycological Bulletin 3: 251-252.
Pacios, I.,Guerra-Garcia, J.M. Baeza-Rojano, E. & Cabezas, M.P. (2011). The non-native seaweed Asparagopsis armata supports a diverse crustacean assemblage. Marine Environmental Research 71(4): 275-282.
Paul, N.A., Cole, L., de Nys, R. & Steinberg, P.D. (2006). Ultrastructure of the gland cells of the red alga Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniaceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 637-645.
Sauvageau, C. (1925). Sur la naturalisation en France d'une Floridée australasienne de l'iode (Asparagopsis armata Harv.) et sur ses ioduques. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. 180???-???: .
Segot, M. & Codomier, L. (1981). Culture media with enriched seawater: Optimal and inhibitory concentrations of some chemical compounds added to seawater for the culture of Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophyceae, Bonnemaisoniales). Botanica Marina 24: 63-67.
Segot, M. & Codomier, L. (1981). Milieu de culture á eau de mer enrichie: Concentrations maximales et inhibitrices de certains composés chimiques ajoutés á l'eau de mer pour la culture d'Asparagopsis armata (Rhodophycée, Bonnemaisoniale). Botanica Marina 24: 63-67.
Svedelius, N. (1933). On the development of Asparagopsis armata Harv. and Bonnemaisonia asparagoides (Woodw.) Ag. A contribution to the cytology of the haplobiontic Rhodophyceae. Nova Acta Reg. Soc. sci. Ups. 9(1): 1-61.
Thomas, L. (1955). Observaciones sobre la ecología de las formas Asparagopsis armata-Falkenbergia rufolanosa y un nuevo órgano de reproduccíon. Collectanea Botanica 4(3): 399-407.

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