153,875 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,014 images, 59,578 bibliographic items, 413,474 distributional records.

Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Moestrup

Publication details
Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Moestrup in Daugbjerg et al. 2000: 308

Published in: Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Karenia.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis

Type information
Type locality: Gulf of Mexico: near Naples, Florida, USA (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 38). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 38).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), short, of small extent (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis 1948
Ptychodiscus brevis (C.C.Davis) K.A.Steidinger 1979

Usage notes
Harmful species: produces neurotoxins and hemolytic substances. Schaeffer et al. (2009) have demonstrated that high light causes K. brevis to increase EPS (epoxidation state of xanthophyll- cycle pigments diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) and toxin concentrations while decreasing its lipid concentrations, specifically the sterol class. They conclude that this species may be relatively benign from sunrise to mid-morning but from mid-morning until mid-afternoon, it may have the potential to be highly toxic.

Very toxic (Ignatiades 2012). - (12 Jun 2012) - Wendy Guiry

red tide: respiratory irritation and fish kills (Wolnyet al., 2015). - (21 Apr 2015) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leblond, J.D. & Lisiter, A.D. (2009). Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. II. Lepidodinium chlorophorum, Karenia brevis, and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, three dinoflagellates with aberrant plastids. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 199-205, 3 figs, 1 table.

Leblond, J.D., Evens, T.J. & Chapman, P.J. (2003). The biochemistry of dinoflagellate lipids, with particular reference to the fatty acid and sterol composition of a Karenia brevis bloom. Phycologia 43: 324-331, 1 fig., 2 tables.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Richardson, T.L., Pinckney, J.L., Walker, E.A. & Marshalonis, D.M. (2007). Photopigment radiolabelling as a tool for determining in situ growth rates of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 41: 415-423.

Ryan, D.E. & Campbell, L. (2016). Identification and phylogeny of putative PEPC genes in three toxin-producing Karenia (Dinophyta) species. Journal of Phycology 52(4): 618-625.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5366 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Örnólfsdóttir, E.B., Pinckney, J.L. & Tester, P.A. (2003). Quantification of the relative abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (Dinophyta), using unique photopigments. Journal of Phycology 39: 449-457.
Giner, J.-L., Faraldos, J.A. & Boyer, G.L. (2003). Novel sterols of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae): a defensive function for unusual marine sterols?. Journal of Phycology 39: 315-319.
Hardison, D.R., Sunda, W.G., Litaker, R.W., Shea, D. & Tester, P.A. (2012). Nitrogen limitation increases brevetoxins in Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae): implications for bloom toxicity. Journal of Phycology 48(4): 844-858.
Haywood, A.J., Scholin, C.A., Marin III, R., Steidinger, K.A., Heil, C. & Ray, J. (2007). Molecular detection of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and closely related species using rRNA-targeted probes and a semiautomated sandwich hybridization assay. Journal of Phycology 43: 1271-1286.
Leblond, J.D. & Lisiter, A.D. (2009). Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. II. Lepidodinium chlorophorum, Karenia brevis, and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, three dinoflagellates with aberrant plastids. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 199-205, 3 figs, 1 table.
Leblond, J.D., Evens, T.J. & Chapman, P.J. (2003). The biochemistry of dinoflagellate lipids, with particular reference to the fatty acid and sterol composition of a Karenia brevis bloom. Phycologia 43: 324-331, 1 fig., 2 tables.
Monroe, E.A., Johnson, J.G., Wang, Z., Pierce, R.K. & Van Dolah, F.M. (2010). Characterization and expression of nuclear-encoded polyketide synthases in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Journal of Phycology 46(3): 541-552.
Richardson, T.L., Pinckney, J.L., Walker, E.A. & Marshalonis, D.M. (2007). Photopigment radiolabelling as a tool for determining in situ growth rates of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 41: 415-423.
Schaeffer, B.A., Kamykowski, D. McKay, L., Sinclair, G. & Milligan, E.J. (2007). A comparison of photoresponse among ten different Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) isolates. Journal of Phycology 43: 702-714.
Schaeffer, B.A., Kamykowski, D., McKay, L., Sinclair, G. & Milligan, E. (2009). Lipid class, carotenoid, and toxin dynamics of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) during diel vertical migration. Journal of Phycology 45: 154-163.
van Deventer, M., Atwood, K., Vargo, G.A., Flewelling, L.J., Landsberg, J.H., Naar, J.P. & Stanek, D. (2012). Karenia brevis red tides and brevetoxin-contaminated fish: a high risk factor for Florida's scavenging shorebirds?. Botanica Marina 55(1): 31-37.
Van Dolah, F.M., Kohli, G.S., Morey, J.S. & Murray, S.A. (2017). Both modular and single-domain Type I polyketide synthases are expressed in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 53(6): 1325-1339.
Van Dolah, F.M., Lidie, K.B. Morey, J.S., Brunelle, S.A., Ryan, J.C., Monroe, E.A. & Haynes, B.L. (2007). Microarray analysis of diurnal- and circadian-regulated genes in the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 741-752.
Wolny, J.L., Scott, P.S. Tustison, J. & Brooks C.R. (2015). Monitoring the 2007 east coast Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) red tide and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) event. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 30(1): 49-58.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=44330

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 December 2018.

Back to search results or Search again

SITE © 1996 - 2018 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio