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Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Fucales
Family Fucaceae
Genus Ascophyllum

Pictures

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Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; with conceptacles. 19 Mar 2018. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry.

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; with conceptacles. 19 Mar 2018. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry.

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara" . Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara" . Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum var. scorpioides, with Fucus spiralis, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum var. scorpioides, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum var. scorpioides, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
middle intertidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
middle intertidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis
middle intertidal, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. 01 Jan 0001. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis Claddagh, Co. Galway
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis 1863: 96

Published in: Le Jolis, A. (1863). Liste des algues marines de Cherbourg. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg 10: 5-168, pls I-IV.
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Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ascophyllum is Ascophylla laevigata Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus nodosus Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: Habitat in Mari Atlantico [Atlantic Ocean] (Linnaeus 1753: 1159). Notes: On-line view of an unlocalised specimen LINN 1274.58 in the Linnean Herbarium labelled "9" as in the protologue. Athanasiadis (1996: 217) indicated that no type has been designated.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), knotted, knobbly (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus nodosus Linnaeus 1753
Fistularia nodosa (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1816
Halicoccus nodosus (Linnaeus) Lyngbye 1819
Physocaulon nodosum (Linnaeus) Kützing 1843
Ozothallia nodosa (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret 1845
Fucodium nodosum (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1848
Ascophylla nodosa (Linnaeus) Kuntze 1894

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus nodosus var. siliquatus Turner 1802
Ascophylla laevigata Stackhouse 1809
Chordaria scorpioides (Hornemann) Lyngbye 1819
Halidrys siliquosa var. minor Lyngbye 1819
Fucus nodosus var. denudatus C.Agardh 1820
Fucus nodosus var. evesiculosus J.Agardh 1836
Ozothallia vulgaris Decaisne & Thuret 1845
Halicoccus nodosus var. furcatus Areschoug 1847
Fucodium nodosum var. scorpioides (Hornemann) J.Agardh 1848
Ozothallia nodosa f. furcata (Areschoug) Kjellman 1880
Ascophyllum mackayi f. robertsonii Batters 1892
Ascophyllum robertsonii (Batters) Batters 1892
Ascophyllum nodosum var. furcatum (Areschoug) Reinke 1892
Ascophyllum nodosum var. typicum Reinke 1892
Ascophyllum nodosum var. minus Batters 1902
Ascophyllum nodosum var. siliquatum (Turner) Batters 1902
Ascophyllum nodosum var. lusitanicum Lami 1939
Ascophyllum nodosum f. typicum A.D.Zinova 1953
Ascophyllum nodosum f. denudatum (C.Agardh) Athanasiadis 1996

Distributional notes
Silva (1979: 338) reports that floating plants have been found in San Francisco Bay. These originate from plants used to pack bait and lobster from the Atlantic coast. None has established to date. John et al. (2004) note that all West African records are of drift material.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis)
English: Yellow Tang (Duddington 1966), Knotted wrack, Knobbed Wrack (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Asco, Sea Whistle (Anon. 2000), Egg Wrack (Bunker et al. 2010).

Gaeilge: Feamainn bhuí (Anonymous 1978), Feamainn bhuidhe bhoilgíneach (Anon. 2000).

German: Knotentang, Sägetang (Braune 2008).

Description
Ascophyllum nodosum is a brown seaweed closely related to Fucus. It forms a single bladders centrally in long, strap-like fronds. The fronds hang downwards, gently draping sheltered intertidal rocks. A number of fronds grow from each basal holfast, and the plant generally regenerates new fronds from the base when one of the larger fronds are damaged, so that the stands you see on the shore may be very persistant . Reproduction takes place in beautiful yellow receptacles in spring (below). These develop in reponse to short days in the autumn, mature during the winter, and are at their most prolific in spring. Eggs and sperm are released into the water, and the eggs release a low molecular weight sperm attractant known as Finnavarene, named for the village of Finavarra ("wood by the sea") in north Co. Clare in Ireland.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Baardseth, E. (1970). Synopsis of biological data on knobbed wrack Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis. Rev. 1. FAO Fisheries Synopsis 38: [1-48], 9 pls., 7 drawings, 1 graph, 1 map.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cho, G.Y, Rousseau, F., Reviers, B. de & Boo, S.M. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships within the Fucales (Phaeophyceae) assessed by the photosystem I coding psaA sequences. Phycologia 45: 512-519.

De Toni, G.B. (1895). Sylloge algarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Vol. III. Fucoideae. Vol. 3 pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-638. Patavii [Padua]: Sumptibus auctoris.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

McHugh, D.J. (2003). A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441: x + 105, 64 figs.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Zinova, A.D. (1953). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Manual for identification of the brown algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-224. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 29 July 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 193330 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)





Aberg, P. (1990). Measuring size and choosing category size for a transition matrix study of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. MAR ECOL-PR 63(2-3): 281-287.
Abetz, P. & Young, C.L. (1983). The effect of seaweed sprays derived from Ascophyllum nodosum on lettuce and cauliflower crops. Botanica Marina 26: 487-492.
Almeida, G., Almeida, M., Humanes, M., Lino, A.R., Melo, R., Moura, I., Armando Silva, J. & Fraústo da Silva, J.J.R. (1993). Haloperoxidases from the algae Ascophyllum nodosum. In: Latin-American Inorganic Chemistry Meeting. ( Eds), pp. 156.
Ang, P. O., Sharp, G. J. & Semple, R. E. (1993). Changes in the population structure of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis due to mechanical harvesting. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 321-326.
Ang, P. O., Sharp, G. J. & Semple, R. E. (1996). Comparison of the structure of populations of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) at sites with different harvesting histories. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 179-184.
Araujo, R., Vaselli, S., Almeida, M., Serrão, E. & Sousa-Pinto, I. (2009). Effects of disturbance on marginal populations: human trampling on Ascophyllum nodosum assemblages at its southern distribution limit. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378: 81-92.
Baardseth, E. (1955). Regrowth of Ascophyllum Nodosum after harvesting. pp. [i]-iv, 1-67, 3 fold-outs. Dublin: Institute for Industrial Research and Standards.
Baardseth, E. (1968). Synopsis of biological data on knobbed wrack Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis. FAO Fisheries Synopsis 38: 1-40 , 9 pls., 27 drawings, 3 graphs, 1 Map.
Baardseth, E. (1970). Synopsis of biological data on knobbed wrack Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis. Rev. 1. FAO Fisheries Synopsis 38: [1-48], 9 pls., 7 drawings, 1 graph, 1 map.
Baardseth, E.. (1949). Regrowth of Ascophyllum nodosum after harvesting. Report to Institute for Industrial Research and Standards. Typewritten manuscript.. pp. 1-47.
Bacon, L.C. & Vadas, R.L. (1991). A model for gamete release in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 27: 166-173.
Barry, C. & Flood, D. T. (1958). The seasonal variation in the alginic acid content of Ascophyllum nodosum growing in Dublin Bay. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 71-72.
Bertocci, I., Araújo, R., Vaselli, S. & Sousa-Pinto, I. (2011). Marginal populations under pressure: spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Ascophyllum nodosum and associated assemblages affected by human trampling in Portugal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 439: 73-82.
Blunden, G. & Jones, R.T. (1972). Toxic effects of Ascophyllum nodosum as a rabbit food additive. Proc Mar Tech Soc Food - Drugs from the Sea : 267-273.
Brackenbury, A.M., Kang, E.J. & Garbary, D.J. (2006). Air pressure regulation in air bladers of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Algae 21(2): 245-251, 7 figs, 2 tables.
Cassan, L., Jeannin, I., Lamaze, T. & Morot-Gaudry, J.-F. (1992). the effect of the Ascophyllum nodosum extract Goëmar GA14 on the growth of spinach. Botanica Marina 35: 437-439, 2 tables.
Chock, J.S. & Mathieson, A.C. (1976). Ecological studies of the salt marsh ecad scorpioides (Hornemann) Hauck of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 23: 171-190.
Chock, J.S. & Mathieson, A.C. (1978). Physiological ecology of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis and its detached ecad scorpioides (Hornemann) Hauck (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 22: 21-26.
Chopin, T., Marquis, P.A. & Belyea, E.P. (1996). Seasonal dynamics of phosphorus and nitrogen contents in the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, and its associated species Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy and Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjellman, from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Botanica Marina 39: 543-552.
Cousens, R. (1981). Variation in annual production by Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis with degree of exposure to wave action. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 253-258.
Cousens, R. (1982). Popular misconceptions about Ascophyllum nodosum and their effect on the interpretation of its population dynamics from existing data. British Phycological Journal 17: 231.
Cousens, R. (1982). The effect of exposure to wave action on the morphology and pigmentation of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis in south-eastern Canada. Botanica Marina 25: 191-195.
Cousens, R. (1984). Estimation of annual production by the intertidal brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis. Botanica Marina 27: 217-227.
Cousens, R. (1985). Frond size distributions and the effects of the algal canopy on the behaviour of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 92: 231-249.
Damant, G.C.C. (1936). Storage of oxygen in the bladders of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and their adaptation to hydrostatic pressure.. : 198-209.
Davison, I.R. (1987). Partial purification and preliminary characterization of pyruvate kinase from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. British Phycological Journal 22: 401-409.
Deckert, R.J. & Garbary D.J. (2005). Ascophyllum and its symbionts. VI. Microscopic characterization of the Ascopyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae), Mycophycias ascophylli (Ascomycetes) symbiotum. Algae 20(3): 225-232, 17 figs.
Deckert, R.J. & Garbary, D.J. (2005). Ascophyllum and its symbionts. VIII. Interactions among Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae), Mycophycias ascophylli (Ascopmycetes) and Elachista fucicola (Phaeophyceae). Algae 20: 363-368.
Eckersley, L.K. & Garbary, D.J. (2007). Developmental and environmental sources of variation on annual growth increments of Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Algae 22(2): 107-116, 10 figs, 3 tables.
Filion-Myklebust, C. & Norton, T.A. (1981). An anti-fouling mechanism in Ascophyllum nodosum. British Phycological Journal 16: 135.
Filion-Myklebust, C. & Norton, T.A. (1981). Epidermis shedding in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis, and its ecological significance. Marine Biology Letters 2: 45-51.
Flothe, C.R. & Molis, M. (2013). Temporal dynamics of inducible anti-herbivory defenses in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 49(3): 468-474.
Fries, L. (1988). Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta) in axenic culture and its response to the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella ascophylli and epiphytic bacteria. Journal of Phycology 24: 333-337.
Fries, L. (1991). Formation of filaments and single cells by the activity of the meristoderm of axenic Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Phaeophyta) (Research Note). Phycologia 30: 310-313.
Fries, L. (1991). Formation of filaments and single cells by the activity of the meristoderm of axenic Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Phaeophyta). Phycologia 30: 310-313.
Fries, L. (1993). Vitamin B12 heterotrophy in Fucus spiralis and Ascophyllum nodosum (fucales, Phaeophyta) in axenic cultures. Botanica Marina 36: 5-7, 2 tables.
Fries, N. (1979). Physiological characteristics of Mycosphaerella ascophylli, a fungal endophyte of the marine brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Physiol. Plant. 45: 117-121.
Garbary, D.G., Lawson, J., Clement, K. & Galway, M.E. (2009). Cell division in the absence of mitosis: the unusual case of the fucoid Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Phaeophyceae) . Algae 24: 239-248.
Garbary, D.J. & London, J.F. (1995). The Ascophyllum/Polysiphonia/Mycosphaerella symbiosis. V. Fungal infection protect A. nodosum from desiccation. Botanica Marina 38: 529-533.
Garbary, D.J. (2017). Harvesting Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae) reduces the abundance of its host-specific epiphyte Vertebrata lanosa (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 60(3): 297-301.
Garbary, D.J., Deckert, R.J. & Hubbard, C.B. (2005). Ascophyllum and its symbionts. VII. Three-way interactions among Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae), Mycophycias ascophylli (Ascopmycetes) and Vertebrata lanosa (Rhodophyta). Algae 20(4): 353-361, 17 figs.
Garbary, D.J., Lawson, G. Clement, K. & E. Galway, M.E. (2009). Cell division in the absence of mitosis: the unusual case of the fucoid Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Phaeophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 24: 239-248.
Garbary, D.J., Miller, A.G. & Scrosati, R.A. (2014). Ascophyllum nodosum and its symbionts: XI. The epiphyte Vertebrata lanosa performs better photosynthetically when attached to Ascophyllum than when alone. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 29(4): 321-331.
Gibb, D.C. (1957). The free living forms of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. Journal of Ecology 45: 49-83, 3 figs., 11 photographs, 2 tables.
Gordon, S.M. & Simpson, B.L. (1987). The use of composted Ascophyllum nodosum in land reclamation and soil stabilization. British Phycological Journal 22: 304-305.
Guillaumont, B., Callens, L. & Dion, P. (1993). Spatial distribution and quantification of Fucus species and Ascophyllum nodosum beds in intertidal zones using spot imagery. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 297.
Guiry, M.D. & Morrison, L. (2013). The sustainable harvesting of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Phaeophyceae) in Ireland, with notes on the collection and use of some other brown algae. Journal of Applied Phycology 25: 1823-1830.
Halat, L., Galway, M.E., Gitto, S. & Garbary, D.J. (2015). Epidermal shedding in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae): seasonality, productivity and relationship to harvesting. Phycologia 54(6): 599-608.
Hankins, S. D. & Hockey, H. P. (1990). The effect of a liquid seaweed extract from Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) on the two-spotted red spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 555-559.
Harlin, M. M. & Craigie, J. S. (1981). The export of organic carbon from Ascophyllum nodosum as it relates to epiphytic Polsiphonia lanosa. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 193.
Harlin, M.M. & Craigie, J.S. (1975). The distribution of photosynthate in Ascophyllum nodosum as it relates to epiphytic Polysiphonia lanosa. Journal of Phycology 11: 109-113.
Hession, C.C., Guiry, M.D., McGarvey, S. & Joyce, D. (1998). Mapping and assessment of the seaweed resources (Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria spp.) off the west coast of Ireland. Marine Resource Series [Ireland] 5: 1-74, 32 figs, 13 tables.
Jensen, A. (1964). Ascorbic acid in Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 319-325.
Jensen, A. (1969). Seasonal variations in the content of individual tocopherols in Ascophyllum nodosum, Pelvetia canaliculata and Fucus serratus (Phaeophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 493-500.
John, D.M. (1974). New records of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. from the warmer parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Phycology 10: 243-244.
Johnson, S.C. & Scheibling, R.E. (1987). Reproductive patterns of harpacticoid copepods on intertidal macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 65: 129-141.
Johnson, S.C. & Scheibling, R.E. (1987). Structure and dynamics of epifaunal assemblages on intertidal macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 37: 209-227.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1983). The diurnal variation in the titratable acidity of Ascophyllum nodosum. British Phycological Journal 18: 205.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1986). Dark carbon fixation studies on the intertidal macroalga Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 22: 78-83.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1986). The analysis of photosynthesis in air and water of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol.. Oecologia 69: 288-295.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1987). The C4-like characteristics of the intertidal macroalga Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Phycologia 26: 159-166.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1989). Extraction, partial purification and characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 25: 568-576, 7 figs, 2 tables.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1989). Seasonal dark fixation studies of Ascophyllum nodosum. British Phycological Journal 24: 307.
Johnston, A.M. & Raven, J.A. (1990). The assimilation of inorganic carbon by Ascophyllum nodosum: is a biophysical concentrating mechanism involved?. British Phycological Journal 25: 91.
Jones, R. T. & Blunden, G. (1981). Effects of dietary Ascophyllum nodosum on blood parameters of rabbits, rats and pigs. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 718-723.
Josselyn, M.N. & Mathieson, A.C. (1978). Contribution of receptacles from the fucoid Ascophyllum nodosum to the detrital pool of a North temperate estuary. Estuaries 1(4): 258-261.
Kandasamy, S., Khan, W., Kulshreshtha, G. Evans, F., Critchley, A.T., Fitton, J.H., Stringer, D.N., Gardiner, V.-A. & Prithiviraj, B. (2015). The fucose-containing polymer (FCP) rich fraction of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. protects Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by triggering innate immune signaling pathways and suppression of pathogen virulence factor. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 30(2): 147-161.
Kelly, L., Collier, L., Costello, M.J., Diver, M., McGarvey, S., Kraan, S., Morrissey, J. & Guiry, M.D. (2001). Impact assessment of hand and mechanical harvesting of Ascophyllum nodosum on regeneration and biodiversity. Marine Resource Series [Ireland] 19: [i]-vi, 1-51.
Kerby, N.W. & Evans, L.V. (1983). Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 19: 1-3.
Kerby, N.W. & Evans, L.V. (1983). Properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 19: 421-424, 6 figs.
Keser, M. & Larson, B.R. (1984). Colonization and growth of Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta) in Maine. Journal of Phycology 20: 83-87.
Keser, M., Vadas, R.L. & Larson, B.R. (1981). Regrowth of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus under various harvesting regimes in Maine, U. S. A.. Botanica Marina 24: 29-38, 2 figs, 6 tables.
Kim, C. S. (1972). The effects of dietary Sargassum natans and Ascophyllum nodosum on Salmonella gallinarum infection in chicks. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 573-574.
Kim, K.Y. & Garbary, D.J. (2009). Form, function and longevity in fucoid thalli: chlorophyll a fluorescence differentiation pf Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and F. distichus (Phaeophyceae. Algae 24(2): 93-104, 15 figs.
Kim, K.Y., Jeong, H.J., Main, H.P. & Garbary, D.J. (2006). Fluorescence and photosynthetic competency in single eggs and embryos of Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 45: 331-336.
Kim, K.Y., O'Leary, S.J. & Garbary, D.J. (1997). Artificial hybridization between Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Nova Sotia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 1133-1136.
Kingman, A.R. & Moore, J. (1982). Isolation, purification, and quantitation of several growth-regulating substances in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 25: 149-153.
Kohlmeyer, J. & Kohlmeyer, E. (1972). Is Ascophyllum nodosum lichenized?. Botanica Marina 15: 109-112.
Kraberg, A.C. & Norton, T.A. (2007). Effect of epiphytism on reproductive and vegetative lateral formation in the brown, intertidal seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 55(1): 17-24.
Larsen, B. & Haug, A. (1958). The influence of habitat on the chemical composition of Ascophyllum nodosum. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 73.
Larsen, B. & Haug, A. (1964). Polysaccharides occuring in the sodium carbonate extract of Ascophyllum nodosum. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 338-343.
Larsen, B. & Haug, A. (1969). Fucose-containing Polysaccharides in Ascophyllum nodosum. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 521-528.
Lining, T. & Garbary, D.J. (1992). The Ascophyllum / Polysiphonia / Mycosphaerella symbiosis. III. Experimental studies on the interactions between P. lanosa and A. nodosum. Botanica Marina 35: 341-349, 17 figs, 3 tables.
Lobban, C.S. & Baxter, D.M. (1983). Distribution of the red algal epiphyte Polysiphonia lanosa on its brown algal host Ascophyllum nodosum in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Botanica Marina 26: 533-538.
Longtin, C.M. & Scrosati, R.A. (2009). Role of surface wounds and brown algal epiphytes in the colonization of Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae) fronds by Veretebrata lanosa (Rhodophyta)(Note). Journal of Phycology 45(3): 535-539, 1 fig.
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